John Marsh

MMA training redondo beach



http://tritonMMA.com



John Michael Marsh (born September 15, 1970) is a retired American mixed martial artist.
Contents
[hide]

    * 1 MMA
    * 2 Outside MMA
    * 3 MMA record
    * 4 External links

[edit] MMA

Marsh turned to mixed martial arts in 1993 at age 23. He has made appearances in top organizations such as Pride, Ultimate Fighting Championship, and the International Fight League. He is currently the training partner of MMA Legend David 'Tank' Abbott and has honed his jiu jitsu skills under Royce Gracie. One of Marsh's most notable wins was over Wesley 'Cabbage' Correira in Rumble on the Rock 5 in 2004.
[edit] Outside MMA

Marsh was a private bodyguard for Grammy-winning recording artist, producer and actor Dr. Dre and wrestled at El Camino Junior College. He currently resides in Redondo Beach, California. He currently is married and has two children.[citation needed] He now owns Triton MMA Training Center where he teaches MMA.
[edit] MMA record
8-7-0 (wins-losses-draws)
Result 	Opponent 	Method 	Event Title 	Date 	Round 	Time
Loss 	Oleg Taktarov 	Submission (Kneebar) 	BodogFIGHT - USA vs. Russia 	11/30/2007 	2 	0:33
Loss 	Chad Griggs 	TKO (Strikes) 	IFL-Houston 	2/2/2007 	3 	2:32
Win 	Shane Faulkner 	KO 	Extreme Wars 2-X-1 	3/18/2006 	3 	2:51
Loss 	Mike Van Arsdale 	Decision (Unanimous) 	UFC 52-Couture vs Liddell 2 	4/16/2005 	3 	5:00
Win 	Wesley Correira 	Decision 	ROTR 5-Rumble on the Rock 5 	5/7/2004 	3 	5:00
Loss 	Ricco Rodriguez 	Decision 	PRIDE 12-Cold Fury 	12/9/2000 	2 	5:00
Loss 	Vladimir Matyushenko 	Decision 	IFC WC 6-Warriors Challenge 6 	3/25/2000 	3 	5:00
Loss 	Jeremy Horn 	Decision 	NG 13-Neutral Grounds 13 	11/20/1999 	N/A 	N/A
Loss 	Josh Barnett 	Submission (Kimura) 	SB 13-SuperBrawl 13 	9/7/1999 	1 	4:23
Win 	Travis Fulton 	Submission (Heel Hook) 	SB 13-SuperBrawl 13 	9/7/1999 	2 	2:48
Win 	Jack Swart 	Submission (Keylock) 	RIR-Rumble in Reno 	9/4/1998 	N/A 	N/A
Win 	Keith Stewert 	Submission (Rear Naked Choke) 	RIR-Rumble in Reno 	9/4/1998 	N/A 	N/A
Win 	Adel Adel 	Submission (Rear Naked Choke) 	NG 6 - Neutral Grounds 6 	8/2/1998 	1 	N/A
Win 	Paul Pumphery 	Submission 	EC 17-Extreme Challenge 17 	4/11/1998 	1 	4:22
Win 	Griffen Reynaud 	Submission 	EC 17-Extreme Challenge 17 	4/11/1998 	1 	6:22

http://www.tritonmmatrainingcenter.com/
http://www.yelp.com/biz/triton-mma-training-center-redondo-beach
http://www.myspace.com/tritonmixedmartialarts
https://encrypted.google.com/search?q=mma+redondo+beach&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&aq=t&rls={moz:distributionID}:{moz:locale}:{moz:official}&client=firefox
http://www.elitetrainingcenter.net/
http://www.impactgym1.com/
http://www.southbaymma.com/
http://www.sherdog.net/forums/f11/redondo-beach-l-852299/
http://www.yelp.com/biz/impact-gym-redondo-beach
http://www.r1gym.com/
http://www.yelp.com/search?find_desc=Mma+Gear&find_loc=Redondo+Beach%2C+CA
http://www.goldsgym.com/gyms/page.php?gymID=391&sec=21495&cid=12681

Gyms


Abington MA

One Two Three Gymnasics Fun

  • 706 Brockton Ave 617/857-1382

    Agoura Hills CA

    Canyon Karate

  • Lacone,Roger
  • 30686 Thousand Oaks Blvd 818/889-7898

    Alameda CA

    Iron Island Gym

  • Goodman,Russell
  • 2306 Encinal Ave 510/522-9837

    West-Wind Karate School

  • 1428 Park St 510/523-2000

    Alhambra CA

    Kim'S Hapkido Karate Studio

  • Kim,Chong
  • 937 E Main St 818/284-4440

    Allamuchy NJ

    Valley Fitness

  • Mc Cann,Mary
  • State Highway 517 908/813-1211

    Allen TX

    Excel Power Gym

  • Zampino,Rick
  • 801 S Greenville Ave 214/727-4670

    Allentown PA

    Fred'S Gym

  • Glass,Fred
  • 811 N Jordan St 610/770-9333

    Altoona PA

    Gemini Gymnastics School

  • 1885 E Pleasant Valley Blvd 814/944-0031

    Amarillo TX

    Amarillo Community Ctr

  • Workman,Karen
  • 609 S Carolina St 806/376-7021

    Champions Park Athletic Ctr

  • Speir,Roger
  • 3501 W 45Th Ave 806/358-7867

    Anaheim CA

    Bill'S Boxing Gym

  • 1213 S Western Ave 714/236-9598

    Canyon Terrace Health Club

  • Case,George
  • 100 N Tustin Ave 714/974-0280

    Family Fitness Ctr

  • 2280 E Lincoln Ave 714/491-2500

    United Aerobics

  • Adams,Brenda
  • 6366 E Santa Ana Canyon Rd 714/998-6772

    Annapolis MD

    Bay Fitness & Aerobics

  • Mackler,Gary
  • 116 Defense Hwy 410/224-3790

    Antioch CA

    Willy'S Gym

  • Goodman,Richard
  • 318 F St 510/778-7335

    Apple Valley CA

    Apple Valley Community Ctr

  • Burchfield,Bob
  • 13413 Navajo Rd 619/240-1343

    Arcadia CA

    Gymboree

  • 501 Valido Rd 818/446-0414

    Arcata CA

    Healthsport

  • Jansson,Susan
  • 300 Community Park Way 707/822-3488

    Arleta CA

    Imperial Health Spa

  • Adam,Don
  • 8638 Woodman Ave 818/893-8466

    Arlington MA

    Boston Sport Boxing Club

  • Leschishin,Gregory
  • 1167 Massachusetts Ave 617/648-5252

    Gold'S Gym & Aerobics Ctr

  • 30 Park Ave 617/646-4653

    Mac Gym Arlington

  • 4001 W Green Oaks Blvd 817/572-2560

    Arnold MD

    National Fitness Centers

  • Ray,Larry
  • 1209 Ritchie Hwy 410/544-2525

    Arroyo Grande CA

    Kennedy Nautilus Ctr

  • Weaver,Brett
  • 188 Station Way 805/481-2888

    Atwater CA

    Staats Gym & Health Ctr

  • Rose,Naten
  • 888 Applegate Rd 209/357-2337

    Auburn CA

    Bodyworks Gym

  • Madsen,Alan
  • 11768 Atwood Rd # 1 916/885-7678

    Clark'S Self Defense School

  • 140 Cleveland Ave 916/889-1151

    Austin TX

    A World Gym Aerobic & Fitness

  • Attwood,Greg
  • 7010 W Highway 71 512/288-7766

    Hyde Park Gym

  • Graham,Mike
  • 4125 Guadalupe St 512/459-9174

    World Gym Licensing

  • Miller,Tony
  • 9717 N Lamar Blvd 512/837-5577

    Avalon CA

    Island Body & Soul Family Ctr

  • Gensler,Stacy
  • 1 Casino Way 310/510-1677

    Bakersfield CA

    Bounce Place

  • 423 N Chester Ave 805/391-9936

    City Gym

  • Robb,Phil
  • 4400 Ashe Rd 805/832-3311

    Family Fitness Ctr

  • Michalak,Wayne
  • 3633 Rosedale Hwy 805/325-3600

    Phase 1 Fitness

  • Ramos,Lee
  • 2671 Oswell St # D 805/871-0100

    Strength & Health Barbell Club

  • Keller,Jeff
  • 318 21St St 805/325-1493

    Way Of Japan

  • 4400 Ashe Rd 805/834-5871

    Baltimore MD

    Loch Raven Optimist Boxing

  • 1022 Taylor Ave 410/583-1824

    Bayonne NJ

    Nautilus Forum

  • Pacifico,Pete
  • 21 W 25Th St # 29 201/339-0050

    World Gym & Fitness Ctr

  • 435 Broadway 201/823-3330

    Bayville NJ

    Ferrigno'S Gym

  • Sharkey,Brian
  • 661 Route 9 908/269-3111

    Bel Air MD

    Bel Air Athletic Club

  • 658 Boulton St 410/879-7115

    Belleville NJ

    Gold'S Gym

  • Sicignano,Alex
  • 471 Cortlandt St 201/751-6999

    Bellows Falls VT

    Jodias Body Works

  • O'Brien,James
  • 18 The Sq 802/463-4344

    Belmont CA

    Ko Den Kan Institute Inc

  • 1306 Elmer St 415/594-1015

    Beltsville MD

    Maryland Athletic Club

  • Burgess,Iain
  • 10800 Rhode Island Ave # F 301/937-8040

    Bergenfield NJ

    Tot Stop

  • Nogaki,Margaret
  • Washington & Central Ave 201/384-4055

    Berkeley CA

    Gold'S Gym Berkeley

  • Matthews,Mark
  • 2072 Addison St 510/548-4653

    West-Wind Karate School

  • 1966 San Pablo Ave 510/841-1426

    World Gym

  • Friar,Holly
  • 1270 San Pablo Ave 510/527-5070

    Berlin NJ

    Pro'S Gym Inc

  • 374 N Cooper Rd 609/767-8891

    Yi'S Karate Institute

  • Dickinson,John
  • 300 S White Horse Pike 609/767-6611

    Beverly MA

    New England Health & Racquet

  • 7 Resvoir Rd 508/927-0920

    World Gym & Fitness Ctr

  • Fettke,Rich
  • 248 Cabot St 508/927-6888

    Beverly Hills CA

    Ymca

  • Eakrem,John
  • 9930 Santa Monica Blvd 310/553-0731

    Blackwood NJ

    Community Dance & Gymnastic

  • Chews Landing Rd 609/783-9216

    Bloomfield NJ

    Daniels Universe Of Dance

  • 82 Washington St 201/748-5970

    World Of Fitness

  • 437 Broad St 201/743-7557

    Boston MA

    Beacon Hill Athletic Club

  • Klein,Jason
  • 3 Hancock St 617/367-2422

    Gin Soon Tai Chi Club

  • Chu,Cansoon
  • 324 Tremont St 617/542-4442

    Gold'S Gym & Aerobic Ctr

  • Cosentino,Marco
  • 71 Lansdowne St 617/536-6066

    Healthworks Fitness Ctr

  • Engan,Hannah
  • 920 Commonwealth Ave 617/731-3030

    Metropolitan Health Club

  • Davis,Caleb
  • 209 Columbus Ave 617/536-3006

    Mike'S Gym

  • Cristostamo,Paul
  • 88 Union Park 617/338-6210

    Universe Gym

  • Marcentante,Ralph
  • 265 Huntington Ave 617/424-7677

    Ymca

  • Donovan,Michael
  • 48 Boylston St 617/482-1122

    Boulder Creek CA

    Valley Fitness Ctr

  • Cardoza,Perry
  • 13200 Central Ave 408/338-7273

    Branford CT

    Deke'S Gym

  • Harder,Joel
  • 35 Jefferson Rd 203/483-6179

    Brawley CA

    Fitness Plus

  • Lesicka,Mark
  • 147 1/2 Main St 619/344-9050

    Brea CA

    Shao-Lin Kung-Fu

  • Tavero,Eddie
  • 1219 W Imperial Hwy # 103 714/449-9125

    Brenham TX

    Brenham Fitness Ctr

  • Wickersham,Steve
  • 1113 Prairie Lea St 409/830-0929

    Brick NJ

    Ferrigno'S Gym

  • 2055 Route 88 908/899-1144

    Iron Mike Sharp'S Wrestling

  • Sharp,Mike
  • 781 Brick Blvd 908/477-7117

    Bridgeport PA

    Chang School-Judo & Karate Inc

  • Chang,Soonho
  • 141 W Front St 610/277-2919

    Brockton MA

    Centre City Gym & Fitness Ctr

  • Puopolo,Edward
  • 146 Court St 508/588-5325

    Petronelli Brothers Gym

  • 28 Ward St 508/588-3238

    TGA Nautilus Fitness Inc

  • Asack,Gordon
  • 244 Liberty St 508/583-7322

    Tga Nautilus Fitness Inc

  • Asack,Gordon
  • 244 Liberty St 508/583-7322

    Bronx NY

    Elmo'S Gym Ii

  • Santiago,Elmo
  • 1207 White Plains Rd 718/597-5673

    Brookline MA

    Body Shoppe Inc

  • Hershon,Alan
  • 310 Harvard St 617/566-2828

    Broomall PA

    Kehler'S Gymnastics Ctr

  • 800 Parkway 610/543-7386

    Bryan TX

    Jay'S Gym

  • Kraak,Jay
  • 3608 Old College Rd 409/846-6272

    Buellton CA

    Bodyworks Health Club

  • Pantoja,Marilyn
  • 896 Mcmurray Rd 805/688-4664

    Burlingame CA

    Boxing Management

  • 770 Airport Blvd 415/375-1155

    Burlington NJ

    Gym America

  • Gould,Mike
  • 3 Terri Ln 609/386-3332

    Yu'S Karate School Inc

  • Yu,Inku
  • 555 Washington Ave 609/386-5559

    Camarillo CA

    Athletic Clubs Ventura County

  • 500 Paseo Camarillo 805/484-9003

    L A Workout

  • Voit,Bob
  • 4542 Las Posas Rd 805/482-2582

    Cambridge MA

    Bally'S Holiday Fitness Ctr

  • Espinosa,Michael
  • 1815 Massachusetts Ave 617/868-5100

    Healthworks Fitness Ctr

  • Harrington,Pat A
  • Porter Square Shopping Ctr 617/497-4454

    Kendall Club

  • Rocci,Steve
  • 101 Main St 617/864-0280

    Nautilus Of Cambridge

  • Wessel,Paul
  • 5 Bay State Rd 617/547-0330

    Original Mike'S Gym

  • 127 Smith Pl 617/492-7450

    Campbell CA

    J W Suh'S Tae Kwon Do Inst

  • Suh,J W
  • 152 San Tomas Aquino Rd # A 408/379-6326

    World Gym Licensing

  • Wilson,Scott
  • 2290 S Winchester Blvd 408/378-0343

    Canoga Park CA

    Sequoia Athletic Club

  • Fagen,Sara
  • 22235 Sherman Way 818/884-5034

    Canonsburg PA

    D'Amico Plumbing

  • D'Amico,Art C
  • 119 Adams Ave 412/745-7298

    Prince'S Gym

  • Prince,Mark
  • 110 Meadow Ln 412/745-0640

    Canton TX

    Body Mill

  • Hesskew,Justin
  • 400 W Highway 243 903/567-1086

    Cape May NJ

    Mighty Tots

  • 403 W Hand Ave 609/465-5505

    Capitola CA

    Spa Fitness Ctr

  • Frankl,Tom
  • 816 Bay Ave 408/475-6316

    Carmel CA

    Carmel Fitness Ctr

  • Dubets,George
  • 17 Crossroads Mall # A 408/624-8746

    Carmel Valley Racquet Club

  • Shepherd,Dennis
  • 27300 Rancho San Carlos Rd 408/624-7612

    Carmichael CA

    Kovar'S Karate Ctr Inc

  • Kovar,Tim
  • 7520 Fair Oaks Blvd 916/481-4830

    St John The Evangelist Parish

  • O Sullivan,Declan
  • 5701 Locust Ave 916/484-9841

    Weight World Inc

  • Stoller,Randy
  • 6451 Fair Oaks Blvd 916/484-1442

    Carmine TX

    Rtc Gymnasium

  • Mueller,Alvis
  • 314 Centennial St 409/278-3151

    Carpinteria CA

    Firm Athletic Club

  • Schall,Julie
  • 901 Linden Ave 805/566-1003

    Carrollton TX

    Carrollton Athletic Club

  • 2625 Old Denton Rd # 588 214/466-0123

    Gym

  • Patterson,Dave
  • 2650 Midway Rd # 230 214/248-0128

    Castro Valley CA

    Gold'S Gym

  • O'Connell,Kevin
  • 22224 Redwood Rd 510/889-9080

    Cathedral City CA

    Family Fitness Ctr

  • Hubbell,Bill
  • 34461 Date Palm Dr 619/324-0504

    Ceres CA

    Valley Fitness

  • Rosa,Don
  • 2321 Moffett Rd 209/538-2254

    Cerritos CA

    L A Fitness Inc

  • Welch,Louis
  • 10820 Alondra Blvd 310/924-8737

    Chatsworth CA

    Powerhouse Gym Of Chatsworth

  • 20745 Nordhoff St 818/775-0300

    Chelmsford MA

    Aikido

  • 61 Parkhurst Rd # A 508/453-3485

    Cherry Hill NJ

    Bally'S Holiday Fitness Ctr

  • Popvhack,Dave
  • 2000 Route 38 # 699 609/663-8833

    Little Gym

  • 2076 Route 70 E 609/489-0090

    Cheshire CT

    Physique Plus Fitness Ctr

  • Jalbert,Steve
  • 1303 Highland Ave 203/272-0014

    Chester CA

    Lake Almanor Athletic Club

  • Harden,John
  • 160 Cedar St 916/258-3911

    Chico CA

    Cirincione'S Taekwondo Karate

  • Cirincione,Dominic
  • 1415 Mangrove Ave 916/342-2927

    Gold'S Gym & Fitness

  • Peters,Mike
  • 931 W 5Th St 916/893-4653

    Nibukikan Maritial Arts School

  • 928 Oroville Ave 916/342-1275

    North Valley Athletic Club

  • Schofield,Scott
  • 480 Rio Lindo Ave 916/891-4700

    Priscilla'S Gym

  • Scott,John
  • 671 Walnut St # 4 916/893-4418

    Chino CA

    Cardio Fit Sport Club

  • Smith,Mike
  • 2593 Chino Hills Pky # B 909/393-3101

    Family Fitness Ctr

  • De Stefano,Bill
  • 5420 Philadelphia St 909/590-4454

    Chula Vista CA

    Family Fitness Ctr

  • Vasquez,George
  • 1660 Broadway 619/425-6600

    Lou'S Gym

  • Duarte,Lou
  • 3121 Main St 619/691-8848

    Rios & Smalls Boxing Club

  • 1034 3Rd Ave 619/262-3938

    Citrus Heights CA

    Sunrise Plaza Fitness Ctr

  • 7777 Sunrise Blvd # 2500C 916/725-3859

    World Gym & Fitness Ctr

  • Hickey,Chuck
  • 7963 Auburn Blvd 916/729-4000

    Claremont CA

    Claremont Club

  • Clark,Stanley
  • 1777 Monte Vista Ave 909/625-6791

    Clementon NJ

    American Tang Soo Karate Acad

  • Giacobbe,Dominick
  • 14 Laurel Hill Plz 609/627-2323

    Monster Factory Pro Wrestling

  • 260 White Horse Pike 609/784-7841

    Cliffside Park NJ

    Palisadium Health Club & Spa

  • Yoon,Jae
  • 700 Palisadium Dr 201/224-6050

    Clifton NJ

    Main Muscle

  • La Fratte,James
  • 1084 Main Ave 201/614-9855

    Closter NJ

    Paragon School Of Gymnastics

  • Manganiello,Kathy
  • 248 Herbert Ave 201/767-6921

    Clovis CA

    Family Fitness Ctr

  • 284 W Shaw Ave 209/323-5000

    World Gym Licensing

  • St James,B J
  • 80 W Bullard Ave 209/298-6309

    Cohasset MA

    Bay State Bodybuilding

  • Monroe,Tom
  • Rt 3A Cushing Plz 617/383-6465

    College Station TX

    Gold'S Gym

  • Lumpee,Steve
  • 2408 Texas Ave S # A 409/764-8000

    Collegeville PA

    Nautilus Connection Inc

  • Acosta,Bill
  • 753 E Main St 610/489-4321

    Colmar PA

    Champions Gym Inc

  • 252 Bethlehem Pike 215/822-6868

    Commerce TX

    Fitness Gym

  • 1506 Live Oak St 903/886-6071

    Concord CA

    Grand Slam Usa

  • Carzino,Mike
  • 2221 Commerce Ave 510/825-7526

    Lee'S Gym

  • 2565 Cloverdale Ave 510/689-2316

    Michael Anthony'S School-Gym

  • Bruns,Mary
  • 2330 Bates Ave # A 510/671-0262

    Premiere Fitness World

  • 1776 Arnold Industrial Way 510/674-9940

    Conroe TX

    Conroe Recreation & Swim Ctr

  • Bird,Warren
  • 1203 Callahan Ave 409/756-6574

    Conshohocken PA

    Olympic Nautilus Health

  • Ridge Pike & Butler Pike 610/828-8202

    Scorpion Gym

  • Ciaffone,Marc
  • 1050 Colwell Ln 610/832-1099

    Coraopolis PA

    Lions Gymnastic Club

  • Cortese,Chris
  • 551 Thorn Run Rd 412/264-3797

    Weider Fitness Ctr

  • Martineli,Lisa
  • 1136 Thorn Run Rd # 400 412/269-8900

    Corona CA

    Gold'S Gym & Aerobics Ctr

  • 1307 W 6Th St 909/734-3900

    Corpus Christi TX

    Future Firm

  • Yarborough,Dan
  • 6601 Everhart Rd 512/852-6900

    Gold'S Gym

  • 5959 Holly Rd 512/992-4653

    Corte Madera CA

    World Gym Licensing

  • Gourgott,John
  • 5651 Paradise Dr 415/927-9494

    Costa Mesa CA

    Rockreation Sport Climbing Ctr

  • 1300 Logan Ave 714/556-7625

    Super Bodies Inc

  • Sielicki,Lenoard B
  • 119 E 18Th St 714/645-6110

    Cotati CA

    24 Hour Health Club

  • Ford,John
  • 680 E Cotati Ave 707/795-0400

    Covina CA

    Astro Gym

  • ,Carl
  • 977 W San Bernardino Rd 818/332-9252

    Kung Fu San Soo

  • 315 E San Bernardino Rd 818/966-5335

    L A Fitness

  • Costa,Chris
  • 440 W Arrow Hwy 818/331-7363

    Cranford NJ

    Gold Medal Fitness

  • Patti,Gary
  • 18 N Union Ave 908/276-7566

    Cypress CA

    Academy Of Self Defense

  • Snider,Ray
  • 4470 Lincoln Ave # 1 714/826-7312

    Dallas TX

    Bally'S President'S First Lady

  • Ellis,Gordon
  • 3232 Mckinney Ave 214/871-7700

    Bally'S President'S First Lady

  • Foraker,Harry
  • 5919 Forest Ln 214/233-0123

    Bally'S President'S First Lady

  • Frank,Jackie
  • 5000 Quorum Dr 214/239-8110

    Bally'S President'S First Lady

  • Vasquez,Hershey
  • 6508 Skillman St 214/349-6186

    Court Reservations

  • Scarbourgh,Jack
  • 601 N Akard St 214/954-0677

    Doug'S Gym

  • Eidd,Douglas
  • 2010 1/2 W Commerce St 214/742-3758

    Fitness Factory

  • Connell,Chris
  • 5706 E Mockingbird Ln 214/827-2661

    Gold'S Gym & Fitness Ctr

  • 7622 Campbell Rd 214/248-2900

    Gold'S Gym & Fitness Ctr

  • Rudd,Bob
  • 10025 Royal Ln 214/340-4200

    Gymnastics Place

  • Gage,Rusty
  • 17815 Davenport Rd # 101 214/248-2805

    Kicks Gymnastics Ctr

  • 4220 S Westmoreland Rd 214/339-5425

    Royal Gym Inc

  • Shoals,Lonnell
  • 3720 Walnut Hill Ln 214/351-3539

    Sokol Dallas Gymnastics

  • Vega,Armondo
  • 7448 Greenville Ave 214/368-5608

    Texas Gyms

  • Jones,Kim
  • 2324 Oates Dr 214/328-8025

    White Collar Boxing-Jeff O

  • 5301 W Lovers Ln 214/691-5656

    Daly City CA

    Gideon'S Gym & Fitness Co

  • Gideon,Gary
  • 30 Hill St 415/994-5679

    West-Wind Karate Schools

  • 7340 Mission St 415/994-8888

    Dana Point CA

    Dana Point Athletic Club

  • Brownell,Evelyn
  • 24470 Del Prado Ave 714/493-0400

    Danielson CT

    Iron Works Gym

  • Green,Mark
  • 8 Maple St 203/779-0028

    Danvers MA

    Racquetime

  • Lechten,Bob
  • 30 Prince St 508/777-3151

    Danville PA

    Muscle & Fitness Factory

  • Temple,Bob
  • 634 E Front St 717/275-5771

    De Soto TX

    Victory Gym

  • Baxton,Jeff
  • 2021 N Hampton Rd 214/296-5563

    Dedham MA

    World Gym Licensing

  • Housman,Suzie
  • 450 Providence Hwy 617/326-7669

    Denton TX

    Denia Recreation Ctr

  • Pedroza,Rilo
  • 1001 Parvin St 817/566-8285

    Denton City Recreation Ctr

  • Johnson,Steve
  • 1300 Wilson St 817/383-7575

    Fitness 2000

  • Nowell,Kent
  • 2006 W University Dr 817/387-7596

    Gold'S Gym

  • Harrison,David
  • 723 S Interstate 35 E 817/382-0234

    Myo-Tek Gym

  • Canales,Dan
  • 229 W Hickory St 817/382-7484

    North Lake Recreation Ctr

  • Gattis,Rhonda
  • 2001 W Windsor Dr 817/566-8287

    Deptford NJ

    Bally'S Holiday Fitness Ctr

  • Lawrose,Gene
  • 1901 Deptford Center Rd 609/227-4500

    Gloucester County Academy

  • N Delsea Dr & Cooper 609/845-5955

    Diamond Springs CA

    Power Shapers Gym

  • Coder,Charla
  • 6391 Capitol Ave 916/626-5682

    Downey CA

    Japan Shiatsu Ctr

  • 8641 Firestone Blvd 310/862-5111

    Ymca

  • Irwin,Ronald
  • 11531 Downey Ave 310/862-4201

    East Boston MA

    World Gym Boston

  • 175 Mcclellan Hwy 617/569-2020

    East Brunswick NJ

    Middlesex Gymnastic Academy

  • Bernstein,Howard
  • 33 Mcguire St 908/249-6422

    East Falmouth MA

    Falmouth Nautilus

  • Huang,Gia
  • 133 E Falmouth Hwy 508/540-6180

    East Hampton CT

    All Recreation Ctr

  • Osco,Sam
  • 13 Summit St 203/267-9708

    East Hartford CT

    Iron Works Gym

  • Brgen,Judge
  • 34 Burnside Ave 203/289-9762

    East Moriches NY

    Body Finesse Ltd

  • Cherubino,Arnold
  • 1301 Montauk Hwy 516/878-2444

    East Orange NJ

    Temple Of The Tiger Shotokan

  • 72 Dodd St 201/677-7049

    East Rochester NY

    Empire Fitness

  • Turner,David
  • 349 W Commercial St 716/383-8940

    Easton PA

    Gymboree

  • 507 Ramblewood Dr 610/252-2530

    Eatontown NJ

    Fitness Center Usa

  • Knox,Michael
  • 44 Gilbert St 908/842-6330

    El Cajon CA

    Family Fitness Ctr

  • Boyd,Ann
  • 850 Arnele Ave 619/442-0293

    Global Fitness Ctr

  • Willock,Mark
  • 702 Broadway 619/440-5828

    Gold'S Gym

  • Cirket,Lee
  • 2320 Fletcher Pky 619/697-1031

    Women'S Fitness World

  • 733 Broadway 619/441-1133

    El Centro CA

    Ironworks

  • Robertson,Josie
  • 424 N Imperial Ave 619/353-7867

    Jacques 'N Jills Health Club

  • Heald,Phil
  • 220 Wake Ave 619/352-6030

    Slenderella Figure Salon

  • Khan,Alicia
  • 1560 Ocotillo Dr 619/352-9581

    El Paso TX

    Fitness World

  • Ratliff,Randy
  • 10780 Pebble Hills Blvd 915/598-1894

    Gold'S Gym & Fitness Ctr

  • 120 Paragon Ln # 201 915/833-4653

    Gold'S Gym & Fitness Ctr

  • Kubitz,Scott
  • 11330 James Watt Dr 915/593-3133

    President'S Health Club

  • Hall,Jay
  • 123 Pioneer Plz 915/533-2261

    Sacred Heart Gym

  • 610 S Oregon St 915/546-9032

    World Gym Licensing

  • Adkins,Rob
  • 4717 Hondo Pass Dr # A 915/755-3032

    El Sobrante CA

    Lakeridge Athletic Club

  • Speck,Gordon
  • 6350 San Pablo Dam Rd 510/222-2500

    Elizabeth NJ

    Champion Gym & Fitness Ctr

  • 265 N Broad St 908/353-9164

    Elkton MD

    Wise Guys Gym

  • 247 S Bridge St 410/392-5960

    Elmwood Park NJ

    Gold'S Gym

  • Zingone,Craig
  • 475 Boulevard 201/703-0222

    Emerson NJ

    Tumble-Bee Inc

  • 465 Old Hook Rd 201/967-7188

    Emmaus PA

    Powerhouse Gym

  • Sykes,Brian
  • 1458 Chestnut St 610/965-3946

    Englewood NJ

    Gym Sports Institute Mid

  • 65 W Demarest Ave 201/587-0307

    Erie PA

    Prischak Boxing Camp

  • 5135 W Ridge Rd 814/833-9101

    Vision Model & Talent

  • 1321 Peninsula Dr 814/838-4051

    Escondido CA

    Escondido Athletic Club

  • Pastor,Carol
  • 130 E Lincoln Ave 619/743-4999

    Escondido Boxing & Fitness Gym

  • Crowder,Joe
  • 335 E Pennsylvania Ave 619/743-2269

    Family Fitness Ctr

  • Reilley,Roger
  • 984 W El Norte Pky 619/739-8422

    Fitness Club

  • 628 N Escondido Blvd 619/746-1111

    Sports Palace

  • ,Bo
  • 130 West Woodwood 619/746-1111

    Eureka CA

    Adorni Recreation Ctr

  • Molter,Dan
  • 1011 Waterfront Dr 707/444-9792

    Better Bodies

  • Comer,Mark
  • 1675 Union St 707/445-9494

    Cal Courts

  • Nord,Agatha
  • 518 W Clark St 707/445-5445

    Everett MA

    Gold'S Gym Everett

  • Shea,Fran
  • 104 Tremont St 617/389-8896

    Exton PA

    Dragon Gym

  • Goh,Chae
  • 267 S Whitford Rd 610/363-7575

    Fair Lawn NJ

    Fair Lawn Athletic Club Gym

  • Hamilton,Bob
  • 14-19 Parmelee Ave 201/796-9771

    Lally'S Tae Kwon Do Inc

  • 27-07 Broadway 201/797-2868

    Fairfax CA

    Fairfax Health Club & Aerobic

  • Marckwordt,Clark
  • 713 Center Blvd 415/459-9000

    Fairfield CA

    Body Image Gym

  • Barrios,Ben
  • 2425 N Texas St 707/421-0553

    West Wind Karate School

  • Miller,Mike
  • 737 W Texas St 707/426-1192

    Fairport NY

    Bally'S Holiday Fitness Ctr

  • Leese,Yen
  • Perinton Hills Office Park 716/223-0607

    Fall River MA

    Jezak'S Gym

  • 360 Airport Rd 508/672-3820

    Fillmore CA

    Powerhouse Gym

  • Ortega,Bob
  • 411 Central Ave 805/524-1111

    Fitchburg MA

    Turner Hall

  • Densmore,Roger
  • 60 Branch St 508/365-4076

    Fontana CA

    Gold'S Gym & Super Fitness Ctr

  • Snow,Matt
  • 8933 Sierra Ave 909/355-2505

    Ford City PA

    Body Shop

  • Lamison,Rick
  • 624 3Rd Ave 412/763-9159

    Forked River NJ

    Tnt Gymnastics

  • 702 Challenger Way 609/693-1166

    Fort Worth TX

    Fit For Life

  • Dyer,Robert
  • 6125 Sw Loop 820 817/292-8101

    Fitness Connexxion

  • Wenzel,Richard
  • 6242 Hulen Bend Blvd 817/346-6161

    Golden Glove Youth Ctr

  • Pryor,Donna
  • 1040 N Henderson St 817/332-0552

    Gorman'S Gym

  • 3220 Bryan Ave 817/927-9630

    Frederick MD

    Frederick Gymnastics Club

  • 807 E South St 301/695-9414

    Fremont CA

    Bob'S Athletic Club

  • Perata,Bob
  • 37437 Maple St 510/793-1113

    Bob's Athletic Club

  • Perata,Bob
  • 37437 Maple St 510/793-1113

    Gold'S Gym

  • Mc Call,Jerry
  • 40471 Encyclopedia Cir 510/683-0711

    Mega Fitness Ctr

  • Christianson,Chris
  • 40539 Albrae St 510/659-6342

    Ray Wilson Family Fitness Ctr

  • 39300 Paseo Padre Pky 510/795-6666

    Fresno CA

    Gold'S Gym Sports Club Fresno

  • Stephenson,Randy
  • 4015 N Blackstone Ave 209/229-4653

    K O Boxing Gym

  • 2982 S Elm Ave 209/497-8125

    Master Cho'S School-Tae Kwon

  • Cho,Sang
  • 435 W Shaw Ave 209/228-1365

    Ringside Gym

  • 459 Van Ness Ave 209/485-8376

    Fullerton CA

    Ymca

  • Shuman,Tony
  • 2000 N Youth Way 714/879-9622

    Fulton TX

    Mc Kenzie'S Tae-Kwon-Do

  • 2305 N Highway 35 512/790-9710

    Gainesville TX

    Body Power Systems Gym

  • Biffle,Chris
  • 301 1/2 E California St 817/668-7200

    Gaithersburg MD

    Bodymasters Gym

  • Drew,Ned
  • 25 W Watkins Mill Rd 301/977-6090

    Freestate Gymnastics Inc

  • Fountain,Jody
  • 9200 Gaither Rd 301/948-3006

    U S Kung-Fu & Tai Chi Ctr

  • 211 N Frederick Ave 301/921-0003

    Galt CA

    Fitness Pro

  • Morton,Randy
  • 908 C St 209/745-5382

    Galveston TX

    Galveston Health & Racquet Clb

  • Cook,Saundra
  • 2318 83Rd St 409/744-3651

    Gold'S Gym

  • Smecca,Joe
  • 6402 Broadway St 409/744-4653

    Garden Grove CA

    Imperial Health Spa

  • Tweid,Brenda
  • 82515 Garden Grove Blvd 714/962-1388

    Gardena CA

    Gardena Tang Soo Do

  • 2015 W Redondo Beach Blvd # A 310/516-6766

    Garland TX

    Marx Gym

  • Johnson,Mark
  • 6511 Duck Creek Dr 214/240-5975

    Nancy'S Gym & Dance

  • 565 W Oates Rd 214/681-0108

    Garwood NJ

    Elite School Of Gymnastics

  • Surgent,James
  • 501 South Ave 908/789-3392

    Gilroy CA

    Faria Fitness

  • Faria,Fred
  • 8380 Church St # J-K 408/848-5810

    Get Serious Gym

  • Wolfsmith,Dave
  • 1300 1St St 408/842-1496

    K O Kung-Fu Karate

  • Ozuna,John
  • 8833 Monterey Hwy # G 408/848-2166

    Glassboro NJ

    Manzo'S Gym

  • Manzo,Bill
  • 100 Delsea Dr S 609/881-7008

    Glastonbury CT

    Club

  • Rishell,Bill
  • 27 Kreiger Ln 203/659-3679

    Glendale CA

    Dee'S Gym For Ladies Only

  • Lyons,Dee
  • 213 N Orange St 818/244-3908

    Ymca

  • Driffill,Bob
  • 140 N Louise St 818/240-4130

    Glendora CA

    Bulldog Gym & Ftnss Ctr

  • Schnider,Jerry
  • 757 E Arrow Hwy 818/963-6313

    World Gym Licensing

  • Wenz,Diane
  • 316 N Black Horse Pike 609/939-9846

    Glenolden PA

    Ed Ryan'S Gym

  • Ryan,Ed
  • 527 S Chester Pike 610/583-4344

    Granada Hills CA

    Carol Lee'S The Easy Way

  • Penrod,Margaret
  • 11154 Balboa Blvd 818/363-8129

    Wright'S Gym

  • 11856 1/2 Balboa Blvd 818/366-5928

    Granbury TX

    Built N Texas Gym

  • 108 Charles St 817/579-8100

    Greenville TX

    Universal Gymnastics Training

  • Daniel,David
  • 2702 Rodeo Dr 903/455-6433

    Guilford CT

    Gold'S Gym

  • Peterson,John
  • 705 Boston Post Rd 203/453-1600

    Hackensack NJ

    Traetta'S Gymnastic Elite Inc

  • Traetta,Mary Jean
  • 91 Temple Ave 201/487-3480

    Hackettstown NJ

    Hastings Health & Fitness Club

  • Janison,Maija
  • Schooleys Mountain Rd 908/850-8400

    Park'S Tae Kwon Do

  • Difiglia,Joe
  • 150 Mountain Ave 908/852-4100

    Hamden CT

    Bally'S Holiday Fitness Ctr

  • Zonas,Skip
  • 3025 Dixwell Ave 203/248-9391

    Hanford CA

    Reese'S Gym

  • Villines,Kim
  • 240 W 8Th St 209/584-1310

    Total Fitness

  • Jeffers,Mark
  • 240 W 8Th St 209/584-1310

    Hanover MA

    Saul'S All Sports Training Ctr

  • Shockett,Saul
  • 24 Rockland St 617/826-7586

    Harlingen TX

    Olympus Gym

  • Arias,Willie
  • 514 N 1St St 210/421-3309

    Hartford CT

    Bally'S Holiday Fitness Ctr

  • Bottaro,Jim
  • 1031 New Britain Ave 203/953-5779

    Hatboro PA

    Gold'S Gym

  • Richardson,David
  • 319 W County Line Rd 215/674-1991

    Haverford PA

    Al Berger Gym

  • Berger,Al
  • 355 W Lancaster Ave 610/896-6407

    Hawthorne NJ

    Arts Of Self Defense

  • 525 Lafayette Ave 201/423-5555

    Elite Gymnastics Inc

  • Sellitto,Michael
  • 80 5Th Ave 201/423-4040

    Hayward CA

    Medina'S Gym 'N Trim

  • Medina,Bob
  • 1265 B St (510)582-4610

    West Coast Institute

  • Montgomery,Sam
  • 26625 Mission Blvd 510/886-5347

    Hesperia CA

    Gym

  • Togo,Giorgio
  • 10182 I Ave 619/947-7229

    Hilo HI

    Spencer Health & Fitness Ctr

  • Spencer,Sheldon
  • 197 Keawe St 808/969-1511

    Hollywood MD

    Patuxent River Barbell Club

  • Carnobas,Chuck
  • Cusic Retail Bldg 301/373-2722

    Honolulu HI

    Bodytune Hawaii

  • 1680 Kapiolani Blvd 808/973-4653

    Clark Hatch Physical Fitness

  • Monsen,Bill
  • 745 Fort St 808/536-7205

    Gold'S Gym

  • 1680 Kapiolani Blvd 808/973-4653

    Gym

  • 435 Keawe St 808/533-7111

    Island Fitness Ctr

  • Cory,Matthew
  • 1130 N Nimitz Hwy 808/537-5700

    Marina Athletic Club

  • Carter,Ron
  • 7192 Kalanianaole Hwy 808/395-4244

    Spa Health & Fitness Ctr

  • Rice,Jerry
  • 1212 Punahou St 808/949-0026

    Timmy'S Modern Health Gym Inc

  • Leong,Timmy
  • 404 Ward Ave # A 808/533-7476

    Houston TX

    Bally'S President'S First Lady

  • Bisel,Ken
  • 9825 Katy Fwy 713/467-8181

    Bally'S President'S First Lady

  • Burns,Mark S
  • 13350 Northwest Fwy 713/690-1006

    Bally'S President'S First Lady

  • Casanova,Sergio
  • 3936 N Shepherd Dr 713/695-0990

    Bally'S President'S First Lady

  • Cesar,Michael
  • 7255 Clarewood Dr 713/771-8395

    Bally'S President'S First Lady

  • Dockery,Keith
  • 7737 W Bellfort St 713/729-7049

    Bally'S President'S First Lady

  • Goldenger,Chris
  • 3905 Bellaire Blvd 713/666-0141

    Bally'S President'S First Lady

  • Hall,Tim
  • 2500 Dunstan Rd 713/521-3113

    Bally'S President'S First Lady

  • Kyte,Cleo
  • 1980 S Post Oak Rd # A 713/960-1037

    Bally'S President'S First Lady

  • Oquendo,Dennis
  • 7120 Clarewood Dr 713/771-4141

    Bally'S President'S First Lady

  • Simon,Jamie
  • 15415 Katy Fwy 713/578-9191

    Bally'S President'S First Lady

  • Walker,Deborah
  • 1709 S Post Oak Ln 713/622-7181

    Bodyflex

  • Trublood,Charles
  • 9538 Richmond St 713/785-3539

    Fitness Exchange

  • Mc Clerren,Al
  • 3930 Kirby Dr # 300 713/524-9932

    Gold'S Gym

  • Beckcom,Michael
  • 11368 Westheimer Rd 713/493-1874

    Gold'S Gym

  • Creech,Damon
  • 1000 Campbell Rd # 450 713/984-0606

    Gold'S Gym

  • Morris,Darrel
  • 12260 Gulf Fwy 713/943-2220

    Gold'S Gym

  • Zimmer,Rick
  • 5800 Richmond Ave 713/783-8448

    Gymnast Factory

  • Brewer,Tom
  • 2520 Albans St 713/527-8753

    Hank'S Gym

  • Breaker Jr,Henry
  • 5320 Elm St 713/668-6219

    Houston Heights Boxing Academy

  • 72 Heights Blvd 713/862-0604

    Main Street Boxing Gym

  • 3232 S Main 713/524-4911

    Master Mungu Self Defense

  • 4608 Almeda Rd 713/522-4319

    Powerhouse Gym

  • 9538 Richmond Ave 713/952-7697

    Ray'S Boxing Club

  • 1524 Freeman St 713/224-7921

    Stone'S Family Fitness Ctr

  • Grimes,Bobby
  • 2424 Falcon Pass 713/488-3155

    Texas Lady Spa

  • 10851 Scarsdale Blvd 713/922-6054

    Weldon'S Gym

  • 106 Main St 713/477-3481

    World Fitness Ctr Corp Office

  • 17223 Mercury Dr 713/286-2951

    World Gym & Fitness Ctr

  • Barnett,Denise
  • 11320 Westheimer Rd 713/870-8600

    World Gym & Fitness Ctr

  • Upshaw,Roy
  • 5080 Richmond Ave # A 713/963-9644

    Humble TX

    Bally'S President'S First Lady

  • Conley,Jeff
  • 19304 Highway 59 N 713/446-5114

    Huntingdon Vly PA

    Macey Academy Of Gymnastics

  • 77 Buck Rd 215/364-8113

    Huntington Beach CA

    Family Fitness Ctr

  • 5858 Warner Avenue Attn: Surf City Squeeze-Ester 714/847-7800

    World Gym Licensing

  • Nestaros,Anastasios
  • 19680 Beach Blvd 714/968-6555

    Hyattsville MD

    Sugar Ray Leonard Boxing Gym

  • Robertson,Gregg
  • 7707 Barlowe Rd 301/386-5888

    Iowa Park TX

    Iowa Park Athletic Ctr

  • Sellers,Michael
  • 215 N Yosemite St 817/592-2570

    Irving TX

    Bally'S President'S First Lady

  • Mak,Lori
  • 2016 W Grauwyler Rd 214/790-4314

    Inner Fitness Gym

  • Youngker,Robert
  • 345 Plymouth Park 214/790-4966

    Irwin PA

    Back Alley Gym

  • Gilarski,Anthony
  • 314 Main St Rear 412/864-9220

    Jackson CA

    Sharon'S Sweat Shop Fitness

  • Jones,Sharon
  • 206 N Main St 209/223-3608

    Jenkintown PA

    Jenkintown Spa

  • Benson E Apt 215/887-2280

    Jersey City NJ

    Body Fitness

  • Rodriguez,Carl
  • 114 Christopher Columbus Dr 201/332-2639

    Bufano'S Gym

  • 82 Beacon Ave 201/795-2666

    Johnstown NY

    Peak Performance Gym

  • Failing,Robert
  • 38 E Main St 518/568-7723

    Kailua HI

    Bret'S Gym

  • 11 Hoolai St 808/262-5586

    Rld Body Works

  • Lunden,Rebecca
  • 572 Kailua Rd 808/263-0101

    Kailua Kona HI

    Big Island Gym

  • Lovell,Sue
  • 74-5603 Alapa St # B 808/329-9432

    Club In Kona

  • Lee,Jeff
  • 75-5722 Hanama St 808/326-2582

    Great Shapes Health & Fitness

  • 75-5799 Alii Dr # A4 808/329-9547

    Kamuela HI

    Pacific Coast Fitness

  • Sameshima,Kevin
  • 65-1298 Kawaihae Rd # A 808/885-6270

    Kaufman TX

    Crocketts Gym & Family Fitness

  • Williams,J D
  • 208 N Jefferson St 214/932-7535

    Kealakekua HI

    Mauka Gym

  • Teves,Jasie
  • Kainaliu Ctr 808/322-8495

    Kentfield CA

    Original Gym

  • Iacoppi,Eddie
  • 941 Sir Francis Drake Blvd 415/455-8018

    Kihei HI

    Powerhouse Gym Maui

  • 300 Ohukai Rd # C112 808/879-1326

    World Gym Licensing

  • Kihei Professional Plz 808/879-1326

    King Of Prussia PA

    Bally'S Holiday Fitness Ctr

  • Kaplan,Fred
  • 256 Goddard Blvd 610/768-0710

    Kings Beach CA

    Tahoe Paddle & Oar

  • 7860 N Lake Blvd 916/583-1328

    La Crescenta CA

    Body Mastery

  • Rotunno,Derrick
  • 3975 Abella St 818/248-0170

    La Jolla CA

    Ymca

  • Wurtzbacher,Sam
  • 8355 Cliffridge Ave 619/453-3483

    La Mesa CA

    Parkway Fitness

  • Gulmbic,Bill
  • 8130 Parkway Dr 619/466-8075

    La Puente CA

    Family Fitness Ctr

  • Rogers,Steve
  • 1140 S Coiner Ct 818/810-8181

    Gold'S Gym

  • Rafferty,Michelle
  • 13907 E Amar Rd 818/960-6511

    Hapkido Karate

  • Kim,Saeyong
  • 1333 N Hacienda Blvd 818/917-2364

    Laguna Beach CA

    Laguna Health Club

  • Fontan,Jack
  • 870 Glenneyre St 714/494-9314

    Laguna Hills CA

    Family Fitness Ctr

  • Thompson,Ron
  • 25252 Mcintyre St 714/586-6600

    Lahaina HI

    Aerobic Co Studio & Sportswear

  • Steel,Deann
  • 4405 Honoapiilani Hwy # 217 808/669-8299

    Lahaina Nautilus Ctr

  • Deragish,Tom
  • 180 Dickenson St # 201 808/667-6100

    World Gym Licensing

  • Furtado,Sondra
  • 845 Wainee St 808/667-0422

    Lakewood NJ

    Animal Pit

  • Henig,Dave
  • 20 Clifton Ave S 908/901-1583

    Gymnastics Plus

  • Ballingall,Lori
  • 485 Locust St 908/905-0900

    Ymca

  • Twyman,Joe
  • 5835 Carson St 310/425-7431

    Lancaster CA

    Family Fitness Ctr

  • 1020 Commerce Center Dr 805/940-6333

    Genesis Gymnastics

  • Hogan,Collette
  • 42620 10Th St W 805/948-9751

    Lanco Gymnastics

  • Singleton,Dawn E
  • 449 Hareville Rd 717/560-4978

    Le Club Sportif

  • Hall,Kathy
  • 858 W Jackman St 805/945-2618

    Okinawa-Te Organization

  • Triplett,Richard
  • 45337 Sierra Hwy 805/942-5855

    Langhorne PA

    Somerton Gymnastics Inc

  • Moore,Lucy
  • 155 Philmont Ave 215/364-7878

    Lansdale PA

    La Crest Health Spa

  • Harris,Richard
  • 624 E Main St 215/368-1525

    Lansdowne PA

    Tnt Muscle & Fitness

  • 51 N Union Ave 610/284-5711

    Lansford PA

    Valley Fitness Ctr

  • Oboril,Robert
  • 25 W Ridge St 717/645-4333

    Laredo TX

    American Gym

  • Ramos,Santos
  • 4120 San Bernardo Ave 210/791-0281

    Marcias Gym

  • Macias,Andres
  • 1014 San Enrique Ave 210/723-0439

    Lawrence PA

    Debi & Rick'S School

  • Murray,Rick
  • Mayview Rd 412/745-5117

    Ironworks Gym

  • Latham,Francis
  • 439 S Union St 508/689-8828

    Lawrenceville NJ

    Bally'S Holiday Fitness Ctr

  • Gill,Rob
  • 201 Quaker Bridge Mall 609/799-0220

    Lemoore CA

    Lemoore Fitness Ctr

  • Erickson,Dick
  • 34 W Hanford Armona Rd 209/924-4867

    Level Green PA

    Kasamon Gymnastics & Dance

  • Trafford Harrison City Rd 412/744-3800

    Levittown PA

    Bucks Gymnastics Ctr Ii Inc

  • St Clair,James
  • 255 Lower Morrisville Rd 215/295-5354

    Lewisville TX

    Sweat Shop

  • 2305 S Highway 121 214/315-2272

    Lihue HI

    Kauai Athletic Club

  • Carswell,Donn
  • 4370 Kukui Grove St 808/245-5381

    Linden NJ

    Guys & Dolls Health Club

  • Andretta,Don
  • 520 E Saint Georges Ave 908/486-0100

    Little Falls NJ

    Genesis Fitness Ctr

  • Rodriguez,Ed
  • 201 E Main St 201/785-3910

    Livingston TX

    Alabama-Coushatta Gym

  • Rr 3 Box 640 409/563-4391

    Lockeford CA

    Better Bodys

  • Beshara,Leon
  • 14090 E Us Highway 88 (209)727-0503

    Lodi NJ

    East Coast Fitness

  • 1 S Main St 201/773-1690

    Goshin-Kan Karate

  • 11 Avenue E 201/472-2299

    Twin Arbors Athletic Club

  • Kaufman,Dennis
  • 1900 S Hutchins St 209/334-4897

    World Gym Licensing

  • Roberts,Mark
  • 1030 S Hutchins St 209/333-7447

    Lomita CA

    South Bay Gym

  • Burich,John
  • 26327 S Western Ave 310/534-9695

    Long Beach CA

    Family Fitness Ctr

  • Gaines,Paul
  • 100 Oceangate 310/435-6300

    Long Branch NJ

    Seashore Day Camp

  • Villapiano,John
  • 404 Broadway 908/229-4398

    Los Altos CA

    Gymboree

  • 636 Los Altos Rancho 415/949-4352

    Los Angeles CA

    5Th Street Boxing Gym

  • 479 S Fairfax Ave 213/938-6860

    Beverly Hills Karate Academy

  • 9085 Santa Monica Blvd 310/275-2661

    Biltmore Health Club

  • Moore,Marsellas
  • 506 S Grand Ave 213/612-1567

    Body Builders Gym

  • Meike,Jim
  • 2516 Hyperion Ave 213/668-0802

    Body Shop Inc

  • 5058 Eagle Rock Blvd 213/254-8670

    Broadway Gym

  • 10730 S Broadway 213/755-9016

    Family Fitness Ctr

  • Wilson,Ray
  • 505 S Flower St 213/683-1400

    Family Fitness Ctr

  • Wilson,Ray
  • 5711 W Century Blvd 310/410-9909

    Gold'S Gym

  • Banos,Angel
  • 1016 Cole Ave 213/462-7012

    Great Shape

  • Lubarsky,Steve
  • 11980 San Vicente Blvd 310/820-6602

    In Training

  • 7416 Beverly Blvd 213/937-3539

    Los Angeles Women'S Gym Inc

  • Gustin,Jerylie
  • 3407 Glendale Blvd 213/661-9456

    Los Angeles Women's Gym Inc

  • Gustin,Jerylie
  • 3407 Glendale Blvd 213/661-9456

    Manchester Health Club

  • Swim,Roy
  • 1943 W Manchester Ave 213/971-9671

    Pro Gym

  • Drisman,Jozef
  • 11920 San Vicente Blvd 310/826-6624

    Sports Club La

  • Alysworth,John
  • 1835 S Sepulveda Blvd 310/473-1447

    Los Banos CA

    Dick'S Gym

  • Nunes,Dick
  • 646 I St 209/826-1644

    Dick's Gym

  • Nunes,Dick
  • 646 I St (209)826-1644

    Los Osos CA

    Wee Workout

  • Wee,Barb
  • 2280 Sunset Dr 805/528-6665

    Lowell MA

    Bally'S Holiday Fitness Ctr

  • Thompson,Sheryl
  • 203 Plain St 508/441-0000

    Lowell West End Gym

  • 140 Powell St 508/937-0184

    Lufkin TX

    Lufkin Gymnastic Ctr

  • Letney,Cecelia
  • 119 N 1St St 409/637-7837

    Madera CA

    Madera Athletic Club

  • Da Silva,Chris
  • 1803 Sunset Ave 209/673-3054

    Madera Gymnastics & Dance Arts

  • Seibert,Karyn
  • 455 S Pine St 209/675-3637

    Malibu CA

    Malibu Gym

  • Fransen,Lonnie
  • 28955 W Pacific Coast Hwy 310/457-3865

    Manahawkin NJ

    Gold'S Gym

  • Rose,Dennis
  • 300 Route 72 E 609/597-9231

    Manchester CT

    Bally'S Holiday Fitness Ctr

  • Shapiro,Andrew
  • 515 Middle Tpke W 203/646-4260

    Gold'S Gym

  • Pierro,Dave
  • 110 Utopia Rd 203/646-3131

    Manteca CA

    Club Cal Fit

  • Shaefer,John
  • 215 Elm St 209/825-6356

    Maple Shade NJ

    N J Health & Fitness Complex

  • 100 Fox Meadow Dr 609/779-7991

    Maplewood NJ

    Diamond Gym

  • Kemper,John
  • 732 Irvington Ave 201/761-9833

    Diamond Gym Sports & Fitness

  • 732 Irvington Ave 201/762-0828

    Maplewood Gymnastics

  • 1937 Springfield Ave 201/762-5222

    Marina CA

    Body By Effort

  • Fisher,Paul
  • 328 Reservation Rd # D 408/883-4100

    Marlborough MA

    Shukokai School Of Karate

  • 58 Mechanic St 508/481-1147

    Marmora NJ

    South Shore Fitness Ctr

  • Bry,Jim
  • 447 S Shore Rd 609/390-2128

    Marysville CA

    World Gym Licensing

  • Granville,Robert
  • 424 D St 916/741-0123

    Maynard MA

    Pep'S Gym

  • Paull,Ron
  • 92B Main St 508/897-9171

    Maywood NJ

    Gym Sports Institute

  • 5 Hergesell Ave 201/587-0307

    Mechanicsburg PA

    Why At The Well

  • Kauffman,Bob
  • 17 E Simpson St 717/697-9010

    Medford NJ

    Eastern Athletic Club Inc

  • Braingart,Paul
  • Stokes Rd & Nelson Dr 609/654-1440

    Medford Gym & Aerobic Ctr

  • Murphy,Justin
  • 175 Route 70 609/953-1231

    Media PA

    Mass Production

  • Maguire,Eric
  • 408 W Knowlton Rd 610/494-7634

    Mercerville NJ

    Hamilton Gymnastics Inc

  • Pelzer,Arthur
  • 3660 Quakerbridge Rd 609/586-6810

    Merchantville NJ

    K Y Yi'S Karate Institute

  • Yi,Ki Yun
  • 7710 Maple Ave 609/663-6330

    Meriden CT

    Clarks Workout Inc

  • Clark,Myrta
  • 606 Pomeroy Ave 203/237-3166

    Methuen MA

    Gold'S Gym & Fitness

  • Grossi,Joe
  • 436 Broadway 508/975-5441

    Middlebury CT

    Bally'S Holiday Fitness Ctr

  • O'Meara,John
  • 930 Straits Tpke 203/598-0833

    Midland TX

    St Ann'S Catholic Church

  • Nawarskas,Fred
  • 1908 W Texas Ave 915/682-6303

    Milford CT

    Bally'S Holiday Fitness Ctr

  • Boccallo,Chris
  • 580 Bridgeport Ave 203/877-6677

    Mission Viejo CA

    Cardio Fit Sports Club

  • Saito,George
  • 25732 Taladro Cir 714/586-1010

    Modesto CA

    Moore'S Shou' Shu' Karate Std

  • Clark,Jim
  • 1505 J St 209/524-1334

    World Gym Licensing

  • Jacobson,Dan
  • 144 Woodrow Ave 209/571-0567

    Ymca

  • Servas,Karen
  • 2700 Mchenry Ave 209/578-9622

    Monrovia CA

    Foothill Gym

  • ,Sue
  • 946 W Foothill Blvd 818/303-7667

    Montclair NJ

    Jundo Kan Intl

  • 67 Church St 201/744-0555

    Montebello CA

    Tiger Kim Tae Kwon Do Studio

  • Kim,Tiger
  • 1931 W Whittier Blvd 213/888-6530

    Monterey CA

    Garden Health & Fitness

  • Sharpe,Al
  • 2000 Garden Rd 408/646-0550

    Montrose CA

    Fitness Formula Health Club

  • Drader,Chuck
  • 2287 Honolulu Ave (818)248-4154

    Moreno Valley CA

    Family Fitness Ctr

  • Yenor,Lisa
  • 23750 Alessandro Blvd # H 909/653-7100

    Morgantown PA

    Kennedy'S Gym

  • Clock Tower Plz 610/286-7698

    Morganville NJ

    Monmouth Gymnastic Academy

  • Blacher,Leonid
  • 600 Campus Dr 908/972-8811

    Mountain View CA

    Evison David

  • Evison,David
  • 1917 Old Middlefield Way 415/967-3558

    Gold'S Gym

  • Mc Call,Jerry
  • 1400 N Shoreline Blvd # D 415/940-1440

    Strength & Physique Labs

  • Jendricks,John
  • 1917 Old Middlefield Way 415/965-9369

    Mt Holly NJ

    Impact Aerobics & Fitness Ctr

  • Adams,Barry
  • 1 Commerce Pl 609/267-0819

    Mt Laurel NJ

    Jersey Jets Gymnastics

  • 20 Roland Ave # A 609/273-2822

    Martin Surfacing & Decking

  • Beynon,John
  • 560 Fellowship Rd # 314 609/234-2900

    Will-Moor School Of Gymnastics

  • Musgrave,Wendy
  • 10 Hartford Rd 609/234-5292

    Mt Pleasant PA

    Power Connection Gym & Tanning

  • Lynch,Rick
  • 638 W Main St 412/547-2445

    Muenster TX

    Gymnastics Sport Ctr

  • 215 N Main St 817/759-4013

    Napa CA

    Action Promotions Inc

  • Gavras,Joe
  • 1735 Action Ave 707/224-4977

    West Wind Karate School

  • Scoggins,Layne
  • 2438 Jefferson St 707/226-3737

    Nashua NH

    Gold'S Gym

  • Kiley,Tom
  • 522 Amherst St 603/889-1565

    National City CA

    Bally'S Holiday Fitness Ctr

  • Luminski,John
  • 1910 Sweetwater Rd 619/474-6392

    Natrona PA

    All American Gym Inc

  • Cowan,Ed
  • 1005 Idaho Ave 412/226-2022

    New Bedford MA

    Gold'S Gym Fitness Ctr

  • Holmes,John
  • 2301 Purchase St 508/999-5481

    Professor'S Gym Inc

  • Duchaine,David
  • 353 Church St 508/993-7900

    New Canaan CT

    Nautilus Of New Canaan

  • Hutchinson,Glenn
  • 45 Grove St 203/966-7966

    New Castle PA

    Stay-Fitt

  • Benner,Rosemary
  • 2040 W State St 412/658-5525

    New Haven CT

    Ring One Boxing

  • 102 Fowler St 203/397-3263

    New Kensington PA

    Powerhouse Gym

  • Kish,Steve
  • 402 Freeport Rd 412/337-9830

    New Market MD

    Tumbletime Gymnastics Activity

  • South Alley 301/865-1706

    Newark NJ

    Gateway Health & Fitness Ctr

  • Blachek,Terry
  • 1 Gateway Ctr Fl 1 201/642-6070

    Newark Ymwca

  • Harrison,Newton
  • 600 Broad St 201/624-8900

    West Coast Institute

  • Thompson,Tony B
  • 6107 Jarvis Ave 510/796-9776

    Newport Beach CA

    Body Design-The Women'S Ctr

  • Davis,Susan
  • 1040 W Coast Hwy # D 714/722-3555

    Fit For One

  • Busby,Buz
  • 425 30Th St 714/673-4850

    Leon Skeie Health Club-Women

  • Skeie,Leon
  • 2036 Quail St 714/852-8655

    Newton MA

    Nautilus Physical Fitness Ctr

  • Asack,Gordon
  • 160 Charlemont St 617/965-0380

    Norristown PA

    Atlas Gym

  • Tornetta,Joe
  • 1920 W Marshall St 610/630-0799

    Colletti'S Gym

  • 436 E Main St 610/270-9695

    Concentrics

  • Betterly,Don
  • 919 E Germantown Pike 610/292-0760

    Flex'S Gym

  • Reger,Mark
  • 806 E Main St 610/272-5679

    Kehler'S Gymnastics Ctr

  • Kehler,Rus
  • 2490 General Armistead Ave 610/631-0442

    Turner'S Gymnastics Inc

  • Turner,Brian
  • 521 W Germantown Pike 610/277-0182

    North Bergen NJ

    Total Fitness

  • Andretta,Frank
  • 623 Kennedy Blvd 201/330-0100

    North Hollywood CA

    North Hollywood Health Club

  • Vandernagel,Frank
  • 5126 Lankershim Blvd 818/766-8888

    North Reading MA

    A J'S Gym

  • 165 Main St 508/664-8604

    Northfield NJ

    South Jersey Nautilus Inc

  • Tracy,Greg
  • 1001 Tilton Rd 609/641-4144

    Northridge CA

    Gold'S Gym Northridge

  • Loyd,Jon
  • 9150 Reseda Blvd 818/772-1400

    Norwalk CA

    American Eagle Gym

  • Houston,Sherry
  • 12128 Firestone Blvd 310/863-1308

    Dance Dimensions

  • 1 Butler Ln 203/852-0605

    Nutley NJ

    Garden State Nautilus Fitness

  • Barry,Tom
  • 234 Franklin Ave 201/284-0377

    Oakland CA

    Diego'S Power Alley Gym

  • Chairs,Diego
  • 5775 Foothill Blvd 510/632-7673

    Gold'S Gym-Oakland

  • Hatcher,Harold
  • 600 Grand Ave 510/451-4653

    King Boxing Gym

  • King,C A
  • 843 35Th Ave 510/261-2199

    Oaklyn NJ

    Total Fitness

  • Whit,Dennis
  • 1130 White Horse Pike # B 609/854-1441

    Ocean NJ

    Rich Gaspari'S New Age Fitness

  • Gaspari,Rich
  • Route 35 Sunset Ave 908/918-8584

    Ocean City NJ

    Iron Raider Gym

  • Impagliazzo,Mark
  • 324 West Ave 609/391-0313

    Oceanside CA

    Tang Soo Do Institute

  • Mason,Ted
  • 206 N Freeman St 619/967-9445

    Odessa TX

    Kid'S Gym

  • 1724 N Grant Ave 915/332-1614

    Old Tappan NJ

    Town & Country Gymnastics Acad

  • Shapiro,Rich
  • 284 Orangeburgh Rd 201/768-7464

    Ontario CA

    Family Fitness Ctr

  • Harbour,Randy
  • 2403 S Vineyard Ave 909/923-2233

    Orange TX

    Mark'S Gym

  • Bland,Mark
  • 8024 N Highway 87 409/746-3960

    Samson'S Gym

  • Dena,James
  • 3702 E Chapman Ave # E 714/532-5310

    Orange Grove TX

    Tnt Gym

  • Hovey,Beverly
  • County Rd 357 512/384-2656

    Oroville CA

    Delilah'S

  • Baines,Barbara
  • 2152 Robinson St 916/533-6634

    Oxford PA

    Broad Street Community Ctr

  • 460 Broad St 610/932-0747

    Oxnard CA

    Family Fitness Ctr

  • Gurney,Larry
  • 300 W Esplanade Dr 805/988-6000

    Harold & Jean'S Health Club

  • Meyer,Scott
  • 1930 Saviers Rd 805/486-2898

    Palmdale CA

    Antelope Valley Twisters

  • Lanzara,Tony
  • 39360 3Rd St E # 205 805/273-4961

    Palmerton PA

    Dempsey'S Gym

  • Dempsey,Tim
  • 494 Franklin Ave 610/826-5551

    Pasadena CA

    Brignole Fitness Training Club

  • Brignole,Doug
  • 42 S De Lacey Ave 818/449-1701

    International Karate Assn

  • Serrano,Tom
  • 2560 E Colorado Blvd 818/793-5653

    Pasadena Athletic Club

  • Sclarlino,Steve
  • 25 W Walnut St 213/681-6943

    World Gym Licensing

  • Matranga,Frank
  • 39 S Altadena Dr 818/304-1133

    Paterson NJ

    Lou Costello Sportsmen Club

  • Rosario,Diego
  • Pacific Ave & Gould Ave 201/881-9844

    Silk City Boxing Club Inc

  • Johnson,Eddie
  • 18 Alois Pl 201/278-1055

    Silk City School Of Martial

  • Quiles,Manuel
  • 44 E 20Th St 201/279-9060

    Silk City Weight Lifting Gym

  • Jimenez,Jose
  • 91 Market St 201/345-6866

    Peabody MA

    Bally'S Holiday Fitness Ctr

  • 210 Andover St 508/532-6666

    Pembroke MA

    Usa Health & Fitness

  • Lisnek,Jay
  • 300 Oak St # 340 617/826-6746

    Petaluma CA

    Redwood Club

  • Ramitici,Mike
  • 719 Southpoint Blvd 707/778-8788

    Pharr TX

    Pharr-San Juan-Alamo School

  • 714 E Us Highway 83 210/787-1318

    Philadelphia PA

    Augie'S Gym

  • Cimeca,Augie
  • 1312 S Juniper St 215/339-9903

    Body World

  • De Simone,Frank
  • 1622 W Passyunk Ave 215/339-8797

    Champs Gym

  • 1243 N 26Th St 215/978-9348

    Delaware Valley Gymnastics

  • Belder,Anna
  • 10059 Sandmeyer Ln 215/676-2800

    Dynamite Gym

  • Fergus,Jim
  • 3824 Terrace St 215/482-4775

    Front Street Gym

  • Kubach,Frank
  • 2076 E Clearfield St 215/634-7707

    Liberty Bell Gymnastics Inc

  • 6610 Hasbrook Ave 215/745-4213

    Penna Ki-Aikido

  • 6907 Rising Sun Ave 215/728-9380

    Pennypack Aquatic Fitness Ctr

  • Littman,Les
  • 3600 Grant Ave 215/677-0400

    Philadelphia Boxing Club

  • 1324 E Passyunk Ave 215/468-9407

    Power Pit Gym

  • Bauers,Cheryl
  • 4324 Frankford Ave 215/535-0515

    River'S Gym & Health Ctr

  • Rivers,Bob
  • 1424 E Washington Ln 215/424-2244

    Rocky'S Gym

  • Imbesi,Larry
  • 811 Carpenter St 215/629-8558

    Smoking Joe Frazier Inc

  • Frazier,Joe
  • 2917 N Broad St 215/221-5303

    Sports Clinic Inc

  • Mackrides,Greg
  • 7916 Frankford Ave 215/624-7106

    Philipsburg PA

    Nittany Gymnastics & Dance

  • 200 Shadylane Dr 814/342-7241

    Pine Grove PA

    Cathy'S Sweat Suite

  • Daniel,Cathy
  • Sweet Arrow Rd 717/345-3265

    Pinole CA

    Pacific Gym

  • 620 San Pablo Ave 510/724-7195

    Pismo Beach CA

    Pismo Beach Athletic Club

  • Myers,Henry
  • 1751 Price St 805/773-3011

    Pittsburgh PA

    Gbc Fitness

  • 4070 Beechwood Blvd 412/422-3020

    Gold'S Gym

  • Cardello,Matthew
  • 1130 Perry Hwy 412/364-7334

    Gold'S Gym Racquet & Fitness

  • Alexander,Geoff
  • 2585 Freeport Rd 412/828-6500

    Gymkhana Gymnastics

  • 645 Plum Industrial Ct 412/325-1700

    Gymkhana Inc

  • Sanft,Elliott
  • 7501 Penn Ave 412/247-4800

    Ironwork'S Gym

  • Wehner,Jay
  • 2424 E Carson St 412/481-5822

    King'S Gym & Aerobic Ctr

  • King,Kim
  • 2850 Saw Mill Run Blvd 412/881-6699

    National Boxing Inc

  • 12 8Th St 412/471-3385

    Weightmaster Gym

  • Scott,Donald
  • 725 Wood St 412/731-4033

    Plano TX

    Bally'S President'S First Lady

  • Brockelman,Scott
  • 910 W Parker Rd 214/578-7676

    Pleasanton CA

    Gold'S Gym

  • Brooks,Richard
  • 5860 W Las Positas Blvd 510/463-1515

    K W Gym

  • Buford,Charles
  • 2003 W Oaklawn Rd 210/569-4839

    Pleasantville NJ

    Ocean Side Gym

  • 429 W Bayview Ave 609/641-7977

    Plymouth NH

    Rock Barn

  • Route 25 603/536-2717

    Plymouth Meeting PA

    Bally'S Holiday Fitness Ctr

  • 61 Plymouth Meeting Mall # A 610/828-1651

    Pomona CA

    Pomona Karate Studio

  • Wilson,Kerry
  • 1065 E Holt Ave 909/622-4358

    Port Hueneme CA

    Ventura County Athletic Club

  • Hamilton,Corey
  • 2597 Bolker Dr 805/984-4080

    Porterville CA

    Olympic Gym

  • Hall,Sharon
  • 708 W Olive Ave 209/781-6264

    Sierra Fitness Ctr

  • Hood,Ed
  • 1034 W Morton Ave 209/784-7091

    Poway CA

    Poway Fitness

  • Fleisch,Tom
  • 13830 Poway Rd 619/748-7800

    Princeton NJ

    Alt'S For Somersaults 1 Inc

  • Edwards,Marian
  • 745 Alexander Rd 609/452-8430

    Pt Pleasant Bch NJ

    Premier Health & Aerobics

  • 528 Arnold Ave 908/295-1212

    Quincy MA

    Super Fitness Inc

  • 150 Parkingway St 617/770-1115

    Rahway NJ

    Mid Jersey Body Building

  • Mc Donald,Dean
  • 1469 Irving St 908/574-8462

    Randolph NJ

    Powerhouse Gym

  • Reyelt,Walter
  • 505 State Route 10 201/328-9644

    Redlands CA

    American Health& Fitness Club

  • Middlebrook,Dan
  • 1255 W Colton Ave 909/798-8817

    Family Fitness Ctr

  • Forthun,Deborah
  • 700 E Redlands Blvd 909/798-7777

    Redondo Beach CA

    Sport Center At King Harbor

  • Carroll,Marianne
  • 819 N Harbor Dr 310/376-9443

    Redwood City CA

    Dennis Nelson Health Spa & Ctr

  • Premeau,Joe
  • 515 Veterans Blvd 415/365-3800

    Refugio TX

    Royal New Dimensions Fitness

  • Royal,Judy
  • 406 N Alamo St 512/526-2185

    Reseda CA

    Mid Valley Racquetball Club

  • Wright,Harold
  • 18420 Hart St 818/705-6500

    Miller'S Gym

  • Morales,Ramon
  • 17746 Saticoy St 818/344-3155

    Revere MA

    Bally'S Holiday Fitness Ctr

  • 561 Squire Rd 617/286-5400

    Richardson TX

    Austin Gym Of Dallas

  • Jehl,Roland
  • 1440 Promenade Ctr 214/231-8414

    Bally'S President'S First Lady

  • Frank,Jackie
  • 530 W Arapaho Rd 214/231-8251

    Ridgecrest CA

    Fitness Factory

  • Marsh,Brett
  • 1400 N Norma St # 119 619/446-5425

    Ripon CA

    Rising Son Taekwondo

  • Schaffer,Tracy
  • 1201 W Main St # 17 209/599-2714

    Riverside CA

    East-Wind Kung-Fu Schools

  • O Dell,Mark
  • 9497 Magnolia Ave 909/688-7220

    Family Fitness Ctr

  • ,Chad
  • 7960 Limonite Ave 909/360-1696

    Spectrum Health & Fitness Ctr

  • Williamson,Ted
  • 6141 Riverside Ave # 5 909/683-3122

    Tae Kwon Do Academy Of Rvrside

  • 10571 Magnolia Ave 909/687-9261

    Ymca

  • Bergfalk,Joe
  • 4020 Jefferson St 909/689-9622

    Rochester NY

    Bally'S Holiday Fitness Ctr

  • Culotta,Rick
  • 557 Ridge Rd E 716/266-8470

    Bally'S Holiday Fitness Ctr

  • Spencer,Chuck
  • 3195 Brighton Henrietta Tl Rd 716/427-8701

    Bally'S Holiday Fitness Ctr

  • Talone,Mike
  • 2285 Buffalo Rd 716/247-8060

    Boundaries Gym

  • Deirna,Robert
  • 687 Titus Ave 716/544-2400

    Empire Fitness

  • Turner,Dave
  • 630 Ridge Rd W 716/621-4800

    Gold'S Gym

  • Levine,David
  • 1440 Ridge Rd E 716/467-4653

    Rockaway NJ

    Lusardi'S Health & Training

  • 4 1/2 Wall St 201/627-3121

    Pro Fitness Ctr Of America

  • Czipo,Ellen
  • 350 Us Highway 46 201/627-9156

    Rockland MA

    Fitness Plus

  • Collins,Joan
  • 388 Vfw Pky 617/871-1749

    Rocklin CA

    Holland Pro Gym & Fitness

  • Lauwers,Arie
  • 5905 Pacific St 916/624-0390

    Rocklin Fitness & Aerobics

  • Smeltzer,Steve
  • 5050 Rocklin Rd 916/632-3488

    Rockville MD

    Marvatots & Teens Gymnastics

  • Anderson,Gary
  • 5636 Randolph Rd 301/468-9181

    Rhythm Flex Private Club Inc

  • 14710 Southlawn Ln 301/762-0286

    Rohnert Park CA

    Sonoma County Martial Arts Ctr

  • Cody,Herb
  • 5675 Redwood Dr 707/584-3812

    Rolling Hl Ests CA

    Peninsula Karate Club

  • 722 Deep Valley Dr 310/377-9923

    S San Francisco CA

    Weight City Gym

  • Swartzell,Tom
  • 387 Grand Ave 415/583-8648

    Sacramento CA

    Body Mechanix

  • Larrick,Don
  • 3419 Arden Way 916/483-2639

    Capitol Boxing Gym

  • Guevara,Earnest
  • 3701 Stockton Blvd 916/457-7319

    Capitol City Health Club

  • Libbee,Cynthia
  • 1381 Florin Rd 916/427-5454

    Capitol City Health Club

  • Schroeter,Rob
  • 1895 Howe Ave 916/922-8374

    Cordova Fitness

  • Hidary,Marwan
  • 9555 Folsom Blvd 916/363-6584

    Ferreira'S Fitness Ctr

  • Ferreira,Tony
  • 1420 Del Paso Blvd 916/923-1593

    Iron Palace Gym

  • Fong,Craig A
  • 6235 Belleau Wood Ln 916/421-4950

    Moore'S Karate & Health Club

  • Bottimore,Garry
  • 4300 Stockton Blvd 916/452-3310

    Salem MA

    Salem Martial Arts Ctr

  • Hernando,Ben
  • 1 E India Sq 508/745-9767

    Salinas CA

    Gym Inc

  • Garaibay,Greg
  • 925 S Main St 408/757-4967

    Salisbury MD

    Delmarva Gymnastic Academy

  • Bateman & Wayne Sts 410/742-2053

    San Anselmo CA

    Joli Visage At Elan Fitness

  • Brown,Joyce
  • 230 Greenfield Ave 415/485-1945

    Marin Weightlifting Ctr

  • 1327 Sir Francis Drake Blvd 415/453-8851

    San Antonio TX

    Bally'S President'S First Lady

  • Gonzalez,Gary
  • 5819 Nw Loop 410 210/647-9600

    Bally'S President'S First Lady

  • Stowitts,Mark
  • 12311 Nacogdoches Rd 210/646-6262

    Blessed Sacrament Catholic Chr

  • O'Donoghue,Jack
  • 600 Oblate Dr 210/824-7231

    Joe'S Gym

  • Castillo Jr,Joe
  • 1707 Fredericksburg Rd 210/736-5151

    Kim'S Academy Karate

  • 2034 Austin Hwy 210/653-2700

    Olympia Gymnastics

  • Goodhue,Greg
  • 6927 S Sunbelt Dr 210/826-4296

    Olympic Gym

  • Dickson,Bob
  • 8611 N New Braunfels Ave 210/829-5040

    Red'S Gym

  • Otero,Richard
  • 12000 Starcrest Dr # 108 210/490-8911

    San Fernando Gym

  • 319 W Travis St 210/223-6414

    Southwest Karate Institute

  • Singleton,Stan
  • 16075 Henderson Pass 210/496-5425

    St Martin Hall Gym

  • 526 Sw 24Th St 210/431-7837

    World Gym Licensing

  • Johnson,Kay
  • 4600 Nw Loop 410 # 110 210/735-7666

    Zarzamora Street Gym

  • 1402 N Zarzamora St 210/735-9018

    San Bernardino CA

    Family Fitness Ctr

  • Silvester,Henry
  • 295 E Caroline St 909/370-1111

    San Bruno CA

    Body Power

  • Rodriguez,Cathy
  • 444 San Mateo Ave 415/873-2727

    San Carlos CA

    World Gym Licensing

  • Fremy,Eric
  • 1119 Industrial Rd # 2 415/595-2707

    San Clemente CA

    Galaxy Fitness

  • Murray,Sean
  • 123 S El Camino Real (714)361-1007

    San Diego CA

    American Kenpo Karate

  • Mc Elhinney,Todd
  • 3030 El Cajon Blvd 619/283-6596

    Bally'S Holiday Fitness Ctr

  • Graydon,Gary
  • 405 Camino Del Rio S 619/297-6062

    Bodybuilders

  • Lopez,Ross
  • 3647 India St 619/299-2639

    Downtown Ymca

  • Schmelzer,Jeanne
  • 500 W Broadway # B 619/232-7451

    Family Fitnees Ctr

  • Silvas,David
  • 7620 Balboa Ave 619/292-7079

    Family Fitness Ctr

  • Chemaly,Robert
  • 4405 La Jolla Village Dr 619/457-3930

    Family Fitness Ctr

  • Sanchez,Danny
  • 3675 Midway Dr 619/224-2902

    Family Fitness Ctr

  • Silvas,David
  • 7620 Balboa Ave Attn: Juice Bar -Kim 619/292-7079

    Gold'S Gym

  • Stephenson,Rick
  • 2949 Garnet Ave 619/272-3400

    Gymnasticenter Of San Diego

  • Ward,Corinna
  • 7698 Miramar Rd 619/586-0655

    Irish Spud Murphy'S Boxing Gym

  • Murphy,William
  • 1059 14Th St 619/234-8770

    Mission Valley Health Club

  • Davis,Toni
  • 875 Hotel Cir S 619/298-9321

    Powerhouse Gym Of Poway

  • Redden,Shelton
  • 12640 Sabre Springs Pky 619/486-5790

    San Diego Taekwon-Do Ctr

  • 8898 Clairemont Mesa Blvd 619/279-7770

    Sporting Club At Aventine

  • Datte,Steve
  • 8930 University Center Ln 619/552-8000

    Stern'S Gym

  • Mauricio,Tony
  • 3831 Granada Ave 619/574-9340

    Tang Soo Do Karate Institute

  • Dercole,Larry
  • 9545 Kearny Villa Rd # 104 619/578-8288

    U S Taekwondo Ctr

  • Silz,Steve
  • 4411 Mercury St # 204 619/277-2700

    Ymca

  • Berry,Janis
  • 151 N 45Th St 619/264-0144

    Ymca

  • Webster,Dick
  • 5485 Gaines St 619/296-8411

    Ymca Mission Valley

  • Webster,Dick
  • 5505 Friars Rd 619/298-3576

    San Francisco CA

    24 Hour Nautilus Fitness Ctr

  • Thilgen,Rich
  • 1335 Sutter St 415/776-2200

    25Th Street Work-Out

  • Colunga,Russell
  • 1500 Castro St 415/647-1224

    Alex'S Gym

  • Laguillo,Alex
  • 49 Ocean Ave 415/239-9340

    Bert'S Conditioning Clinic

  • Simpson,
  • 609 Sutter St (415)885-2918

    Bert'S Conditioning Clinic

  • Valinoti,Thomas
  • 609 Sutter St 415/885-2918

    Charlie Mallon'S Physical

  • Mallon,Charlie
  • 256 Sutter St 415/397-4873

    Cole Valley Health & Fitness

  • Doza,Betty
  • 957 Cole St 415/665-3330

    Gold'S Gym

  • Howard,Louise
  • 501 2Nd St 415/777-4653

    Gold'S Gym

  • Szabo,Alex
  • 333 Valencia St 415/626-8865

    Marina Club

  • Reed,Richard
  • 3333 Fillmore St 415/563-3333

    Mega Flex Gym & Fitness Ctr

  • Mc Gibben,Mike
  • 3119 Vicente St 415/753-5177

    Navarro'S Kenpo Karate

  • Navarro,Carlos
  • 3470 Mission St 415/550-1694

    Ndv Gym

  • Tsokas,Demetrius
  • 659 Pine St 415/398-9986

    Newman'S Gym

  • Stewart,Don
  • 142 Leavenworth St 415/775-7020

    Pinnacle Fitness

  • Campbell,Gene
  • 135 Post St Fl 5 415/781-7343

    Powerhouse Gym-San Francisco

  • Sanchez,Noel
  • 1850 Ocean Ave 415/334-1400

    Sports Palace

  • Schmitz,Jim
  • 828 Valencia St 415/550-9216

    Tanning At The Muscle System

  • Landy,Bob
  • 2275 Market St 415/863-4700

    Tanning At The Muscle System

  • Landy,Bob
  • 364 Hayes St 415/863-4701

    Terry Photo

  • Po Box 31241 415/285-3838

    Women'S Training Ctr

  • Doza,B
  • 2164 Market St 415/864-6835

    World Gym Licensing

  • Ireland,Kirk
  • 1247 9Th Ave 415/564-4343

    Ymca

  • 333 Eucalyptus Dr 415/759-9622

    Ymca

  • Chong,Peter
  • 855 Sacramento St 415/982-4412

    Ymca

  • Cook,Linda
  • 220 Golden Gate Ave 415/885-0460

    Ymca

  • Markus,Bill
  • 44 Montgomery St # 770 415/391-9622

    Ymca

  • Palmer,Emanuel
  • 1530 Buchanan St 415/931-9622

    San Franciscox CA

    Bert'S Conditioning Clinicx

  • Simpson,x
  • 609 Sutter Stx x (415)885-2918
  • x

    San Gabriel CA

    Gold'S Gym

  • Greenberg,Lou
  • 267 S San Gabriel Blvd 818/287-3679

    San Jose CA

    All Japan Karate Federation

  • Wada,Isao
  • 141 Jackson St 510/233-7227

    Garden City Boxing Club

  • De Vaughn,Eddy
  • 415 E Hedding St 408/279-9757

    Gold'S Gym

  • Mc Call,Jerry
  • 600 Meridian Ave 408/279-6441

    Royal Courts Athletic Club

  • Romona,Jeff
  • 400 Saratoga Ave 408/296-1676

    Star Boxing Gym

  • Saravia,Lalo
  • 3076 Alum Rock Ave 408/923-9737

    World Gym Licensing

  • Balena,Gordon
  • 1430 Tully Rd # 402 408/298-0600

    Ymca

  • Hermanson,Robb
  • 1717 The Alameda 408/298-1717

    San Leandro CA

    24 Hour Nautilus Fitness Ctr

  • Boren,Todd
  • 15071 E 14Th St 510/278-9744

    San Luis Obispo CA

    Calendar Girl Health Club

  • Gale,Julie
  • 956 Foothill Blvd # B 805/543-3465

    Estrada'S Gym

  • Estrada,Gene
  • 261 Pismo St 805/544-1879

    Kennedy Nautilus Ctr

  • 879 Morro St 805/781-3488

    Maloney'S Gold'S Gym

  • Foubert,Dan
  • 3546 S Higuera St 805/541-5180

    San Marcos CA

    Free'S Gym

  • Free,Joe
  • 1530 Linda Vista Dr 619/727-0016

    Gold'S Gym

  • Jackson,George
  • 2055 Montiel Rd 619/738-2008

    Jim'S Gym & Racquet Courts

  • Newhaus,Jim
  • W Mccarty Ln 512/353-0789

    San Marcos Athletic Club

  • Warren,Bobby
  • 126 S L B J Dr 512/392-0098

    San Mateo CA

    International Self Defense

  • 98 42Nd Ave 415/349-8631

    Ymca

  • Salazar,Beth
  • 1877 S Grant St 415/286-9622

    San Pablo CA

    24 Hour Nautilus

  • Reynolds,Dan
  • 100 San Pablo Towne Ctr 510/234-3300

    San Pedro CA

    Fitness Formula

  • Moore,Jeff
  • 1891 N Gaffey St # P 310/831-5799

    San Rafael CA

    East-West Karate School

  • Slater,Raymond
  • 1414 4Th St 415/456-2490

    Gymmarin Pacific

  • 72 Woodland Ave 415/453-5411

    Moana & The Diamonds

  • Diamond,Moana
  • 734 A St 415/457-8944

    Proctor'S Fitness & Weight Ctr

  • Proctor,Betty
  • 2400 Las Gallinas Ave # 115 415/492-1664

    Santa Ana CA

    Iron Bodies Gym

  • Rodriguez,Joe
  • 2931 S Main St # E 714/546-6995

    Japan Karate-Do Shito-Ryu-Kai

  • Demura,Fumio
  • 1429 N Bristol St 714/543-5550

    Sequoia Athletic Clubs-World

  • Marquette,Doug
  • 1901 E 1St St 714/972-2999

    Santa Barbara CA

    Jang'S Karate Ctr

  • 517 De La Vina St 805/962-6456

    Nautilus Of Santa Barbara

  • Chapman,Tony
  • 2285 Las Positas Rd 805/687-8229

    Santa Clara CA

    California Gym

  • Cucchiara,Chris
  • 2340 Walsh Ave # C 408/727-8206

    Decathlon Club

  • Paris,Maria
  • 3250 Central Expy 408/738-8743

    Gold'S Gym

  • Mc Call,Jerry
  • 1900 Duane Ave 408/988-4494

    Mc Call Gym Group Inc

  • Mc Call,Jerry
  • 1900 Duane Ave # 1 408/562-0190

    Santa Clara Pal Boxing Gym

  • Rogers,Angelo
  • Agnews State Hosp W Bldg 17 408/727-8118

    Santa Clarita CA

    Gold'S Gym

  • Germek,Mary Ann
  • 21021 Soledad Canyon Rd # 402 805/254-7900

    Kinder Gym

  • 27737 Bouquet Canyon Rd 805/296-5300

    Santa Cruz CA

    Gold'S Gym-Santa Cruz

  • 620 Water St 408/425-4653

    Santa Cruz Health Club

  • Swedlund,Jeff
  • 1212 17Th Ave 408/462-2544

    World Gym Licensing

  • Draper,Dave
  • 120 Dubois St 408/423-5617

    Santa Monica CA

    Powerhouse Gym

  • 1233 3Rd St Promenade 310/395-4441

    Santa Paula CA

    Great American Nautilus Gym

  • Salas,Sam
  • 122 S Mill St 805/525-7609

    Shape Shop

  • 711 E Santa Barbara St 805/525-0990

    Santa Rosa CA

    Bennett'S East End Gym

  • Bennett,Stan
  • 4251 Montgomery Dr 707/538-3995

    Gold'S Gym

  • Absalom,Jane
  • 3033 Coffey Ln 707/578-8389

    Shapemakers Spa

  • Willis,Merv
  • 3345 Santa Rosa Ave 707/579-9500

    Santee CA

    Jeong'S Blackbelt Academy

  • Jeong,Chang
  • 10769 Woodside Ave 619/449-7788

    Saugus CA

    Female Fitness

  • Germek,Debbie
  • 26111 Bouquet Canyon Rd # D3 (805)253-0868

    Sausalito CA

    Nautilus Of Marin

  • Neill,Terry
  • 3020 Bridgeway 415/331-3020

    Scotts Valley CA

    Dave Draper'S World Gym

  • Draper,Laree
  • 5900 Butler Ln 408/439-9695

    Scotts Valley Fitness Club

  • Estrella,Mike
  • 59 Mount Hermon Rd 408/438-6778

    Seaside CA

    Body Line Fitness

  • Rodriquez,Pete
  • 1173 Broadway Ave 408/394-6090

    Seekonk MA

    Bay State Racquet Club

  • Oliveira,Mark
  • 1314 Fall River Ave 508/336-6565

    Selma CA

    World Fitness

  • 2110 Whitson St 209/896-6875

    Sewell NJ

    Gold'S Gym

  • Iacovone,Dan
  • Salina Rd & Delsea Dr 609/589-5126

    Iron City Gym

  • Tierno,William
  • Cross Keys Plz 609/582-5844

    Sherman Oaks CA

    Aerobics & Fitness Assn

  • Pfeffer,Linda
  • 15250 Ventura Blvd #200 (818)905-0040

    Gymboree

  • Becker,Don
  • 14252 Ventura Blvd 818/905-6225

    Shrewsbury NJ

    Shrewsbury Gymnastic School

  • Obre,S
  • 455 Broad St 908/747-0070

    Silver Spring MD

    Olympus Gym Inc

  • Griffith,Robert
  • 8520 16Th St 301/608-2255

    World Gym Licensing

  • Heon,Pete
  • 11160 Veirs Mill Rd 301/949-8000

    Simi Valley CA

    California Sun Gymnastics

  • Luce,Steve
  • 480 E Easy St 805/584-8586

    Gold'S Gym

  • Mackel,Ted
  • 2975 Cochran St 805/522-9100

    Imagymnation Gymnastics Ctr

  • 4685 Industrial St # 3G 805/581-4496

    Oakridge Athletic Club

  • Meek,Ronald
  • 2655 Erringer Rd 805/522-5454

    Solana Beach CA

    Coast Health Studios

  • Stagg,Russ
  • 261 N Highway 101 619/755-9993

    Somers Point NJ

    Diane'S Totspot

  • Leitch,Diane
  • 321 Shore Rd 609/653-6760

    Eastern Athletic Club

  • Monaghan,Maureen
  • New Hampshire & 7Th St 609/926-1515

    Gold'S Gym

  • Jernee,Gary
  • 1201 Atkinson Ave 609/653-1284

    Somerset MA

    Golds Gym-Sports Plus

  • Thurston,Al
  • 732 Lees River Ave 508/676-3956

    Somerville MA

    Somerville Boxing Club

  • 181 Washington St 617/623-9689

    World Gym & Fitness Ctr

  • Catino,Patrick
  • 16 Sturtevant St 617/628-4272

    South Gate CA

    Gym N Swim For Men

  • Howell,Bill
  • 4500 Firestone Blvd 213/564-5218

    Gym-N-Swim

  • Claussen,Vera
  • 4654 Firestone Blvd 213/567-9116

    South Houston TX

    Bally'S President'S First Lady

  • Korowski,Alex
  • 1418 Spencer Hwy 713/941-3584

    South Orange NJ

    A Family Health & Fitness Ctr

  • Wollman,Noel
  • 111 S Orange Ave 201/762-6941

    Spring Valley CA

    Fisher'S

  • Fisher,Gene
  • 8622 Troy St 619/464-9010

    Fitness Advantage

  • Pickett,Teri
  • 9679 Campo Rd 619/460-4560

    Springfield MA

    Big Daddy'S Gym

  • Britt,Nancy
  • 430 Dickinson St 413/734-9522

    St Albans VT

    Fitness Connection Inc

  • Werner,Linda
  • 18 N Main St 802/527-1234

    Stamford CT

    Arena Gymnastics School

  • Polizzano,Joe
  • 911 Hope St 203/357-8166

    Player'S Gold'S Gym & Athletic

  • 106 Commerce Rd 203/323-6611

    Stanton CA

    Steve Spry Karate Institute

  • Spry,Steve
  • 10356 Beach Blvd 714/826-6560

    State College PA

    Nittany Gymnastics & Dance

  • Rizzuto,Michael D
  • 2300 Commercial Blvd 814/238-8995

    Stephenville TX

    Stephenville Fitness Ctr Inc

  • Lohrmann,Tim
  • 2029 W Washington St 817/968-7546

    Stockton CA

    Lescisin Gymnastic Academy

  • Lescisin,Barbara
  • 7404 Murray Dr 209/477-8978

    Marchini Renbukai Usa

  • Marchini,Ron
  • 7555 Pacific Ave 209/478-0371

    Studio City CA

    Nautilus Plus

  • Jones,Prince
  • 11315 Ventura Blvd 818/760-7800

    Vince'S Gym

  • Gironda,Guy
  • 11262 Ventura Blvd 818/980-0410

    Sugar Land TX

    Champions Gym

  • Harrison,James
  • 3532 Highway 6 713/980-9877

    Sun Valley CA

    Slammers Wrestling Gym

  • Langdon,Verne
  • 12165 Branford St 818/897-6603

    Sunbury PA

    Susquehanna Valley Gym Starz

  • Campbell,Beth
  • 613 Market St 717/286-1237

    Sunland CA

    Foothill Fitness

  • Mertz,Ted
  • 7861 Foothill Blvd 818/352-0534

    Sutter Creek CA

    Amador Gym

  • Leutholtz,Bruce
  • Lincoln Ave & Highway 49 (209)267-0008

    Sylmar CA

    Gold'S Gym

  • Giardina,Frank
  • 13740 Foothill Blvd 818/367-4653

    Taftville CT

    Muscle Factory

  • Carrignan,Robert
  • 117 Providence St 203/886-8174

    Tahoe City CA

    Headwall Cafe & Climbing Wall

  • Trilezsky,Annette
  • Po Box 6145 916/583-7673

    Ironworks

  • Curletto,Pam
  • 950 N Lake Blvd 916/583-1221

    Taylor TX

    St Mary'S Gymnasium

  • Mazoch,Alice
  • 409 Elliott St 512/352-9103

    Tenaha TX

    First Baptist Church

  • Guthrie,Raymond
  • Po Box 97 409/248-3206

    Thousand Oaks CA

    Body Focus Inc

  • Zittell,Art
  • 77 Rolling Oaks Dr # 103 (805)496-1834

    My Gym Childrens Fitness Ctr

  • Sherman,Yacov
  • 2701 E Thousand Oaks Blvd 805/494-4154

    So Fit Woman

  • Teague,Cathie
  • 280 N Moorpark Rd 805/379-2388

    Thousand Oaks Racquet Club

  • Jonassen,Jan
  • 645 Tuolumne Ave 805/495-0437

    Timonium MD

    Padonia Fitness Ctr

  • Brick,Victor
  • 212 W Padonia Rd 410/252-5280

    Tomball TX

    Sparton Gym

  • Mann,David
  • 104 Commerce St 713/351-0370

    Toms River NJ

    Ocean Gymnastics Academy

  • 1200 Fischer Blvd 908/270-4500

    Toms River Boxing Academy Inc

  • 1184 Fischer Blvd 908/270-5359

    Torrance CA

    South Bay Gym For Children

  • 4172 Pacific Coast Hwy 310/378-1988

    Totowa NJ

    Basic Fitness

  • Browning,Glenn
  • 159 Union Blvd 201/942-0199

    Trenton NJ

    Man'S World Gym

  • Dodd,Joe
  • 1030 Brunswick Ave 609/695-8721

    Truckee CA

    High Sierra Fitness Ctr

  • Davis,Mike
  • 12219 Business Park Dr 916/587-0184

    Tuckerton NJ

    Mystic Nautilus & Fitness Ctr

  • Grippen,Dennis
  • 200 Mathistown Rd 609/296-6596

    Tujunga CA

    Global Gym

  • Dehlavi,Kamran
  • 6656 Foothill Blvd 818/951-5222

    Turnersville NJ

    Yi'S Karate Institute Inc

  • Kim,Chom
  • 344 Greentree Rd 609/582-0200

    Tyler TX

    Reuland'S Gym

  • Reuland,John
  • 1700 S Southeast Loop 323 903/566-8933

    Woodcreek Athletic Club

  • Junghans,Amelia
  • 6110 S Broadway Ave 903/561-6800

    Unionville CT

    World Gym & Aerobics Ctr

  • Regina,Lou
  • 45 S Main St 203/675-8181

    Upper Darby PA

    Rollie Massimino'S Workout St

  • Massimino,Andrew
  • 7050 Terminal Sq 610/734-1400

    Vallejo CA

    Glen Cove Gym

  • 100 Robles Way 707/645-7277

    Olympic Health Club

  • Brinson,Dennis
  • 939 Tennessee St 707/643-6887

    West Wind Karate School

  • 909 Tennessee St 707/643-0151

    World Gym Licensing

  • Talmadge,Joseph
  • 765 Sereno Dr 707/552-3100

    Van Nuys CA

    Gymnastics Olympica Usa

  • Reiter,Fritz
  • 7735 Haskell Ave 818/785-1537

    Junior Gym

  • Lyons,Al
  • 14720 Oxnard St 818/785-2177

    Ten Goose Boxing

  • 6320 Van Nuys Blvd 818/780-8797

    World Gym & Aerobics Ctr

  • De Simone,Don
  • 7030 Hayvenhurst Ave 818/988-5500

    Ventnor City NJ

    Powder World Usa

  • Carlucci,Van
  • 137 N Oxford Ave 609/823-3533

    Ventura CA

    Gold'S Gym

  • Dunn,Darryl
  • 5120 Ralston St 805/644-4653

    Gym

  • Mackey,Dan
  • 2498 E Main St 805/648-7153

    Ventura Athletic Club

  • Bookwalter,John
  • 5353 Walker St 805/644-9561

    Westpark Recreation Ctr

  • Payan,Roserta
  • 450 W Harrison Ave 805/648-1895

    Victorville CA

    Family Fitness Ctr

  • 16200 Bear Valley Rd 619/955-2200

    Gold'S Gym

  • Hardt,Patsy
  • 13785 Park Ave 619/243-4653

    Visalia CA

    Gold'S Gym Fitness & Aerobic

  • 3515 S Mooney Blvd 209/732-3600

    Sequoia Athletic Club

  • Newton,Mike
  • 3254 S Mooney Blvd 209/627-1446

    Valley'S Gym

  • Clagg,Tim
  • 901 E Main St 209/636-9388

    Vista CA

    Vista Courthouse Fitness Ctr

  • Knapp,Dwain
  • 1010 S Santa Fe Ave 619/724-6941

    Vista Fitness

  • Bowen,P J
  • 1334 N Melrose Dr 619/941-0802

    Voorhees NJ

    Bally'S Holiday Fitness Ctr

  • Delaney,Kevin
  • 1160 White Horse Rd 609/346-4700

    Waimea HI

    Waimea High School

  • Kitabayashi,Gary
  • 9707 Tsuchiwa Rd 808/338-1011

    Waipahu HI

    Hawaiian Iron

  • Bell,Richard
  • 94-806 Moloalo St 808/677-9665

    Wakefield MA

    Olympia Nautilus & Fitness Ctr

  • Orantti,Joe
  • 465 Main St 617/245-9831

    Waldorf MD

    Olympus Gym Of Waldorf Inc

  • Case,Steve
  • 402 Washington Sq 301/645-8717

    Wallingford CT

    Nautilus Health & Fitness

  • Parsells,Beth
  • 121 N Plains Industrial Rd # B 203/284-9700

    Walnut CA

    Scats Gymnastics

  • Smith,Glenda
  • 713 Brea Canyon Rd 909/594-9393

    Walnut Creek CA

    24 Hour Nautilus

  • Schwartz,Brad
  • 2033 N Main St # 110 510/930-7900

    Body Beautiful Women'S Fitness

  • Schar,Marie
  • 2885 Ygnacio Valley Rd (510)945-7767

    Encore Gymnastics

  • Dasso,Tamara
  • 999 Bancroft Rd 510/932-1033

    Gold'S Gym

  • O'Brien,Steve
  • 1853 Ygnacio Valley Rd 510/935-1132

    World Gym & Aerobics Ctr

  • Lupoi,John
  • 2150 N Broadway 510/933-9988

    Waltham MA

    World Gym Licensing

  • Rizzo,Joe
  • 108 Clematis Ave # K 617/891-6002

    Warminster PA

    Southampton Gymnastics Club

  • Ide,Carol
  • 36 Vincent Cir # D 215/675-9092

    Washington NJ

    Gibson'S Gym

  • Gibson,Bill
  • 75 E Washington Ave # A 908/689-9733

    Waterbury CT

    Gold'S Gym & Aerobic Ctr

  • Heidorn,Sharon
  • 190 Chase Ave 203/573-9808

    Russ'S Gym

  • Scheeler,Russ
  • 1806 E Main St 203/574-5458

    Watertown MA

    American Combat Karate Academy

  • 40 Belmont St 617/923-3522

    Mount Auburn Club

  • Crowley,Paul
  • 57 Coolidge Ave 617/923-2255

    Step Above Aerobics

  • 23 Main St 617/923-8992

    Weaverville CA

    T J'S Mountain Gym

  • Johnson,Tom
  • Nugget Ln 916/623-2005

    Webster TX

    Bally'S President'S First Lady

  • Logan,Craig
  • 20761 Gulf Fwy 713/332-8746

    West Chester PA

    Mc Dermott'S Athletic Club

  • Mc Dermott,Charles
  • 10 W Barnard St 610/436-4231

    West Covina CA

    Body Language

  • 134 N Grand Ave 818/332-1232

    Pak'S Tae Kwon Do Academy

  • Pak,Chong
  • 400 N Azusa Ave 818/332-6044

    West Haven CT

    Powerhouse Gym

  • Thomas,Larry
  • 315 York St 203/932-3802

    West Hills CA

    Family Fitness Ctr

  • Katz,Jeff
  • 6429 Fallbrook Ave 818/887-2582

    West New York NJ

    Unlimited Fitness Ctr

  • Macias,Esteban
  • 630 61St St 201/854-9553

    West Orange NJ

    Phase Iii Fitness Inc

  • Leighton,Greg
  • 177 Main St 201/736-6538

    West Paterson NJ

    Eastern Physique

  • Grambone,Nick
  • 86 Lackawanna Ave 201/890-1287

    West Roxbury MA

    Charles River Gymnstcs Acdmy

  • Riley,Jane
  • 225 Rivermoor St 617/469-4911

    West Springfield MA

    Usa Super Fitness

  • Saimeri,Dan
  • 125 Capital Dr 413/736-9545

    Westminster CA

    Westminster Boxing Club

  • 14042 Locust St 714/893-9051

    Westwood NJ

    Nautilus Conditioning Ctr

  • Walsky,Harold
  • 346 Kinderkamack Rd 201/664-2100

    Wheaton MD

    Ritz World Gym & Fitness Ctr

  • Miller,John
  • 12210 Georgia Ave 301/949-4653

    Wheaton Mar Va Tots & Teens

  • Hill,Kelli
  • 2723 University Blvd W 301/942-0088

    White Oak PA

    Hardbodies Inc

  • Onder,Jack
  • 1605 Lincoln Way Rear 412/678-2639

    Whittier CA

    Family Fitness Ctr

  • Berliner,Allen
  • 15600 E La Forge 310/943-3771

    Uptown Gym

  • Gill,Dick
  • 12912 Philadelphia St 310/698-5196

    Wildwood NJ

    Atilis Fitness Ctr

  • Wuko,Mike
  • 3015 Pacific Ave 609/729-2050

    Wilkes Barre PA

    Ebert'S Health & Fitness

  • Ebert,Joe
  • 117 New Frederick St 717/825-8481

    Williamstown NJ

    Maldonato'S Iron Wolverine'S

  • Maldonato,Phil
  • 604 S Black Horse Pike 609/728-0606

    Willits CA

    Willits Fitness World

  • French,Kathy
  • 1431 S Main St 707/459-6172

    Winnsboro TX

    Tnt Gym

  • Munn,Teresa
  • 501 E Broadway St 903/342-6390

    Winthrop MA

    Winthrop Boxing Club

  • 312 Shirley St 617/539-3332

    Woodbury NJ

    Sta-Fit Health Spa

  • Hill,George
  • 113 S Broad St 609/853-8300

    Woodbury Heights NJ

    K Y Yi'S Karate Institute

  • Ki,Yun Ki
  • 560 S Evergreen Ave 609/848-2333

    Worcester MA

    Bally'S Holiday Fitness Ctr

  • Prevoir,Phil
  • 535 Lincoln Plz 508/854-2100

    Bay State Gym

  • Massucco,David
  • 75 Webster St 508/755-9347

    Downtown Athletic Club

  • Martin,Dean
  • 22 Front St 508/798-9703

    Gymboree

  • 30 Westdale St 508/752-1114

    Yorba Linda CA

    Family Fitness Ctr

  • 18200 Yorba Linda Blvd 714/524-0500


  • JUDO The first known meeting of Kodokan judo and any American occurred in 1879, when President U.S Grant was in Japan on a state visit and observed a demonstration of judo techniques by 19-year-old Jigoro Kano. The official date given for the start of kodokan judo is 1882, and most likely Kano did not explain his Kodokan Judo then but may have lectured on his study of jujutsu. In any case, President Grant was exposed to the judo master at a very fertile and productive period in pre-Kodokan judo's history.

    The next contact came in 1889, when Kano lectured on the educational values of judo before a group of foreign dignitaries. There were several Americans present but this contact had no discernible result.

    The first American to study seriously at the Kodokan was Prof. Ladd from Yale University. Ladd came to the Kodokan sometime during 1889, ten years after Kano's demonstration for President Grant. Ladd studied nage (throwing), katame (mat work), atemi-waza (striking techniques), and koshiki-no-kata (self-defense forms). By 1908, the Kodokan had a total of 13 American members studying in Japan. During 1919 Prof. John Dewey of Columbia University went to the Kodokan to observe a demonstration. Dewey discussed Kodokan judo with Kano and may have been instrumental in the beginning of a pioneering judo program at Columbia University.

    Yoshiaki Yamashita, then 6th dan, was the first person to teach judo in the U.S. He arrived in 1902 at the invitation of Mr. Graham Hill, director of the Great Northern Railroad. Hill contacted a Mr. Fujiya, who contacted Mr. Shibata, who was a student of Prof. Yamashita, concerning Yamashita's coming to the U.S. to teach his children judo. After Yamashita arrived, the Hill family decided that judo was much too dangerous for their children.

    Mr. Hill arranged for judo demonstrations in New York and Chicago. Healso tried to arrange for Harvard University to hire Yamashita as a judo teacher.

    At the same time, Sen. Lee's wife and Mrs. Wadsworth started taking judo lessons from Yamashita. They had the sixth floor of a building covered with tatami mats. The women mostly practiced nage-no-kata. These few women started the first judo class in the country. A men's judo group made up from various embassies in the area appeared. Thus judo traveled in prominent circles in its embryonic stage in America.

    For lack of wider participation this judo mission died out with Yamashita's return to Japan in 1907. Mrs. Wadsworth was a fine horsewoman and went to the same country club as did President Theodore Roosevelt. She mentioned to the president that Yamashita was teaching judo and that Roosevelt might be interested in the art. Yamashita was subsequently invited to Washington to give a demonstration at the White House. There was a contest with a wrestler by the name of John Graft, who was the coach at the U.S. Naval Academy and who was teaching President Roosevelt wrestling. Although Yamashita threw him time after time, Graft continued to get up. Finally, Yamashita decided that he would do mat work with Graft, since there seemed to be no end to the match. In the mat work, Yamashita got an arm lock on Graft, but the wrestler would not give up. Yamashita kept up the pressure until Graft groaned as his arm came close to breaking. President Roosevelt was impressed and took judo lessons. After leaving office, he kept mats in his home. Roosevelt studied judo for about a year, earning a brown belt in the process. Through the help of the president, Yamashita taught judo at the Naval academy. In 1935, Yamashita was promoted to 10th dan, the first person to hold that rank. He died later that year.

    Pacific Northwest In 1903, one year after Yamashita's arrival in America, Shumeshiro Tomita journeyed to the U.S. He was the first person to sign the rolls of the Kodokan; he was instrumental in establishing judo in the U.S. as well as in Japan. Tomita stayed in the U.S. for seven years and taught judo at Princeton and Columbia Universities. After the arrival of Tomita and Yamashita, many judo instructors came to America. Among the very first were Miada Kousen, Sataki Nobushitam, and Ito Takugoro. Judo in the U.S. f irst flourished on the West Coast because of its large Japanese population.

    Judo in the Pacific Northwest dates back to the beginning of the century, when judo was practiced in small, scattered clubs. The first dojo was opened in the Seattle area by a judoka named Kano in 1903, but this club closed after only a few months. Prof. Takugoro Ito, then 4th dan, arrived in America in 1907 and opened the Seattle Dojo.

    Ito, like many other early judoka, was a wrestler. He held challenge matches, in which he was unbeatable. After several years he left the Seattle area, traveling to South America. Eisei Media, Akitoro Ono, Satake, and Matsuura traveled with him, touring South America as professional wrestlers, and returned to San Francisco in 1914. (Eisei Media stayed in Brazil and the Brazillian government gave him a quarter-million acres near the Amazon for his wrestling feats.)

    In the 1920s, there were two dojos in the state of Washington, the Seattle Dojo and the Tacoma Dojo, operated mainly by yudansha of the respective communities, businessmen, farmers, and laborers. Yoshida sensei of Tacoma, then 3rd dan, was the best judo player. He was employed as a laborer in a sawmill. The other black belts were 1st and 2nd dans. Factions within the Seattle Dojo had difficulty working together. It is not known what the exact problem was but, around 1930, some members of the Seattle Dojo withdrew and formed their own Tentokukan Dojo. Each club hired teachers from Japan. Among the Seattle Dojo's teachers in the 1920s and early 1930s were senseis: Miyazawa, Shibata, Kaimon Kudo, and Suzuki.

    Before World War II, three main styles of judo were prominent in North America. The Budokan style and the Kodokan style predominated in the U.S. In Canada the Kito-ryu was strong, especially in Vancouver, B.C. The Seattle Judo Black Belt Association was organized around 1935 by Kumagai and Sakata senseis, tending to unite the two rival American factions. The two instructors were also responsible for organizing the bi-annual 24-man team contests with the Nanka (southern California) team. Southern California and the Northwest had the strongest judo groups at that time.

    After World War II, the Tentokukan Dojo was not re-activated because the former membership was spread around the country. This closed out a pioneering judo effort on the West Coast. The Seattle Dojo owned their building and were able to continue with practice after the war.

    The Washington team competed against the Vancouver B.C. team annually, against sailors from the visiting Japanese training ships, and occasionally with college teams from Japan. Eventually, nisei yudansha were hired when dojos were opened in Spokane, Yakima Valley, Eatonville, and cities in Oregon and Idaho. In the late 1930s, some dojos existed in the state of Washington, and each sponsored an annual tournament.

    Judo in the Tacoma, Washington, area was started by Prof. Iwakiri, who was born in Japan, and who came here in 1912. Iwakiri exhibited such skill that he received his 1st dan from Prof. Kano at the age of 13. The Fife-Tacoma Dojo was originally formed as the St. Regis Dojo and was located in the St. Regis lumberyard sawdust pit. (The dojo was later moved from the lumberyard to the corner of 17th and Market Streets). Prof. Kano made two trips to the Fife-Tacoma dojo, in 1932 and 1938, in recognition of its outstanding achievements. In 1932 he presented the dojo a scroll and in 1938 another was given to the yudanshakai. In the 1938 scroll Kano wrote "return to the source," and the ambiguity of his phrase still causes debate. Most opinion holds that the statement refers to Zen training.

    Rev. Yukawa was the first yudanshakai president and served the Fife-Tacoma, Washington area from 1924 to 1925. After Rev. Yukawa, Prof. Iwakiri served as president from 1940 to 1958.

    Before World War II, there were six dojos in the state of Oregon: Shudo-Kan Dojo, Obukan Dojo, Salem Judo Club, Milwaukee Dojo, G. T. Dojo, and the Shobukan Dojo. The Shobukan Dojo was the first, and was organized under Mits Nikata, then a 2nd dan. Prof. Kano visited the Portland area in 1932; during this visit he took the occasion to rename the Portland Dojo the Obukan Dojo. Some of the pioneering judo specialists in the Portland area were Mr. Nishizim ofthe Kito-ryu; Mr. Kobayashi of the Kito-ryu; Mr. Sakano Ichiro, 3rd dan from the Kodokan; Mr. Sazaki Ojiro,2nd den from the Kodokan; and Mr. Tomori, 2nd dan from the Kokodan.

    After World War II, Buddy Ikata gathered together some of the people who knew judo and got the Portland -Obukan Dojo going again. The Obukan was re-established in 1952. Rev. Homma, a Buddhist priest, started judo at the YMCA and the YWCA. The Guiki Dojo started practice again in the spring of 1953 under Mr. Kato and Mr. Hamado, both 2nd dans, and Rev. Homma and Nakata, 3rd dans. March 3,1960, was the 42nd anniversary of the Obukan Dojo.

    The Los Angeles Area The story of judo in southern California begins with Prof. Ito. Prof. Yamashita and Tomita were his contemporaries in American judo, but of the three only Ito made a lasting contribution to the development of American judo. Wherever Ito stayed, judo took hold and flourished. In 1915 he moved to Los Angeles and established the Rafu Dojo on the first floor of the Yamato Hall, near Jackson and San Pedro Streets. When Prof. Ito returned to Japan after seven years in Los Angeles, the Rafu Dojo continued under the management of Prof. Seigoro Murakami, Dr. Matsutaro Nittat and Ryuii Tatsuno .ln July 1917, there were still only two dojos in southern California.

    The Nanka Judo Yudanshakai was organized in 1928. In 1930, the Kodokan Nanka Judo Yudanshakai was formed and Yasutaro Matsuura, then 4th dan, was elected president. Still only eight dojos and fewer than twenty black belts existed in southern California.

    The Kodokan Nanka Judo Yudanshakai was reorganized at the direction of Prof. Jigoro Kano in 1932 while he was visiting the Los Angeles Olympic Games. The yudanshakai was renamed once more, this time the Hokubei Judo Yudanshakai or Southern California Judo Black Belt Association of North America; its presidency to devolve permanently upon the Los Angeles Consul General of Japan. A formal organization of judo occurred as a result of Prof. Kano's visit, and four yudanshakais, or judo black belt associations, were formed: Southern California, Northern California, Seattle, and Hawaii.

    When World War II started in Dec. 1941, there were twenty-six dojo in southern California, with 422 black belts and about 2,000 students. The black belts were distributed in the following manner: 6th dan-2; 5th dan-5; 4th dan-6; 3rd dan-42; 2nd dan-101; 1st dan-264; and 2 honorary black belts.

    During World War II, judo continued to flourish in relocation camps such as Manzanar, Heart Mountain, Post Gila River, and Rule Lake. Although all other judo clubs ceased operations during the war years, Seinan Dojo kept its doors open. Jack Sirgel, then a 2nd dan, the head instructor, visited the Manzanar Relocation Camp with his students to improve their judo techniques, even though the war was at its peak.

    San Diego As the last major port of entry for the Japanese on the west coast of the U.S., the pacific southwest failed to develop the large judo communities characteristic of northern cities.

    According to oral reports, the only judo club or judo activity in the San Diego area before World War II was begun in 1925, and continued for several years, upstairs in the Taiikuki Hall on 6th and Market Streets. The first instructor, Mikinishake Kawaushi, taught for several years; Mizuzaki Showa, 5th dan, taught for about one year before the organization ceased activities. The only other organized martial arts activity in the San Diego area before World War II was a kendo society located in the Buddhist temple at 29th and Market Streets. This organization ceased activities after outbreak of the war.

    Judo activity after World War II commenced in the San Diego area in April 1946 with the opening of classes in the city YMCA by Al C. Holtmann. From 1946-54 much prejudice against the Japanese existed. The promotion of judo in the San Diego area proved difficult during the early post-war years. In 1952, with hostility abating, the general public expressed an interest in Japanese goods, culture, arts, and sports. The San Diego Judo Club joined the Nanka Judo Yudanshakai (Los Angeles) in 1954, at the invitation of Mr. Kenneth Kuniyuki. Under Nanka's jurisdiction much assistance was given the San Diego area in the way of advice, promotions, and technical help. An open invitation to all of Nanka's tournaments was extended also to the San Diego judoka. The Sanshi Judo Club, located in Oceanside, in 1955, taught by Sachio Matsuhara, joined Nanka in 1955 In that year Benso Tsuji, now a 7th dan, became technical director for the San Diego Judo Club. As the highest graded black belt in the area, he brought his technical knowledge to bear on the teaching and promoting of Judo in the community.

    Western United States The earliest record of judo being taught in the Denver area is that of Dr. T. Ito. Ito had learned his judo in Hawaii and was teaching in the early 1930s. James Fukumitsu, who had studied judo in Japan, was in the area and teaching judo to put himself through college from 1937-40. Some of the other early area judoka were Bill Ohikuma, Don Tanabe, and Nob Ito.

    During World War II, judo activity ceased in the area. In 1944, George Kuramoto left the Amachi Relocation Center and with Fred Okimoto started judo classes in the local gymnasium, in the 20th Street Recreation Building, during 1950. During this time Toro Takematsu, 4th dan, had moved to the Denver area and notice an announcement in the Japanese community paper. Takematsu introduced himself to George Kuramoto and Fred Okimoto. Together, they purchased straw mats and started the original Denver Dojo, located between 19th and 20th Streets and Lawrence, the heart of the Japanese community. As the dojo developed, a larger building was rented and renovated.

    Hawaii During the era of Japanese immigration to Hawaii, in the late 1800s and the early 1900s, many Japanese immigrants trained in the art of Kodokan judo arrived. The first judo club in Hawaii, the Shunyo-Kan, was formed on March 17,1909, by Shigemi Teshima and Naomatsu Kaneshige. Consul-General Isami Shishido, 7th dan, joined the club in 1919 and served as chairman of the club's board of directors for many years.

    The Shobu Kan judo club was founded by Yajiro Kitayama, Nakajiro Mino, and others. Its first dojo site was the basement of the Ono Bakery on Beretania Street, followed by several locations in Honolulu, until it was moved to its present location on Kunawai Lane in the Liliha area.

    Other clubs were subsequently established, and in 1929, three of the major judo clubs, Shunyo Kan, Shobu Kan, and Hawaii Chuugakko (junior high school) initiated an effort to organize judo in the territory of Hawaii. The organization hoped to demonstrate a united effort to the community and to be recognized as an instrument through which the social and cultural significance of this martial art would be transmitted and perpetuated. Organized judo grew rapidly under the supervision of this body, the Hawaii Judo Kyokai. In 1925, the Kodokan issued the first certificates for black belts to judoka in Hawaii. In 1927, a judo seminar was conducted by a visiting Waseda University judo group, headed by Mr. Makino, 6th dan. By 1932, the Hawaii Judo Association had several active clubs, and received official recognition from Prof. Kano during one of his stopovers in Honolulu. The certificate of recognition, #76, issued by the Kodokan Judo Institute on November 15,1932, was the first such authorization granted to a yudanshakai outside of Japan.

    During 1954, the Judo Black Belt Federation started to establish local chapters, or yudanshakais. The Rocky Mountain Regional Black Belt Association was recognized as the local governing body.

    Intermountain Area The first, post-war judo club in the Salt Lake area was formed in 1950 by Frank Nishimura and George Akimoto. Hot Springs, Utah, had a judo club that was started in 1954 by Mr. Mimya and Mr. Okawa, both 1st dans. Their club was active for about three years. In 1955, Mr. lchi Isogi started judo in Corinne, Utah. It was later started up again under Mr. Yamasaki. In Ogden, Utah, judo was started in 1956 through the efforts of Mr. Masaichiro Manomoto, 4th, Ted Sakawa, 1st, Tom Kimomoto, 1st dan, and Mr. Yonetani, 1st dan.

    Frank Oryu, an old pioneer in the area, started the first Oregon dojo. An older 4th dan by the name of Muramoto, who also worked for Oryu, helped Oryu organize judo in 1949 and the Ontario Dojo was founded in 1950. The Ontario Dojo had a membership of about twenty black belts.

    According to a report from Mas Yamashita, judo in the Caldwell-Boise Valley area started about two years after judo in Ontario, Oregon. Judo experienced a strong growth and was doing well when the first tournament was held in 1952.

    Judo in Omaha began during the mid-1950s. Mike Meriweather taught at the YMCA and Dr. Ashida (at 22 one of the youngest 5th-degree black belts) taught at the University in Lincoln. Also, a number of black belts practiced judo at Offutt Air Force Base. Among the better known military judoka were Sgt. Mann, Augie Hauso, Phil Porter, Carl Flood, and La Verne Raab. The military people did not get involved in civilian judo until about 1958. Around 1960, Darrell Darling, Phil Porter, Paul Own, Wally Barber, who was director of the local YMCA, and Mike Manly met at Dr. Ashida's house and decided to form a yudanshakai.They framed a constitution and made contacts with the yudanshakai officers in Chicago and Denver to implement the project. In 1961 the yudanshakai, which covered the greater part of six states, was formed. The first president of the Midwest Judo Association was Dr. Ashida. The second was La Verne Raab. The third, Ike Wakadayashi, had a strong judo program established at Kansas University. The fourth president was Dr. Loren Braught. The fifth and sixth presidents were Bill Stites and Darrell Darling respectively.

    The first commercial judo school, the Omaha Judo Academy, was opened by La Verne Raab and Carl Flood after they left the military. Mel Bruno, who later became head of judo for SAC, taught judo at the Omaha YWCA and at the Omaha Athletic Club.

    Chicago Judo first arrived in the Chicago area in Sept. 1903, when Mr. Graham Hill arranged for a judo demonstration by Prof. Yamashita in the cities of New York and Chicago. According to Prof. Kotani, in 1916, Heita Okabe, 4th dan; Toshitaka Yamauchi, 4th dan; and Ken Kawabara, 4th dan were teaching judo while studying at the University of Chicago; this would be the earliest organized judo activity in the midwest.

    Mr. Harry Auspitz incorporated the first judo club in the Chicago area in 1938,the JiuJitsu Institute. Prior to 1939, judo was practiced sporadically by members of the Japanese Consulate and other interested individuals. The JuJitsu lnstitute became the first Kodokan Judo Club in Chicago, Whie Auspitz opened the dojo, the first instructor was Ralph Mori, who eventually opened his own judo club in 1941. Mori named his dojo the International Judo Club. Mr. Shozo Kuwashima came from New York in 1939 to teach at the institute; he later opened his own dojo. Also in 1941, Mr. Yasushi Tomonari came from New York to teach at the institute. During May of that year, Mr. Masato Tamura, then a 4th dan, came to Chicago from Fife, Washington, and also taught at the institute. With the illness of Mr. Auspitz in 1944, Mr. Tamura became the owner of the Jiu Jitsu Institute.

    The Chicago Judo Club was founded by Shozo Kuwashima in 1941. When Kuwashima moved to the West Coast, the Chicago Judo Club was taken over by John Osako and Ruth Gardner.

    After World WarII, judo in Chicago received numbers of Japanese who were relocating in the midwest section of the country. Vince Tamura came to Chicago and helped out at the Jiu Jitsu Institute. In 1944, Mr. Yoshitaro Sakai moved to the area, and Hiro Iwamoto arrived in 1945 as the relocation camps closed. Hank Okamura relocated close to the Lawson YMCA in 1946 and joined the "Y." Okamura, wrestling at the YMCA, met Kenji Okimoto; and the two men, who discovered they were both judoka, began to practice together. From this start, judo remained at Lawson YMCA for the next twenty years.

    The Chicago Judo Black Belt Association was formed during 1947 and a charter was received directly from the Kodokan. (As a recognized judo organization the yudanshakai could promote up to 3rd-degree black belt.) At that time the Chicago Judo Black Belt Association covered the states of Wisconsin, Missouri, Minnesota, Ohio, Indiana, Arkansas, Louisiana, and Michigan. The first constitution for Chicago, a rather informal document, stated that John Osako would be president of the association, and the vice-president would be Mas Tamura. There was not much more to the constitution than that. The charter members of the Chicago Judo Black Belt Association were Masato Tamura, Hank Okamura, Hik Nagao,Yosh Sakai, Carl Shojii, Carl Kalaskai, Jack Ohashi, and Tom Watanabe.

    In 1949, MasatoTannura became the president of the yudanshakai and remained in that office for the next fourteen years. During the late 1940s the Oak Park YMCA started under Bob Matsuoka. Some noted members of the Chicago Judo Club were Hik Nagao, Tom Watenabe, Jim Beres. John Osako, and Art Broadbent. At the Lawson YMCA were the Benson brothers, the Fletcher brothers, Hank Okamura, and Kenji Okamoto. The Jiu Jitsu Institute had Masato Tamura, Vince Tamura, Bob Belhatchet , Frnak Leszczynski , Bill Burk. Bill Berndt, and Bill Kaufman. During these years, any team that represented the U.S. was mostly made up of people from the Chicago Judo Black Belt Association. Chicago sent teams to the first two Pan-American Judo Tournaments and one of the two American representatives to the 1st World Tournament in Japan.

    Judo was intensively promoted in Chicago during the 1950s. There were a number of self-defense demonstrations conducted for television shows. Tournaments became regular events with the Lawson YMCA providing a central location.

    Konan, or Detroit, was encouraged to break away, about 1952. This change relieved Chicago of the responsibility for all of Michigan and some midwestern areas. Milwaukee, Wis.. and St. Louis, Mo. were starting to develop judo groups during this time, but, unlike Chicago, these two areas did not have strong Japanese judo players to get the sport going and give guidance to its development.

    With the start of the 1950s, judo in Chicago began to develop into a citywide sport as new dojos were opened. Bill Kaufman was discharged from the service in 1952 and came back from Japan as a 2nd-degree black belt. Kaufman worked out at the Jiu Jitsu Institute and started his own club at the Hyde Park YMCA. Later he taught at the University of Chicago. Mr. Hikaru Nagao was teaching judo at the Illinois Institute of Technology. In time, these two clubs combined to form the Uptown Dojo.

    In the early 1950s, some students from the original dojos began teaching at various locations around the city, and the Oak Park YMCA was developing a good judo group also. Indiana at this time had a judo community developing under the guidance of Mr. Bill Craig. In local tournaments there would be as many as 80 brown belts competing at one time. National registration was adopted during this period and was run by the Chicago Yudanshakai for a few years. In the late 1950s, Chicago had 2,800 registered members.

    In 1954, Vince Tamura represented the Chicago Yudanshakai and the U.S. in the 1st World Tournament. There were no weight divisions in early world competitions, so the matches were rough. Tamura lasted until the semi-finals, defeating heavier and higher ranking people. His only loss was to a future world champion.

    Texas In 1957 the Second Air Force held its championship tournament in Austin. Tex., and invited Roy H. Moore to officiate the tournament. Pop decided to stay, and, with the help of Col. Walthrop, Beverly Sheffieid, from the Austin Recreation Department. and a young competitor, Jerry Reid, from Bergstrom Air Force Base. the Austin Judo Club opened its doors.

    With the addition of members such as Bill Nagase and Sam Numahiri in Fort Worth, Karl Geis and Rick Landers in Houston, and Rick Mertens in Shreveport, the Southwestern U.S. Judo Association came into being. The association annexed small areas out of several yudanshakais and covered the states of Texas, Louisiana, Arakansas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico. In 1959 the Southwestern U.S. Championships were held in Austin, Tex.. with over 300 competitors attending. In the late 1950s Bill Nagase and Gail Stolzenburg competed in the National AAU Senior Judo Championships.

    The sport continued to grow and attracted several talented instructors to Texas-Ace Sukigara, 3rd dan. to Longview, and Vince Tamura, Th dan, to Dallas. In 1961 the Southwestern U.S. Judo Yudanshakai became the Texas Judo Black Belt Association, and in 1962 the Texas Yudanshakai was approved by the Judo Black Belt Federation as a regional association. The first officers included John Ebell. Rick Landers, Gail Stolzenburg. Karl Geis, and Vince Tamura.

    In 1964 the National Collegiate Championships were held in El Paso with Texans Ace Sukigara. John Rowlett, Wes Maxwell. and Joe Rude among the winners. In 1971 Odessa Boys Club hosted the USJF Junior National Championships with many trophies staying in Texas. In 1975 the High School National Championships were held in Houston.

    To keep all the clubs informed of the Judo activities in Texas and surrounding areas, the Texas Yudanshakai has produced since 1963 a bi-monthly magazine entitled Texas Judo News.

    Shufu Yudanshakai at one time had the largest judo area in the U.S. Over the years. new, localized judo organizations grew out of the initial central organization.

    James Takemori. 5th dan, has served as rank registration chairman. secretary, and president of Shufu. He related the following information concerning shufu's history:

    In Washington before Shutu was organized there were only a handful of men in the area, approximately ten yudansha. Among the black belts present were Kenzo Uyeno, Eich' Koiwai, M.D., Nonkey Ishiyama,Donn Draeger, Bili Berndt, Lanny Miyamoto, and Masauki Hashimoto Mr. Hashimoto became
    Shufu's first president.

    There were five yudanshakais prior to the formation of Shufu The earlier five were in Chicago, Seattle, Hawaii, Hokka, and Nanka. Donn Draeger was an early advocate of a yudanshakai on the East Coast. His efforts resulted in the first meeting of the forming yudanshakai, in the spring of 1953. There were some differences of opinion regarding a name for the new organization Some felt it should be called, using Japanese terminology, East Coast. while others felt the Japanese for Capitol was more appropriate The name Capitol finally won, thus Shufu Yudanshakai The early officers of Shutu were: Mr. Hashimoto, president: Kenzo Uyeno, vice-president; Lanny Miyamoto. secretary -treasurer; and Donn Draeger. chairman of the board of examiners.

    Shufu eventually stretched from Maine to Florida, including the Panama Canal Zone. Those seeking examination or further study might have had to travel two days for such an activity Takemori and Uyeno traveled a great deal during that early period: to North Carolina twice a year for promotional tournaments; to New England twice yearly; and for Dixie states twice yearly. Early applicants for examinations were not very knowledgeable about judo.  Many of those tested had learned judo from a book, owing to the small number of instructors on the East Coast. The candidates usually failed to pass the examinations on their first attempt The exams were designed to develop instructors, which the large area desperately needed. Terminology was very highly stressed.

    Shufu, unlike many of the other yudanshakais, did not have a large indigenous Japanese population from which to form the basis of the organization. Many of the judo people came from the military Often. men recently home from military service overseas. would return to the U S. from Japan as 1st- or 2nd-degree black belts

    Among the instructors in the area were Dr. Koiwai. teaching in Philadelphia at a YMCA; Lanny Miyamoto in Baltimore; Ken Freeman and George Uchida in New York; and James Takemore, Bill Berndt. Kenzo Uyeno. and Donn Draeger in Washington There was considerable practice of Judo at military bases as well. especially at Ft. Benning and at Ft. Braggi in 1957, the Washington Judo club. earlier named the Pentagon Judo Club, established a dojo outside of the Pentagon.

    The level of judo awareness and numbers of practicing judokas in the various areas of Shutu increased. It soon became practical for more localized judo organizations to exist. The first to develop a base sufficient to run its own affairs was the Florida area. Next. New England formed its own yudanshakai. followed by the Dixie States, and Allegheny Mountain. As long as the local judo population has sufficient numbers and knowledge to administer judo in its area, the more efficient service of a local yudanshakai is preferred This concept has motivated the splitting of areas from Shufu's original territory.

    Intercollegiate Judo The first record of any U.S. collegiate judo participation was in the early 1930s when Henry Stone. a young coach at the University of California, Berkeley sent a few students to participate in some tournaments held in San Francisco.

    in 1937 Emillo Bruno, a student. introduced judo as a sport to the physical education department at San Jose State College: later the judo program was taken over by another student, Yosh Uchida Mr Uchida took the first group of college judo competitors from San Jose to Southern California to participate in a yudanshakai tournament. the beginning of sectional tournaments.

    World War II interrupted all collegiate judo. In 1946. Yosh Uchida returned to college and helped revive the judo program at San Jose State.Many of the students, who were World War I I veterans, had been taught strictly self-defense in the service. Because fine technique was lacking among the judo participants, great force was used on opponents and small competitors were easily injured.

    In 1948 Henry Stone devised a weight system that he hoped would aid the growth and development of judo. For several years, the weight system was experimented with at San Jose State in the physical education classes and proved worthwhile. The original weight divisions were: 130, 150, 180 lbs, and unlimited. These weight divisions were adopted by the AAU, but have since been revised several times in an effort to keep up with changes in body size. The weight divisions adopted by the Olympic Judo Committee, and used in the Olympic Games in Tokyo in 1964, were 156,176, heavyweight, and open.

    Most of the early college judo participation and development was earned out on the west coast at San Jose and U.C. Berkeley. Dual meets between the two schools were initiated in the early 1950s. In 1953, the first collegiate judo championships were held at U.C. Berkeley, called the Pacific Coast Intercollegiate Judo Championships. Also in 1953, the first National AAU Judo Championships were held at San Jose State. Lyle Hunt, a San Jose State senior, was the first grand champion of the National AAU Championships. Later in 1953, as a college student, Lyle represented the U.S. in several tournaments in Europe, along with John Osoko from Chicago. Yosh Uchida, from San Jose State, was coach. This was the first U.S. representation abroad in the sport. Judo was recognized as in intercollegiate sport at San Jose in 1954, but the growth of judo was definitely hampered over the years by a general lack of understanding and knowledge of the sport by athletic directors and physical education department chairmen, who have been traditionally reluctant to accept new minor sports.

    In 1955 San Jose State hosted the first International All-Star Collegiate competitors. Haruo Imamura, who won the U.S. National AAU Grand Championship in 1960, was a member of that team. The tournament was the first all-college judo participation on an international scale between two countries, although sometime during the mid-1930s, a team from Keio University had participated in a yudanshakai tournament in southern California.

    Henry Stone, the great leader of judo, passed away suddenly in 1955 and judo floundered on the university level. A long-smouldering feud between the NCAA and the AAU flared up in 1960, and it became impossible for college teams to compete in AAU -sanctioned tournaments. On May 12,1962 college leaders met and organized the National Collegiate Judo Association. In 1962 the first National Collegiate Judo Championships were held at the U.S. Air Force Academy, San Jose State, U.C. Berkeley, University of Minnesota, Mankato State College, and the Eastern Collegiate Judo Association. Since then many National Collegiate Judo Championships have been held at various colleges and universities across the country.

    In 1967, the National Collegiate Judo Association selected Howard Fish to represent the U.S. in the University Games held in Tokyo. George Uchida, of U.C. Berkeley, was coach and manager. The only U.S. representative, Fish won a bronze medal in both the heavyweight and open divisions. Because of Fish's outstanding performance, the NCJA was invited to send a team to Lisbon, Portugal, in 1968. The U.S. sent Mike Ogata, Doug Graham, Roy Sukimoto, Gary Martin, and Yosh Uchida as coach. Doug Graham won a silver medal in the 205 lb division, and Gary Martin was a silver medallist in the 154 lb division. These two U.S. collegiate judoists lost only to collegiate competitors from Japan.

    In 1972 the University Games were held in London. Team members included David Long, John Reed, Tom Cullen, Louis Gonzalez, Tom Masterson, and Tom Tigg. In Soo Hwang, from Yale University, served as coach-manager. Tigg won the silver medal in the 139 lb division.

    For all the University Game competition, financial help was received from the USJF. Without this national governing body, U.S. judo would have had a far greater struggle; and certainly, without its financial aid, competitors would never have been able to compete internationally. (YOSH UCHIDA)

    The organized judo program in the U.S. Armed Forces began in the Air Force in 1950 when Gen. Curtis E. LeMay, the commander-in-chief of the Strategic Air Command, USAF, directed the setting up of a model physical conditioning unit at Offutt AFB, Neb. In 1951 similar conditioning units were set up at other SAC bases. Gen. LeMay appointed Emilio ("Mel") Bruno, a former National AAU Wrestling Champion and Th-degree in judo, to direct the program. At this time, civilian judo instructors staffed six SAC bases; the rest had physical conditioning units, but no judo instructors. In direct charge of the judo and conditioning program for SAC was Gen. Thomas Power, later honorary chairman of the National AAU Judo Committee.

    Because of an obvious deficiency of instructors, Power sent two classes of airmen (24 men) to the Kodokan Institute in Tokyo in 1952 for several weeks training. This was the first such training for any Armed Forces group.

    Air Force judo received added impetus in 1953 when ten experts from Japan, six in judo, three in karate, and one in aikido, gave demonstrations at over 70 U.S. Air Force Bases over a three-month period. The purpose of this tour was to train judo instructors and combat crews and to give exhibitions on and off base. Many civilian judo clubs had their first visit from high-ranking judo teachers as a result of this tour. One of the highlights of the tour was a demonstration at the White House on July 22. The year 1953 was also marked by the first National AAU Judo tournament held at San Jose State College. A SAC team participated in these first Nationals.

    In 1954, the first SAC Judo Tournament was held at Offutt AFB the Grand Champion was Airman Morris Curtis. Also in 1954, 26 SAC Air Police went to the Kodokan to study judo fourteen weeks. The curriculum consisted of police tactics, aikido, karate and, of course, judo. Two SAC judoists advanced to the last few rounds in the 1954 AAU National Championships at Kezar Stadium, San Francisco. The 12-man SAC team won 29 rounds and lost 19 but was unable to place a man. Staff Sgt. Ed Maley, SAC, a member of the 1955 SAC Judo Team, placed in the 1955 AAU National championships-third in the 150-lb division. The Air Research and Development Command, USAD (ARDC), also entered a team in 1955, after only a year of competition, and A/1 C Vern Raab won an unofficial fourth place in the heavyweight division.

    The year 1954 also brought a 10-man AAU-Air Force team visit to six Japanese cities to compete in 16 contests. Five members of the team were Air Force, and the most successful member of the team was to be heard from many times in the future. This man, Staff Sgt. George Harris, won all of his 16 contests.

    Seventy men from SAC and ARDC journeyed to the Kodokan in 1955 for instruction. Under the guidance of Gen. Power, who had taken over as ARDC Commander, the SAC-ARDC Judo Association was formed and received recognition from the Kodokan in 1956. Emilio Bruno was elected president, and the association was permitted to grant judo rank. This was the first and only Armed Forces judo association to be so recognized by the Kodokan. SAC and ARDC sent 280 Air Policemen for four-week classes at the Kodokan during 1956.

    Again in 1956, the Air Force placed one man in the national AAU Judo Tournament at Seattle. Returning from his successful Japanese tour, George Harris, then a 2nd dan, placed third in the heavyweight division.

    In 1957, after only five years in judo, Staff Sgt. George Harris won the Grand Championship in the National AAU Judo Championships in Hawaii. Harris was first in the heavyweight division; sweeping the division with him were A/1 C Lenwood Williams in second place and A/2C Ed Mede, third. The Air Force also took the National 5-Man Team Championship for the first time.

    Winners of the SAC and ARDC tournaments represented the Air Force in the AAU tournaments on April 13 and 14 in Chicago. Twelve Air Force judoists participated, with George Harris successfully defending his Grand Championship, and the Air Force team captured the National 5-Man Team Championship for the second year in a row. Due to the great power of southern California in the lower weight divisions, the Air Force was unable to win the overall team championship.

    The SAC Judo Team, consisting of L. Williams, E. Mede, G. Harris, J. Reid, R. Moxley, and M. O'Connor (trainer) was designated as the U.S. Pan-American Judo Team in 1958. Team members won first and fourth in the 3rd dan category (Harris and Williams), third in the 2nd dan (Reid), and second in the 1st dan (Mede). In the fall of 1958, George Harris and Ed Mede represented the U.S. in the 2nd World Tournament, held in Tokyo. Harris's three wins before losing to Sone, a Japanese 5th degree, placed him in a tie for fifth place along with the four other defeated quarter finalists. As a result of this fine record, George Harris was promoted to 4th degree in judo, the first Armed Forces man to be so honored. (LT AGULLA GIBBS DEBRELL)

    The Governance of U.S. Judo The development of a national governing body for U.S. judo started in 1952, through the efforts of Dr. Henry A. Stone, Maj. Draeger, and others. At that time there was no national authority to give guidance to local judo communities and insure the logical and orderly development of judo as a sport. The Amateur Judo Association was a first attempt at establishing a national governing structure. Dr. Stone served as the first president. Authority to grant the most coveted Kodokan judo rank was assumed by the national organization. High ranking individuals were no longer permitted to grant promotions independently. The growth of local judo organizations was encouraged, promotion privileges were granted to yudanshakais,
    and a national communications avenue was opened.

    Until the early 1960s, judo in the U.S. had grown in a haphazard, somewhat informal fashion. Most leaders tended to be purists, preferring the security and recognition offered by their local influence. Judo was structured strictly on rank, and those without the proper credentials were considered outsiders. It was judo rank, that coveted mantle of recognition, which for so many years retarded the formation of a strong, responsive national organization. As judo spread across the nation, false claims to rank and promotions were commonplace, and the existing organization was powerless to take action. Those leaders who had feared a national organization and popularization of judo in time became the strongest voices for change.

    The national organization was renamed the Judo Black Belt Federation. President Yosh Uchida (1960-61) delegated the task of laying the groundwork for reorganization to Donald Pohl, a relatively unknown 1st dan from Detroit. Pohl, the executive secretary of the Detroit Judo Club (then the nation's largest non-profit club), had effected a pilot program for a national rank system.

    During the brief tenure of President Renyo Uyeno (before his untimely death at the age of 39 on June 1,1963), the Judo Black Belt Federation launched a national rank registration procedure, which was coupled with a detailed rank identification system. This was the basis for future financial stability of the organization. The Judo Black Belt Federation also adopted a comprehensive constitution and by-laws, established a national communications system and published the Judo Bulletin.

    Although the early leaders of the Judo Black Belt Federation (then known as the Amateur Judo Association), had actively sought out the Amateur Athletic Union and had been granted the right to represent U.S. judo on the international level, little attention or significance was attached to this accommodation until early in the 1960s when amateurism and sanctions began to become important. As the Judo Black Belt Federation expanded (18 yudanshakais in 1963) and tournaments were more widely attended, the importance and presence of the AAU began to be noticed. The Judo Black Belt Federation and the Amateur Athletic Union succeeded in maintaining an atmosphere of cooperation and mutual assistance during the remainder of the decade.

    In 1963 the Judo Black Belt Federation joined the Amateur Athletic Union in producing the first of what were to be five joint handbooks (two published by Phil Porter and three by Don Pohl). Sales of the books, mostly through the Federation, exceeded 100,000 copies. All proceeds were given to the Amateur Athletic Union Judo Committee to help finance its operation. When proceeds from the sale of hand books failed to provide the necessary funding for the expanding program, the Judo Black Belt Federation authorized grants in excess of $75,000 to the Amateur Athletic Union to help finance international competition and related programs

    In 1964 and 1966, Hiro Fujimoto of Detroit was elected president of the Federation and Dr. Eichi Kolwai of Philadelphia, vice-president. Dr. Koiwai assumed the presidency at the 1968 election, holding office for several terms. During the uncertain years of the 1960s the Federation changed its name to the U.S. Judo Federation, published a book of procedures, rewrote the judo contest rules, adopted a comprehensive promotion procedure, drafted a new referees' certification procedure, and expanded to 25 yudanshakais.

    Judo soon grew to the third largest sport in the array of Amateur Athletic Union activities. What were first considered minor contentions between the Union and the Federation soon grew to open disagreement over philosophy, priorities, and control. Amateurism became a bone of contention. considered by many a stumbling block in the way of development. Amateur Athletic Union advocates, on the other hand, questioned the unchallenged control of rank exercised by the U.S. Judo Federation.

    In 1969 the differences and positions that had been fought out at the meetings finally culminated in one of the yudanshakais (the Armed Forces Judo Association) withdrawing from the U.S. Judo Federation to start a rival national organization. The Armed Forces Judo Association adopted a name similar to that of the parent organization, the U.S. Judo Association. The association closely aligned itself with the philosophy and position of the Amateur Athletic Union. (DENNIS HELM)

    KARATE Kung-fu arrived in the U.S. with the first Chinese immigrants in the mid-19th century, but the growth of karate is largely owed to contact between American servicemen and Japanese experts during the post-World War II occupation of Japan and Okinawa.

    Kung-fu: the Forerunner of Karate Kung-fu was a part of the Chinese lifestyle in the labo camps and mining towns that grew up following the gold rush of 1848. With the importation of large numbers of Chinese laborers to work on the Central Pacific Railroad, beginning in 1863, the swelling Chinese communities isolated themselves within their own, transplanted culture.

    Conflicts over control of gambling, prostitution, and the like, arose; rival secret societies fought each other in the notorious "Tong Wars," which lasted until the 1930s. The troops in these internecine wars were "hatchetmen," so-called because they used meat cleavers and hatchets as weapons. They were skilled also in kung-fu, in the art of "pin-blowing," and in hurling lethal, razor-edged coins. Hatchetmen in the U.S. handed down, from one generation to the next, the secret and sinister practice of kung-fu, the forbearer of modern karate.

    Until roughly two decades after World War II, kung-fu was not available to non-Chinese on the U.S. mainland. The early Japanese and Okinawan communities in the U.S. were isolated, introverted, and intensely secretive about their ethnic arts and crafts. Judo was the only exception: Jigoro Kano, the founder of judo, encouraged its spread. According to martial arts scholar Donn F. Draeger, Kano asked that " judo training be undertaken not only in the dojo but also outside it, and so make of its physical aspects the focus of human endeavor for the progress and development of man." The other martial arts had no such original intention.

    The first club to practice kung-fu in organized classes with instructors from Chinese provinces was a branch of the Chinese Physical Culture Association, founded in Honolulu in 1922. This association promoted physical culture among the Islands' Chinese communities, but kung-fu remained unavailable to non-orientals until 1957, when Tlnn Chan Lee, at'ai-chi-ch'uan specialist, became the first Chinese sifu to open his teaching to the general public.

    In 1964 the closely-guarded doors of kung-fu finally opened in the U.S. mainland. Ark Y.Wong of Los Angeles, born in China, broke the traditional kung-fu "color line" by accepting students of all races at Wah Que Studio in Los Angeles's old Chinatown Also in 1964 the movie idol Bruce Lee and his one-time partner, James Yimm Lee, began accepting non-Orientals at Lee's kwoon in Oakland, Calif. In fact, the notorious John Keehan, a.k.a. "Count Dante," claimed to have trained there as early as 1962.

    Teachers like New York's Alan Lee, Ark Y. Wong, and T.Y. Wong popularized Shaolin. Choy-Li-Fut and t'ai-chi-ch'uan quickly became public and, soon after, the various branches of northern and southern Shaolin kung-fu.

    In northern California, sifus Kwong and Brendan Lai helped establish the praying mantis system. Y.C. Wong promoted the hung gar and tiger crane systems; Kuo-Lien-Ying promoted t'ai-chi; George Long, the white crane; and Lau Bun and the Luk Mo Studio, the Choy-Li-Fut. Noted scholar Wen-Shan Huang, with his protege Marshall Ho, started the National T'ai-Chi-Ch'uan Association in the early 1960s, opening up instruction in this "soft style" of kung-fu to Caucasians.

    Throughout the U.S. kung-fu spread, especially during the Bruce Lee era, when so-called Eastern Westerns dominated American and international movie screens. Even so, the majority of kung-fu styles and teachers still remain hidden.

    Many of the first karate students were street fighters. Few of these rough types possessed, however, the discipline necessary to remain with the art and learn it thoroughly. The small number who did found their original attitudes startlingly transformed.

    Today, karate classes are predominantly composed of business persons, professionals, skilled workers, and students-a cross section of American society.

    Karate Comes to Hawaii In Hawaii, a great cultural crossroads, karate secured a foothold long before its emergence on the mainland. Although practiced within the Okinawan community, no wider audience had seen karate in Hawaii until 1927, when Kentsu Yabu, a famous Okinawan master, introduced Shuri-te in a public demonstration at the Nuuana YMCA in Honolulu.

    A few "naichi" Japanese (i.e., Japanese from one of the four main islands of Hawaii) who observed the YMCA demonstration adjudged karate a strong fighting art, possibly even stronger than their judo. Interest in karate by non-Okinawans flourished thereafter. Yabu's open teachings also brought together interested groups of Okinawans for practice and recreation, something the rivalries of llaha, Shuri, and Tomari had prevented on Okinawa.

    In 1932 Choki Motobu, a legendary, eccentric Okinawan karate fighter, was denied entry to Hawaii when a group of Okinawan promoters living in Hawaii tried to import him for a public match against well-known Island fighters. In 1933 Zuiho Mutsu and Kamesuke Higaonna were allowed into Hawaii with the understanding that they would teach and lecture but not compete in the boxing ring. Both refused to engage in public matches and prepared to depart immediately. Thomas Miyashiro, who had studied with Yabu in 1927, convinced other karate enthusiasts to approach the pair collectively and urge that they remain in Hawaii to teach their art. They agreed and, after great initial success at the Asahi Photo Studio, the site of their original school, the two  karate masters chose a new facility for their classes, the Izumo Taishi Shinto Mission.

    The club formed from these classes, the Hawaii Karate Seinin Kai (Hawaii Young People's Karate Club), subsequently staged a public karate demonstration at the Honolulu Civic Auditorium. A number of Caucasian spectators in attendance, mostly members of the First Methodist Church, became interested in learning karate. Through their efforts, the first known Caucasian group in the Western world to study openly and to sponsor karate activities was formed in 1933 Shortly thereafter, both Mutsu and Higaonna departed for Japan, where they had been teaching previously.

    In May 1934 Chinei Kinjo, editor of the Okinawan newspaper Yoen Fiho Sha, invited grandmaster Cholun Miyagi, the founder of goju-ryu karate, to Hawaii. Miyagi lectured and taught to popularize Okinawan goju-ryu karate-do, staying almost a year and returning to Okinawa in Feb. 1935.

    The spread of kempo to the Islands is largely owed to Dr. James Mitose, a Japanese-American born in Hawaii in 1916. At age five he was sent to Kyushu, Japan, for schooling in his ancestral art of self-defense, called "kosho-ryu kempo," said to be based directly on Shaolin kung-fu. Mitose returned to Hawaii in 1936. In 1942 he organized the Official Self-Defense Club at the Beretania Mission in Honolulu. This club continued under his personal leadership until 1953, when it was assigned to Thomas Young, one of his chief students. Only five of his students-Young, William K.S. Chow, Paul Yamaguchi, Arthur Keawe, and Edward Lowe-attained the rank of black belt. But the kempo arts flourished in Hawaii and later on the west coast of the mainland, where three of Mitose's protégés formed clubs of their own. In 1953, before going to the mainland, Mitose wrote What is Self-Defense, reprinted by his students in 1980.

    Of Mitose's students, perhaps Chow played the most significant role in the evolution of the American martial arts. Although he had learned kosho-ryu kempo under Mitose, Chow was the first to teach what he called kenpo (first law) karate. From 1949 Chow trained a great number of students to the rank of blackbelt, including Adriano Emperado, Ralph Castro, Bobby Lowe, John Leone, and Paul Pung. By far the most famous of Chow's students is Ed Parker, a leading pioneer in the American karate movement.

    Adriano "Sonny" Emperado was a co-founder in 1947 of the kajukenbo system, formed by five experts: Walter Choo (karate), Joseph Holke (judo), Frank Ordonez (jujutsu), Emperado (kenpo), and Clarence Chang (Chinese boxing). The name is an acronym derived from the five disciplines of its founders: ka from karate, ju from judo and jujutsu, ken from kenpo, and bo from Chinese boxing. Today, this style is one of the most prominent in Hawaii. In 1950 Emperado founded Hawaii's first and largest chain of karate schools, the Kajukenbo Self-Defense Institute, Inc., in which he still holds the office of vice-president. Probably Emperado's most famous student is Al Dacascos, founder of the won hop kuen do system.

    In 1954 Japan's colorful Mas Oyama visited Hawaii for a month to assist Bobby Lowe, a Chinese -American, in setting up the first overseas branch of Oyama's kyokushinkai style.

    Karate Emerges on the Mainland The first karate school on the U.S. mainland was established by a former sailor, Robert Trias, who began teaching karate in Phoenix in 1946. In 1942, while stationed in the Pacific, Trias trained with Tong Gee Hsing, a teacher of heing-I and Shuritode ryu, and a nephew, according to Trias, of Okinawa's Choki Motobu. The word "karate" was not then in universal use; Shuritode ryu was a style of Okinawan shorei-ryu karate.

    Upon his discharge in 1946, Trias returned to the U.S. and established his private, 14-foot-square dojo. He charged a low annual fee for instruction in judo or karate for two to three hours daily, seven days a week. Until the late 1970s, when John Corcoran investigated the subject, little acknowledgment was given Trias as the actual founder of karate in America. Later, in 1948, Trias formed the United States Karate Association (USKA), the first karate organization on the mainland.

    From Mar. to Nov. 1952, Mas Oyama of Japan toured 32 states by invitation of the U.S. Professional Wrestling Association-officials had heard of his exploits in Japan. While in the country he began his famous challenge matches with professional wrestlers and boxers, all of whom he is said to have defeated. Oyama's exhibition bouts and demonstrations, including the breaking of boards, bricks, and stones, received great public attention, including articles in the New York Times, which covered his bout with a pro boxer at Madison Square Garden.

    In 1951 Emilio Bruno, judo teacher, pioneer, and administrator, had been named supervisor of judo and combative measures for the Strategic Air Command (SAC). Bruno formulated a new approach to military combat training, integrating parts of aikido, judo, and karate into a systematic unarmed combat technique. To implement his idea, he suggested a pilot program to Gen Curtis LeMay, then commander of the U.S. Air Force and one of Bruno's judo students. The program had a significant effect on the subsequent propagation of karate in the U.S.With Gen. LeMay's endorsement and SAC's sponsorship, Bruno initiated eight-week training programs for Air Force instructors at the Kodokan, judo's mecca, in Japan. Kodokan officials contacted the Japan Karate Association (JKA) to manage the karate instruction, and that organization selected Hidetaka Nishlyama as one of the coaches. Financially backed and supported by SAC, Bruno invited ten martial arts instructors of judo and karate to participate in a now famous four-month 1953 tour of every SAC base in the U.S. and Cuba. The touring group included seven judoka and three karate dignitaries: Nishiyama, Toshio Kamata, and the late
    Isao Obata, a JKA co-founder and senior disciple of Gichin Funakoshi.

    The 1953 SAC tour was responsible for opening up communication between Japan and the U.S.,accounting for the migration of dozens of Japanese karate instructors to America. It also influenced other U.S. military branches and departments to adopt similar martial arts programs.

    In 1954 the JKA established its first, small headquarters in Tokyo, and, with the establishment of a central dojo, Nishiyama was elected chief of the JKA instruction department. He conceived a plan to train large numbers of karate instructors and send them across the world to establish karate. His plan, once put into operation, accounted for the migration, beginning in 1955, of many instructors who pioneered Shotokan karate wherever they settled.Nishiyama himself assumed responsibility for furthering karate in the U.S.

    In 1954 Ed Parker, black belt kenpo student of William Chow, began teaching a karate course at Brigham Young University. Hawaiian-born Parker, who had arrived on the mainland in 1951, limited instruction to Americans attending the university His evening classes enrolled as many as 72 students: city police, state highway patrolmen, fish and game wardens, and sheriffs' deputies. With some of his students, Parker formed an exhibition team, and through various chambers of commerce, he and his group performed in several Utah cities.

    William Dometrich, who began his karate training in Japan in 1951, returned in Dec. 1954, settling in Kentucky. A student of Dr. Tsuyoshi Chitose, the founder of Chito-ryu karate, Dometrich was the first to teach this system in America. He formed the U.S. Chito-Kai in 1967.

    Denver's Frank Goody, Jr., who had as early as 1924 started judo lessons with his father, is the first instructor to have taught karate in the Rocky Mountain region. Jack Farr, in compiling the history of martial arts in Colorado, reported that between 1945 and 1951, Goody promoted yawara tournaments within his judo school in Denver. While Goody's background is the subject of much confusion, his contribution to karate's growth is not. In
    1957, he opened a karate school in Boulder, Colo., and is credited with teaching nearly all the other karate pioneers in the Colorado area.

    Dewey Deavers, a jujutsu and karate instructor who reportedly traveled in China and Japan in the 1920s, surfaced around 1954 in Pittsburgh. By then he had already trained two students to the rank of black belt: Warren Siciliano and Larry Williams. Williams in that year introduced karate to a promising student, Glenn Premru, who in the late 1960s and early 1970s, became a noted performer and national kata champion.

    Another pioneer was Atlee Chittim of Texas. After studying tae kwon do in Korea, Chittim returned as a brown belt in 1955 and taught his art at San Antonio College. (Interestingly, the name "tae kwon do" had only been created in April of that year.) As far as can be determined, Chittim was the first to teach any form of karate in the southwestern U.S. outside of Arizona. And he sponsored the entry of Jhoon Rhee to America from Korea in 1956. Rhee, a tae kwon do black belt, came to the U.S. to study engineering at San Marco's Texas State College and began to teach his art on campus, opening a commercial club in 1958. Rhee, known as the "Father of American Tae Kwon Do," went on to become one of the most important leaders in American karate.

    In 1955 Tsutomu Ohshima, a graduate of Waseda University in Japan, organized a small karate class at the Konko Shinto Church in Los Angeles. A disciple of Gichin Funakoshi's Shotokan style, Ohshima was the first instructor in the U.S. to teach a typically Japanese karate system, and was the first resident karate teacher on the West Coast. In 1956 he opened the first public dojo in Los Angeles. He also founded the Shotokan Karate of America.

    The First Karate Tournament Robert Trias in 1955 conducted the first known karate tournament in America, the 1st Arizona Karate Championships. Held at the Butler Boys Club in Phoenix, participants were chiefly members of the Arizona Highway Patrol, Trias' own students.

    Karate Comes to Hollywood By 1956 Ed Parker had moved to California where his growing student list began to include such Hollywood names as Darren McGavin, author Joe Hyams, television executive Tom Tannenbaum, producer Blake Edwards, and the late film stars Nick Adams, Frank Lovejoy, and Audie Murphy. Both Hyams and Tannenbaum later achieved black belts under different instructors. Each made substantial contributions to karate, Tannenbaum in television and Hyams in print Through Parker's influence, Blake Edwards directed his writers to add karate scenes to the screenplays for such 1960s hits as A Shot in the Dark and The Pink Panther. In those days, filmmakers were intrigued primarily by the more spectacular aspects of the martial arts, such as board and brick breaking.

    Eventually Parker taught many more celebrities, including Elvis Presley, and appeared in motion pictures and television shows. It is difficult to determine whether Bruce Tegner or Parker was the first karate expert to work in films. It is a matter of record, however, that Tegner attracted attention to the martial arts early by setting up fight scenes for the 1950s TV series "The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet," and "The Detectives," starring Robert Taylor. He also wrote a large number of books which had a great influence on the number of Americans that got involved in karate. As early as 1956 Stirling Silliphant had begun writing martial arts into many of his films requiring combat action. He first did this in Five Against the House in which Brian Keith portrayed a Korean
    war veteran and karate expert. Later he wrote martial arts roles in TV series like "Naked City" and "Route 66." Silliphant later became largely instrumental in the rise of Bruce Lee, with whom he studied for 3 years.

    Karate Pioneers In the years 1956 through 1960 the core of an American establishment came into being. A nucleus of first-rate instructors-immigrants from the Far East and returning U.S.servicemen-opened the first schools in assorted styles, in their respective regions. In 1957 Don Nagle returned from Okinawa, where he studied isshin-ryu under Tatsuo Shimabuku. He opened a dojo in Jacksonville and trained such well-known black belts as Ed McGrath, Harold Long, Gary Alexander, Ron Duncan, Donald Bohan, James Chapman, Lou Lizzotte, Ralph Chirico, and Joe Bucholtz. Nagle became one of the instructors chiefly responsible for the profileration of karate throughout the Eastern Seaboard.

    Louis Kowlowski, an early USKA member, opened the first karate school in the midwest in 1957, in St. Louis, Mo. He was also one of the first to introduce Okinawan shorin-ryu (Matsubayashi) into the U.S.

    In 1957 Cecil Patterson, a wado-ryu black belt, opened a private club in Sevierville, Tenn. And in 1962 he opened his first commercial school in Nashville, which, by the mid-1970s, expanded to as many as 17 dojo across Tennessee. Patterson also began the Eastern U.S. Wado-Kai Federation.

    Okinawa kempo master Zempo (atsu) Shimabuku founded the first known karate dojo in Philadelphia in 1957.

    In 1958, Roger Warren, who studied in the Orient, started leaching karate in Chicago and Peoria. Charles Gruzanski (d.1973) also opened a martial arts school in Chicago in the same year. Gruzanski, who spent many years in Japan, was a black belt in a number of different arts and was one of the few Caucasian experts in masakiryu-manriki-gusari, a viscous chain and sickle weapon.

    In the mid-1950s Ed Kaloudis traveled to Japan to improve his judo knowledge. While there he studied koei-kan karate from Eizo Onishl. In 1958 Kaloudis moved to New York where he began to teach at NYU and also to members of the New York City Police Department. He later moved to New Jersey and opened up schools in Clifton and Caldwell. Today he oversees a large number of affiliated schools.

    Robert Fusaro, who trained under Nishiyama in Japan, was the first man to teach karate in Minnesota. He began teaching his shotokan style in 1958 in Minneapolis and founded the Midwest Karate Association. Today he runs a number of schools in Minnesota.

    In 1958 George Mattson was discharged from the U.S. Army. He returned home to Boston where he became the first Uechi-ryu instructor in America, as well as the first karate pioneer in the New England region. Mattson became a leader of karate on the Eastern Seaboard sponsoring the first karate tournament in New England in 1961. Mattson also wrote one of the first books on karate, The Way of Karate, published in 1963.

    In 1958 in Portland, Oreg., Moon Yo Woo began teaching kong su an obscure Korean style of karate.

    In 1958-59 Harry Smith, a student of Don Nagle, opened the first-known karate school in western Pennsylvania. He trained several students including Joe Penneywell, Harry Ackland and James Morabeto.

    Around this time Walter Mazak and Joe Hedderman opened a dojo in Pittsburgh, Hedderman was a student of Chito-stylist William Dometrich.

    In 1959 Philip Koeppel was discharged from the Navy. He had studied karate in Japan with Richard Kim and Kajukenbo with Adriano Emperado in Hawaii. In 1960 he joined the USKA and studied under Robert Trias. In 1963 he promoted the 1st World Karate Championships in Chicago and has since built a strong chain of karate studios throughout the midwest.

    In 1959 Natamoro Naikima opened a school in Philadelphia teaching shorin-ryu.

    Peter Urban, one of the founders of karate on the East Coast, opened his first goju-ryu karate school in Union City, New Jersey, in Sept.1959. Urban had studied in Japan with Richard Kim and later became a top student of Gogen "The Cat" Yamaguchi.

    In 1960, Urban moved to New York City and taught karate at the Judo Twins (Bernie and Bob Lepkofker) and later established his own dojo, the famous "Chinatown Dojo." He also broke away from the goju-kai organization and formed his own, which he called USA Goju. Urban probably trained more top black belts than anyone on the East Coast; among them were: Chuck Merriman, Al Gotay, William Louie, Frank Ruiz, John Kubl, Lou Angel, Thomas Boddie, Joe Lopez, Joe Hess, Bill Liquori, Aaron Banks, Ron Van Clief, Susan Murdock, Owen Watson, and Rick Pascetta.

    Ralph Lindquist, an isshin-ryu stylist, opened a school in 1960 in New Cumberland, Pa.

    In Michigan, AI Horton began teaching hisuechi-ryu in Kalamazoo in 1960. Other early pioneers included J. Kim in Lansing; Ernest Lieb in Muskegon; David Praim in Mt. Clemens (1962), who taught fighters Everett Eddy and Johnny Lee; and Paul and Larry Malo from Detroit who taught Shito-ryu and operated a number of multimillion-dollar karate centers.

    As the decade closed, karate was gaining appeal. While no single member of the 1950-60 group of pioneers appears to have been greatly successful, the fact that so many individuals were operating schools, whose enrollments were increasing steadily, proved this new form ofself-defense was attractive to the general public. ln this decade the foundation was laid for the circulation of styles, instructors, and masters that would in the 1960s see the art of karate surpass judo in numbers of active practitioners.

    The early 1960s also marked the beginning of an extensive immigration of Korean tae kwon do instructors. After Jhoon Rhee, who introduced tee kwon do in the U.S. in 1956, the first wave included: S. Henry Cho, Richard Chun, and Duk Sung Son in New York; D.S. Kim in Georgia; J.Kim and Sang Kyu Shim in Michigan; Mahn Suh Park in Pennsylvania; Haeng Ung Lee in Omaha; Ki Whang Kim in Maryland; and Jack Hwang in Oklahoma. In all, it is estimated that more than 25 masters during the early and mid-1960s settled in the U.S.

    The Vietnam War gave this native Korean art visibility.Pictures of Korean instructors training American GI's in hand-to-hand combat appeared in Time and Newsweek.

    While these legitimate instructors were encouraged to emigrate to the U.S., the teaching credential itself was to create an intense controversy in American karate. As more and more Korean tae kwon do instructors and masters arrived in the U.S., it was clearly unlikely that all of them could have taught American military personnel. Yet this claim, coupled with insupportable claims to unreasonably advanced degrees of black belt rank-usually no less
    than 7th dan-first caused suspicion, then rebellion by American karatemen. More often than not a third claim, that of being an "All Korean Champion," was another of the tee kwon do credentials. It is improbable that there were more than a few dozen All Korean Champions, since tae kwon do embraced no organized competitions until the 1960s-when more than 800 master instructors were teaching tae kwon do in the U.S. The degree and intensity of
    business competition was undoubtedly the motive for these exorbitant claims. At any rate, potential martial arts students now had a choice of where and with whom to study. By the early 1970s more than 1,200 tae kwon do instructors were reportedly teaching in the U.S.

    Such phenomenal growth placed increasing demands on the tae kwon do community as a whole, and the need for a central organization quickly became apparent. In the U.S., as in Korea, the cause of organization was initially obstructed by affiliations of master instructors to parent schools and associations in Korea.

    Meanwhile, within the Japanese karate community, Tsutomu Ohshima, who was still traveling, arranged in 1961 for Hidetaka Nishiyama to come to California to preside over his Los Angeles headquarters. Nishiyama arrived in July and within four months struck out on his own to form the All America Karate Federation (AAKF), a branch of the powerful Japan Karate Association (JKA). Today, the AAKF is one of the largest karate organizations in the U.S. This development spawned a bitter political rivalry between Ohshima and Nishiyama, which continues under the surface of the international amateur karate movement. Both pioneers, however, are consummate karate masters. Each is responsible for having firmly planted Shotokan karate in the U.S., and for having trained numerous disciples of high technical skill.

    Richard Kim, sensei to such American karate pioneers as Peter Urban, Phil Koeppel, and Canada's Benny Allen, came to America from Japan in 1961 and began teaching at the Chinese YMCA in San Francisco, Calif. Later Kim became the foremost karate historian residing in the U.S.

    Top JKA instructor Teruyuki Okazaki arrived in the U.S. in May 1961 and began teaching Shotokan karate in west Philadelphia. In Sept.1962 he formed the East Coast Karate Association, a branch of the AAKF. Today he oversees the 50,000-member International Shotokan Karate Federation.

    Also in Philadelphia that year, Mahn Suh Park established his first tae kwon do dojang, which, like Okazaki's dojo, is still in operation today.

    It was around 1961 that John Keehan, alias "Count Dante," began teaching karate in the midwest from his base dojo in Chicago, III. Keehan joined the USKA in 1961, at age 22, and was instrumental in helping Trias firmly entrench the USKA in the midwest, the association's strongest territory. He taught numerous students all the way to black belt, who opened their own schools and turned out respected students.

    On the night of April 23, 1970, he took part in the infamous "dojo war" that ended in the brutal stabbing death of his friend and student, Jim Koncevic, at the Green Dragon's Black Cobra training hall in Chicago. The tragedy left a profound mark on Keehan until his death from bleeding ulcers in 1975.

    An early pioneer of karate in the South was John Pachivas, who became the first karate instructor in the Miami Beach area in 1961. Pachivas reportedly has been active in the martial arts since the mid-1940s, and holds degrees in judo, jujutsu, and godu-ryu karate.

    In Jan. 1961 George Pesare introduced kenpo karate to Rhode Island in Providence. Preceded only by Ted Olsen, Pesare would in time become the foremost instructor in his state and an influential leader in the northeastern U.S.

    One of the first New York instructors to be affiliated with Mas Oyama was Augustin DeMello, who opened the New York Kyokushinkai karate club in Greenwich Village in 1961. He later broke away from Oyama and quit teaching.

    Daeshik Kim, a judo and tae kwon do instructor, came to Atlanta, Ga., in 1961 where he began teaching tae kwon do in the physical education department of Georgia State College.

    Among Kim's students were Joe Corley, Chris McLoughlin, "Atlas" Jesse King, Larry McClure, and Dick Lane. In 1966, Kim sold his Institute of Self-Defense, a non-campus club, to McLoughlin and Corley.

    Corley and McLoughlin established several branch schools over the years, all in and around Atlanta, and they jointly produced the first Battle of Atlanta in 1970. Later, the tournament would become one of the most prestigious in American sport karate.

    Individually, Corley would become one of the most influential voices in Southern karate by spearheading the formation of the Southesat Karate Association (SEKA). In the 1970s, he would invest most of his time and money in the full-contact karate movement.

    McLoughlin would make his mark as one of the first professional martial arts journalists who also was a black belt.

    In Los Angeles, Mito Uyehara, an aikido practitioner, and his brother, Jim, published the inaugural issue of Black Belt Magazine in 1961. The first issue was in digest form, with articles on judo, karate, aikido, and kendo. Though it suffered lean years, the publication became one of the most successful in its field. In the late 1960s, the brothers dissolved their partnership, Jim taking with him the merchandise trade-which later developed into Martial Arts Supplies-and Mito retaining ownership of the magazine. The publication struggled until Mito launched a line of paper back text books, which eventually brought large profits. This, coupled with shrewd capitalization on the martial arts movie trend of the early 1970s, made Mito Uyehara one of the few millionaires in the martial arts business.

    Out of the Uyehara publishing empire have come some 60 textbooks, the monthly, Karate Illustrated (since 1969), and the monthly Fighting Stars (since 1973).

    In 1961 New York's John Kuhl wrote, edited, posed for, and published a karate manual/magazine called Combat Karate. Kuhl started his karate training in Montreal in 1957 under Ari Anastasiatis. After moving to New York City in 1970, he continued his training with Peter Urban and Gosei Yamaguchi, son of Gogen, the goju-ryu teacher. Two of Kuhl's early students were Aaron Banks and Al Weiss. Kuhl and Weiss co-produced in 1962 a manual entitled Karate, the most popular instruction book at its price. Its success prompted the 1968 publishing of Official/Karate Magazine, a bi-monthly. It soon became a monthly, with international distribution. The magazine's outlook is radical compared to the conservative Black Belt. It was an animated voice in the movement toward an Americanized form of karate. And Weiss, its editor, has been recognized for writing the most potent monthly editorials in his field.

    Bob Yarnall, a shorin-ryu instructor, opened his first dojo in 1962 in St. Louis, Mo., where he has remained to this day. A student of James Wax, Yarnall has instructed such pioneers as Jim Harrison, Parker Shelton, and Bill Marsh, who was a successful competitor in the European karate circuit. Yarnall is probably the best-known exponent of Matsubayashi-ryu in the U.S. and has been a long time member of Trias' USKA. His wife, Joyce, assists her husband in the operation of his schools, and is a photographer whose collection includes many historic pictures of the sport and its early champions.

    Jhoon Rhee opened his first school in Washington, D.C., in 1962, and within three months had amassed more than 100 students. This, then, became the basis of the Jhoon Rhee empire, which later blossomed into one of the largest privately-owned martial arts enterprises in the world today.

    The Jhoon Rhee Institutes have developed many of the most accomplished karate competitors in American karate. Some notable students are: Larry Carnahan, Michael Coles, Gordon Franks, Jeff Smith, Jose Jones, Wayne Van Buren, John and Pat Worley, Otis Hooper, John Chung and Rodney Batiste.

    Rhee would also begin teaching tee kwon do to distinguished members of the U.S. government hierarchy, senators and congressmen among them. Through his endeavors, Rhee would become a genuine celebrity to the D.C. general public.

    Allen Steen, Rhee's student, established the first school of his eventual empire in 1962 in Dallas, Tex. Only Johnny Nash preceded him by a few months. No one, however, would dominate the Southwest territory as would Steen. Like Rhee, Steen trained many of America's top karatemen, among them Mike Anderson, Skipper Mullins, Pat Burleson, Fred Wren, Roy Kurban, and Jim and Jenice Miller.

    In 1962 after a visit to Pittsburgh by Master Tatsuo Shimabuku, at the invitation of James Morabeto and Harry Smith, disharmony once again set in among the city's isshinryu principals. Morabeto opened several dojo of his own, while Harry Ackland and Joe Penneywell established the Academy of Isshinryu Karate in downtown Pittsburgh. William Duessel and William Wallace, students of Shimabuko, assumed ownership in the late 1960s.

    At this time, Nick Long began teaching Okinawan kempo in Greensburg, Pa., where he built a large following of college students.

    In Denver, Robert Thompson and Fran Heitmann jointly opened a Tang Soo Do school in 1962. That same year, Chuck Serett, a black belt student of Heitmann's, established his first school and brought in Korean instructor Moon Ku Back to teach there. Sereff and one of his black belts, Ralph Krause, opened another Denver karate school, but later the two went separate ways. Today, Sereff has one of the largest operations in Colorado.

    Frank Ruiz earned a chestful of medals including the Purple Heart, Silver Star, and Bronze Star during the Korean War. Upon his release, he became one of Peter Urban's first students in 1960. In 1962, he launched his own teaching career in New York City, and produced two nationally recognized fighters, Louis Delgado and Herbie Thompson (of Florida), and East Coast karate champions Ron Van Clief, Owen Watson, and the late Malachi Lee. Ruiz later broke away from Urban to form his own Nisei Goju organization. In 1970 Ruiz cheated death after being struck by a car traveling 80 m.p.h., managing four years later to walk normally and even practice karate.

    The Birth of Franchised Karate In 1963 two brothers, Jim and Al Tracy, founded their first kenpo karate school in San Francisco; both-had been students of Ed Parker. After spending large sums in development costs, the brothers launched what became the largest chain of karate schools in the world, under the trade name "Tracy's Karate." The Tracy brothers brought big business practices to karate. Their strategy included a proven sales system, adapted from commercial dance studios. At its peak, 1969-73, the Tracy organization was estimated to have 70 studios under its franchise banner. After hiring Joe Lewis, one of the port's brightest stars, as a figurehead for its franchise recruitment program, the organization attracted instructors who, using the knowledge gained in business indoctrination courses, were able to make careers in the martial arts. Among the early corps of Tracy's novitiates were Jay T. Will, Al Dacascos, Jerry Smith, Jerry Piddington, Dick Willett, Roger Greene, Steve LaBounty, and Ray Langenburg.

    At the same time, throughout the mid- and late 1960s, other instructors and organizations were developing sales systems and business practices particularly suited to the martial arts. Jhoon Rhee, Allen Steen, Chuck Norris, and Ed Parker soon expanded into franchising. Bob Wall of Los Angeles is credited with having helped many martial artists adopt sound business practices in their schools, among them Norris, Rhee, and Colorado's Jim Harkins.
    An astute businessman, Wall developed and manualized a sales system still in use in many professional karate studios across the nation.

    In 1963 Chuck Norris, who would become one of the most respected karate fighters in the world, established his first school in Torrance south of Los Angeles. In 1968 he and Bob Wall bought out Joe Lewis' interest in the Sherman Oaks Karate Studio. From there he launched a chain of seven studios until 1975, when he gave up the operation to concentrate fully on a motion picture career.

    Norris is now responsible for guiding more than 2000 students to black-belt rank and dozens to competitive champioship prominence. Among them are: Bob Wall, Jerry Taylor, Pat Johnson, John Natividad, Howard Jackson, Ralph Alegria, Darnell Garcia, and Bob Burbidge, Chip Wright, Danny Lane, among many, many others.

    In April 1963 Master Duk Sung Son, president of the World Tae Kwon Do Association, immigrated to the U.S. and began teaching in and around New York City. Within a few years, Son was teaching his art at Princeton, N.Y., Brown and Fordham Universities, and later at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point.

    Francisco Conde in 1963 initiated classes exclusively for females at the Women's Karate Club of Fort Meade, Maryland. There his wife, Kathleen, received some of her early training before going on to become one of the premier black belt competitors in her region. Known for his tournament promotions, as early as 1963 Conde became a driving force behind many of the regional activities of the Mid-Atlantic states.

    Roger Carpenter, a black belt student of George Pesare, came to Wichita, Kans., in Sept. 1963. Carpenter taught karate for two years at churches, YMCAs, and a National Guard Armory. In the spring of 1965, he opened the first commercial karate school in Wichita. By 1964, Jim Harrison had also established a school in Kansas City.

    In Denver, Shotokan stylist Joe Costello(d.1973), from Hawaii, opened a dojo downtown. That same year, Ralph Krause opened the first of an eventual chain of karate schools in Colorado.

    Ki Whang Kim, a highly respected tae kwon do master, organized a YMCA class in Washington, D.C., in 1963. This class produced some outstanding D.C. martial artists including John Camance Albert Cheeks, Phil Cunningham, Mike Warren, Furman Marshall, and John Mickens. During the 1970s Mike Warren was widely considered to be America's best tournament fighter and, indisputably, one of the best technicians in the sport.

    Lou Angel, Jack Hwang, and Bill Brisco, all of Oklahoma City, are the recognized pioneers of karate in Oklahoma. Angel, a former U.S. Marine and student of Peter Urban, arrived in Oklahoma at an unspecified date in the early 1960s. He is best known for having produced the Tulsa Southwest Karate Championships in 1963 where Mike Stone would launch his impressive fighting career. Stone, then still a brown belt, became an overnight sensation by winning first place in the sparring division and soon rose to prominence as the sport's first superstar.

    Jack Hwang, a pioneer of tee kwon do, immigrated to the U.S. in 1960. He taught quietly until opening his first school in Oklahoma City in 1964. In 1965, Hwang produced his inaugural All American Open Karate Championships, which is a highlight of the southwestern karate circuit.

    Marine sergeant Sam Pearson, a disciple of Master Eizo Shimabuku, founded a shorin-ryu karate club in 1963 at Camp LeJeune, N.C. His most famous student is the aforementioned Glenn Premru of Pittsburgh, who would become one of the sport's first corps of great kata champions and flamboyant performers.

    Tournaments The early 1960s brought the first American karate tournaments. Until 1963 several local and at best, regional competitions were organized in different parts of the U.S Principal among these early events were the All America Karate Championships and the North American Karate Championships. The former was held in Los Angeles in Dec.1961 by Hidetaka Nishiyama, concurrent with his formulation of the All America Karate
    Federation. Nishiyama chose as the tournament site the Olympic Auditorium, the West Coast boxing center. The tournament was produced as a fund-raiser for the March for Muscular Dystrophy. Participants were chiefly members of the Shotokan style of karate, but some came from as far as Canada and Hawaii.

    The North American Karate Championships, conducted on Nov. 24,1962, was the first karate tournament held at Madison Square Garden, and the first open karate competition in America. Here, Mas Oyama appeared for the second time in his illustrious career, and this time the appearance was not for the purpose of demonstrating karate's superiority to professional boxing and wrestling. Preceding the finals, Oyama presented one of his impressive breaking routines, crushing rocks, bricks, and boards with his bare hands, feats even at that time considered phenomenal by the American public. Gary Alexander, one of the early wave of "fighting" instructors, won the black belt sparring championship. In 1963 he established his first school in New Jersey and began promoting notable karate tournaments himself.

    On July 28,1963, Robert Trias and John Keehan jointly hosted the 1st World Karate Tournament at the University of Chicago Fieldhouse, gathering contestants and officials from around the country. This was the first truly national American karate tournament and the forerunner of the many subsequent tournaments using and abusing the title of "World Championship." To date, this misnomer has been attached by various promoters to more than 20 North American karate tournaments. Clearly, it is an inexact title, since the participants do not come from all over the world.

    Tournament titles were not an issue, however, during the embryonic stage. What is important is that Trias' event attracted most of the prominent American karateka. What took place in Chicago set a precedent for the emergence of large-scale, national-caliber competitions. This particular event was retitled the USKA Nationals in 1966, and in 1968 adopted its present title, the USKA Grand Nationals. It is one of the longest-running annual karate tournaments in America.

    Also in 1963, Texan Allen Steen inaugurated his Dallas Southwest Karate Championships, in which Mike Stone, still a brown belt, won the black belt fighting division. Steen's tournament was retitled in 1965 the U.S. Karate Championships. David Moon, one of the few Asian instructors competing in open sparring divisions, won the first of three consecutive grand championships there. The tournament maintained its national prestige until the mid-1970s.

    During this period many judo and jujutsu black belts had begun studying karate; their styles were often unrefined. Some were the recipients of "cross-over" ranks, i.e., because of their proficiency in one art they might receive den rank in karate.

    As each generation of American karate black belts became progressively more polished, fluid, and performance-conscious, the old ex-judo/ jujutsu converts appeared out of touch with new developments in the art. Despite criticism, many of these same figures were responsible for introducing the martial arts to
    individuals who would later make contributions to the growth of American karate. One of these, Jerry Durant,
    trained tap fighter Artis Simmons as well as Art Sykes, William Cavalier and Vince Christeano.

    In 1964 Trias again staged his World Championships in Chicago, but this year two new tournaments shared the spotlight. The first was Ed Parker's International Karate Championships in Long Beach, Calif. Parker's tournament, like Trias 'the year before, attracted the biggest names in American karate.

    Mike Stone became the event's first grand champion, an accomplishment overshadowed historically by the results of a demonstration presented there by an unknown Chinese stylist named Bruce Lee.

    Lee was a sensation. Demonstrating his skills, he sent partners reeling backward with his 1 -inch punch, a technique that became a personal trademark. Lee's performance left a lasting impression on many practitioners and non-martial-artist spectators.

    Parker's Internationals grew in size and prestige until about 1976, reaching its zenith in 1974, when Parker drew a record-setting 6,000 contestants. In 1975 Parker awarded prize money totaling $16,250 the largest yet at an American Pro/Am tournament.

    The second prominent event of 1964 was Jhoon Rhee's U.S. National Karate Championships, held in Washington, D.C. Pat Burleson of Texas, winner of the black belt grand championship, joined Al Gene Caraulia in becoming the first recognized national champion of the new sport. Today Burleson is looked upon as the "granddaddy" of tournament fighters and the first genuine star in the sport.

    In late 1964 Mahn Suh Park produced the first open tournament in Philadelphia, the Globe Tae Gyun Championships; it became an annual promotion enjoying steady growth.

    Jhoon Rhee pulled off a coup in 1965: he persuaded Wide World of Sports to film and subsequently broadcast segments of his U.S. National Karate Championships. His was the first American karate tournament to receive television coverage from a network sports program. However, a heated match for the grand championship between Stone and Walt Worthy, in which there was bloodshed and heavy contact, earned the displeasure of the show's producers. Select excerpts only were broadcast. And the program ignored the sport for the next nine years.

    It is important to recall here the nature of competition in this period. It was a time of bloodshed and brutality. Historians have called it-suitably-the "blood and guts era" of American sport karate, a period spanning from 1963, when the major open tournaments began, to roughly 1970, when the sport temporarily graduated to its first kick-boxing phase. During this time tournaments were an arena for only the most courageous karate fighters, with a high tolerance for absorbing punishment. The type of sparring then popular is called "non contact" or "light contact." Rules stipulated closely pulled blows to the face and only light body contact. Excessive contact was grounds for disqualification. Despite this general rule, heavy contact to both the face and body was so common that competitors and officials alike appeared to accept it. The techniques, crude and calamitous by today's standards, were as unrefined as the rules governing the infant sport. A fighter might break an opponent's bones or knock him into the grandstand and not be disqualified. If he was a true fighter, the opponent was expected to come back and dish out the same punishment he had received.

    The Second Generation In karate instruction a virtual explosion took place from 1964 onward, not only in the U.S., but in Canada, South America, Europe, and Asia. Ex-military personnel, having studied the martial arts in the Orient, returned home en masse to open karate schools. Augmenting this rapid growth were the second generation, students of the original pioneers, who concurrently established studios of their own.

    In Sept.1964 the Institute of Technology in Pasadena adopted a regular course of karate instruction supervised by Tsutomu Ohshima. This is the first known karate program to have been accepted as an accredited course by an American college.

    The move to establish karate as part of the educational curriculum had enjoyed widespread success in Japan. Thus, the early Japanese stylists in the U.S. concentrated on this aim. Later, the Korean tae kwon do instructors, perhaps even more meticulously organized, likewise made significant progress toward gaining acceptance for the martial arts in American institutions of higher learning.

    In Beaver Falls, Pa., Willie Wetzel, a master of pukulan, was one of the first instructors of an Indonesian discipline to surface in the U.S. ne of his students, Barbara Niggel, in the mid-1970s distinguished herself as a national kata champion.

    Pauline Short should probably be called the "mother of American karate." Short opened in 1965 the first karate school exclusively catering to a female clientele, in Portland, Oreg. In 1975 she became one of the nation's top 10 female fighters.

    Also in 1964, Bill Readers emerged in Erie, Pa. He trained Art Sykes.

    In 1965 Glenn Premru returned to Pittsburgh, having trained with Shorin-ryu instructor Sam
    Pearson. He opened a dojo in the North Hills section of town.

    Mike Stone became the first superstar of the sport. He had dominated competition since 1963, and by the time of his retirement had been active for only eighteen months. Although he competed in a total of nine tournaments, all of them were large-scale events featuring highly rated fighters. Stone won in 1965 what could be considered Karate's Triple Crown: the Internationals in Long Beach, U.S. Nationals in Washington, D.C., and World Championships in Chicago. Although Stone claims to have won 89 consecutive black belt matches, the record shows that he lost a grand championship match in the middle of his run, at the 1964 Western U.S. Karate Championships in Salt Lake City. (Stone won the heavyweight title, but was defeated by Dave Johnson
    in the grand championship play-off.)

    The first genuine martial arts craze in America began in 1966, when Bruce Lee made his acting debut as Kato in the Green Hornet TV series. From Sept. 9, the weekly series remained on the air until Mar. 17,1967. There were 26 half-hour episodes, and reruns began in 1968. Although this series was short-lived, Lee's provocative kung-fu action in the show's numerous fight scenes stirred the public's imagination. Thousands of new students became
    involved in the martial arts. This development seemed to prove that the popularity and acceptance of the Asian martial arts was directly related to the degree of its exposure in the visual media.

    The year 1966 marked the competitive debut of Joe Lewis, who had distinguished himself quickly, earning his black belt in Okinawa in a mere seven months. With just twenty-two months of training, Lewis entered his first tournament in 1966, Rhee's U.S. Nationals. He won the black belt championship, using one technique exclusively, the side kick Astonishingly, no opponent scored a single point against him. Demonstrating his versatility, Lewis also won the black belt kata championship.

    During the late 1960s the number of karate tournaments swelled substantially on a state, regional, and especially, on the national level. Yet, as the sport grew, so did its problems. Promoters disagreed on rules and procedures; the sport suffered from a lack of unification and standardization, a problem that continues to plague it today.

    These difficulties did not impede two rising tournament stars, both of whom became recognized world champions: Chuck Norris and Skipper Mullins.

    After losing the 1966 Internationals grand championship to Allen Steen, Norris came back to win the grand title two years running, 1967 and 1968. He also won the grand title of the 1967 and 1968 Al1 American Karate Championships, produced by S Henry Cho in New York.

    Norris was an innovator in combination techniques; until his arrival fighters usually delivered only one technique to score a point. After his victories combinations became standard in the sport.

    Skipper Mullins, 6 feet, 150 Ibs., was heralded as the fastest kicker in karate. Many of his victories were the result of whiplike kicks, at a time when punchers dominated the tournament circuit. Mullins rose to prominence on lightweight and middleweight victories in the Al1 American Karate Championships, produced by Jack Hwang in Oklahoma City, and the Top 10 Championships. In one weekend in Feb 1967 Mullins fought in New York City on Friday, Dallas on Saturday, and Los Angeles on Sunday.

    Norris and Mullins, with Mike Stone and Joe Lewis, the great karate champions of the 1960s-only Lewis continued competing into the 1970s

    Team Competition In 1967, in New York City, team competition was introduced. The concept was originated by Aaron Banks, who became karate's most prolific promoter. Banks started the team competition format, producing the first team event of national caliber in 1968, the East Coast vs. West Coast Team Championships. The victorious West Coast contingent was represented by Joe Lewis, Steve Sanders, Chuck Norris, and Jerry Taylor. Representatives for the East Coast were Thomas LaPuppet, Joe Hayes, Kazuyoshi Tanaka, and Louis Delgado.

    Team competition was soon adopted by karate promoters throughout the country. Banks also deserves credit for keeping sport karate flourishing in New York when others could not: from 1967 to 1975 his over 100 flamboyant productions gave regional exposure to aspiring East Coast competitors.

    The Sport Turns Professional For five years, from 1963-68, sport karate had grown strictly on an amateur basis. In 1968 several promoters endeavored independently to add a professional dimension, offering prize money to victorious fighters and meeting the expenses of star names participating in the events.

    In Feb. 1968 Jim Harrison staged the 1st World Professional Karate Championships (WPKC), the first of a string of tournaments to use this popular title. In principle, at least, this was the first professional tournament in the history of American karate. Harrison conducted the event in his Kansas City dojo, two days after Allen Steen's U.S. Championships in Dallas. Many top fighters were invited, but in view of Harrison's permissive rules, which endorsed heavy contact, only six fighters participated. They were: Joe Lewis, Bob Wall, Skipper Mullins, J. Pat Burleson, David Moon, and Fred Wren. Several fighters suffered broken ribs and noses and were forced to forfeit. Lewis won the title, becoming karate's first paid professional fighter when Harrison awarded him
    the token sum of one dollar.

    In Aug.1968 Robert Trias and Atlee Chittim produced the World's Hemisphere Karate Championships in San Antonio, Tex. The second professional
    karate promotion held in the U.S., this was the first to be conducted as a genuine tournament. Victor Moore of Ohio won the grand championship in a
    spirited battle with Joe Lewis and took a purse of $500. (Lewis also took away
    $500, a contract guarantee.)

    The most important professional karate event of the decade was Aaron Banks' World Professional Karate Championship, produced on Nov.24, 1968, at
    the Waldorf Astoria Hotel in New York City. This invitational established four fighters as recognized world champions. In contrast to Harrison's event, each
    champion was paid $600. And Banks paid all of his ringside personnel, from officials to the announcer.

    The champions were heavyweight Joe Lewis (over Victor Moore); light-heavyweight Mike Stone over Bob Taiani middleweight Chuck Norris (over Louis
    Delgado); and lightweight Skipper Mullins (over Kazuyoshi Tanaka). There were subsequent protests disputing the event's status as a legitimate world
    championship, in the sense that the contestants were predominantly American, but no one disputed the world-class skill of the four winners. (Only Norris
    returned in 1969 to defend-successfully-his title.)

    Another karate competitor who made his bid for national prominence at this time was Ron Marchini of Stockton, Calif. He won Henry Cho's Tournament of
    Champions in 1968 in New York City, and then went on to distinguish himself as one of the top competitors of the late 1960s and early 1970s.

    Challenges to authority and inconsistent tournament regulations became the rule rather than
    the exception, though tournament planning was steadily improving. The amount of promiscuous contact in tournaments became a destructive issue, and
    injuries increased dramatically, often because of inexperienced and intimidated officials. Some believed the sport should encourage contact; others
    wanted contact barred.

    Commercial karate came of age in 1969. Women and children flocked to the schools, as more and more instructors expanded classes to accommodate
    them.

    In 1968, two influential martial artists, Jay T. Will, and Al Gene Caraulia established schools in Ohio. Will, a student of Ed Parker and Scott Loring, had
    relocated from San Jose, Calif., to Columbus, opening the very first Tracy's karate franchise in the U.S. Caraulia, the winner of Robert Trias' 1963 World
    Championships, had relocated to Cleveland from Chicago.

    In 1969, Sok Ho Kang, a Korean Tae Kwon Do and World Champion, made his way to Huntington, West Virginia where he opened his first studio. In early
    1970 he meet Danny Lane, a highly decorated U.S.Marine who had justed returned from Vietnam. Danny became a police officer and went on to become
    Master Kang's most famous student. Within 5 years Danny become one of Tae Kwon Do's top competitiors winning the 1975,76,77, U.S. Open Tae
    Kwon Do Championships after competing for years and walking in the shawdows Tae Kwon Do greats Joe Hayes, Mike Warren, Albert Cheeks, George
    Thanos, Gerald Robbins, and many more. Master Kang took Danny to Korea in 1975 then only as a second degree black belt and put him up against the
    6th and 7th degree masters in dozens of matches. Danny came out victorious in all the bouts which developed a stir and talk among the Tae Kwon Do
    community. Master Kang and Danny went on to open a sucessful chain of Tae Kwon Do Schools in the West Virginia, Ohio, and Kentucky area. Danny
    also turned to professional kickboxing where he was undefeated as a professional in the middleweight division and was rated in the top ten by PKA when
    he retired. Danny started working out with Chuck Norris and in 1980 became one of his black belts. Danny returned to the ring in the 80's to win (6) Chuck
    Norris National UFAF Championships and again in the 90's as he won the 1994 National Ju-Jitsu Masters Championships. He still runs the same school
    that Master Kang opened in Huntington in 1970.

    Until 1965 the Japanese styles had the largest following in the U S, but by 1967 Okinawan karate was attracting more students. In 1969, with the great
    influx of Korean immigrants, tae kwon do suddenly outdrew the others. More than ever before, practitioners were changing from one style to another.
    Consequently, interest in organizations and unification dwindled.

    The Birth of Full-Contact Karate Joe Lewis objected to the unrealistic structure of noncontact karate, in which blows were to be pulled short of actual
    contact. Its nature was to score points without producing results-what Bruce Lee called "swimming on dry land." At the peak of Lewis' disenchantment,
    which had began as early as 1969, he started training with, and was influenced by, Bruce Lee and ranked heavyweight boxer Joey Orbill. He began
    training in various Los Angeles boxing gyms, with the intention of becoming a professional boxer.

    In late 1969 Lewis was contacted by Los Angeles promoter Lee Faulkner, who was organizing a major noncontact team contest in which he wanted
    Lewis to participate. Lewis agreed on the condition that Faulkner permit him to fight also in a full-contact match. Faulkner agreed to promote the bout, but
    only if Lewis fought in the team event as well. Lewis searched frantically for a suitable opponent. After repeated rejections from top karate fighters, he
    found Greg Baines, a San Jose kenpo stylist, who agreed to meet Lewis under full-contact conditions

    The bout, preceded by the U.S. Team Championship, took place on Jan. 17, 1970, at the Long Beach Sports Arena. Results of the contests were
    victories for Lewis, by a 2nd-round knockout, and for a West Coast team composed of Lewis, Mike Stone, Bob Wall, Chuck Norris, and Skipper Mullins.
    And, while the Lewis/Baines bout had been promoted as the "first full-contact" championship, during the fight itself the uninformed announcer inadvertently
    but repeatedly called it "American kick-boxing." The announcer's blunder caught on, and Lewis became known for having pioneered American kick-boxing.
    The term "full-contact karate" would not be used until several years later. In this its original form, full-contact karate survived for only a year; Lewis
    successfully defended his title during that year ten times, with no opponent lasting past the 2nd round. The Jan. 17 team bout also marked the last fight in
    Chuck Norris' brilliant competitive career.

    Karate in the 1970s Pat Johnson of Sherman Oaks, Calif., a nationally respected tournament referee, originated the "penalty point" system for excessive
    contact in 1970. The "Johnson Ruling," as it was called by Karate Illustrated, essentially ended the uncontrolled "blood and guts era" of noncontact sport
    karate. Johnson's innovation, introduced at the National Black Belt Championships in Albuquerque, is used as a standard today in every U.S. karate
    tournament. Under this rule, competitors who make excessive contact forfeit one point; any degree of dangerous contact results in disqualification.

    The year 1970 also marked the emergence of amateur sport karate on a truly international scale: 32 nations took part in the 1st WUKO World Karate
    Championships at Tokyo's Budokan. A conference held prior to the event had resulted in the name of World Union of Karate-do Organizations (WUKO).
    Qualification and participation rules, however, were ill-defined and the competition rules were those used by the Japanese. WUKO had no constitution or
    organizational rules covering the tournament. As such, Japan was permitted to have four teams competing and the U.S. three. Al1 other nations had one.
    The U.S. members had been selected by extensive negotiations among the principal U.S. Japanese karate stylists. The only nationally known U.S.
    member was Tonny Tulleners of Los Angeles; he won third place in individual fighting at the WUKO event.

    The disorganization of the 1st WUKO World Championships was the chief reason for the eventual existence of two organizations governing international
    amateur karate: WUKO and the International Amateur Karate Federation (IAKF) with Los Angeles' Hidetaka Nishiyama the elected executive director as of
    1974, when the association was formed. The struggle to organize international karate has engaged these two bodies since then. The goal is a worthy one:
    Olympic recognition and acceptance for the sport.

    The AAKF resisted a move in 1973 by the AAU to relinquish its rights as the international karate representative of the U.S. in WUKO, and subsequently
    resigned its membership in the AAU. Afterwards, the AAU formed its own karate committee with Caylor Adkins, a student of Tsutomu Ohshima, named its
    first chairman. So bitter were the political conflicts that in 1976 Adkins dropped out of karate altogether and moved from Los Angeles to a farm in middle
    America.

    In Thailand, its homeland, kick-boxing, or more properly, Muay Thai (Thai kick-boxing) was-and is-the national pastime. In America, however, it failed
    dismally. In 1971 American kick-boxing died almost as suddenly as it had begun. There was virtually no spectator support, and promoters were losing
    more money than ever before. Along with kick-boxing, professional karate, in its noncontact form, also died. Chuck Norris held perhaps the last important
    pro tournament of the initial era. His 2nd World Pro/Am Championships of 1971 attracted a large representation of top-rated fighters, but barely 1,000
    spectators showed up at the spacious Los Angeles Sports Arena where it was staged.

    In the 1970s, the ties between parent schools in Korea and tae kwon do instructors in the U.S. had been weakened by a decade of separation
    and"Americanization." Consequently, a number of regional tae kwon do associations were born. On the nation's college and university campuses the
    American Tae Kwon Do Coaches Association and the American Collegiate Tae Kwon Do Association were created in 1972. These organizations worked
    jointly to send a U.S. team to the inaugural World Tae Kwon Do Championships in 1973, at which the U.S. team placed second, and the 2nd World
    Championships in 1974, both held in Seoul, Korea.

    The most significant development of 1971 was the advent of the "Longstreet" television series, co-starring Bruce Lee. Unlike productions that had
    preceded it, the one-hour season opener actually identified the art being shown and was the first to explain on screen the philosophy behind the Asian
    fighting arts. The program was a showcase for Lee's innovative teaching methods. Cast as a martial arts master, Lee taught the blind detective,
    Longstreet (James Franciscus), how to protect himself, through both the physical maneuvers of jeet kune do and Lee's personal philosophy. That
    particular show is now considered by many martial arts aficionados Bruce Lee's best work on film, and it has become a classic. The season opener was
    written by Stirling Silliphant, one of Lee's students.

    This year marked the rise to stardom of Bill Wallace, who rocketed from virtual obscurity to
    America's number-1 -ranked karate fighter, a position he also held in 1972 and again in 1974. Wallace won Allen Steen's highly competitive U.S.
    Championships and the USKA Grand Nationals.

    In 1972 an astonishing growth occurred in the martial arts. Much of it was directly attributable to the martial arts' sudden emergence as a bone fide
    entertainment vehicle. It began when filmmaker Tom Laughlin released Billy Jack in which he starred. Although the karate sequences in Billy Jack took but
    a few minutes of screen time, they were climactic. Filmed in slow motion, with hapkido master Bong Soo Han doubling for Laughlin, they demonstrated
    more than any previous motion picture the electrifying visual aspects of the martial arts.

    Bruce Lee's Fists of Fury, released on the heels of Billy Jack, became one of the first Chinese films to be distributed to general movie theaters. In the
    Orient, it unexpectedly broke all box-office records, eventually surpassing the longstanding hit, The Sound of Music. Shortly afterward, Lee's second film
    venture with Raymond Chow, Fist of Fury (The Chinese Connection in the U.S.), eclipsed the success of its predecessor and catapulted Lee to stardom
    as the biggest box-office draw in the history of Asian cinema.

    Back in the U.S., the mounting martial arts mania was accommodated by an influx of Hong Kong kung-fu films that virtually flooded the American market.
    Critics labeled them "Eastern Westerns" or "chop-sockeye." But the trend found its way into big-budget projects such as Red Sun, starring Charles
    Bronson and Toshiro Mifune, and The Mechanic, again starring Bronson and featuring Hollywood karate master Tak Kubota.

    Kung Fu, starring David Carradine, aired as an ABC-TV Movie of the Week on Aug. 8, 1972. This weekly series, which showcased martial arts philosophy
    as well as physical, had a positive effect on the trend, introducing martial arts on a regular basis directly to American living rooms.

    The need for stuntmen familiar with the martial arts grew. Conventional Hollywood stuntmen were at the time inexperienced in the arts, and martial artists
    poured into Hollywood casting offices. Some of the more flamboyant and fortunate were catapulted to stardom. With the release of Melinda, Los Angeles'
    Jim Kelly, hired as a fight-scene choreographer, was made a co-star. Kelly went on to star in Enter the Dragon, Black Belt Jones, The Golden Needles,

    Also in 1972 Emil Farkas founded Creative Action Associates, the first martial arts company to cater to the motion picture and television industries. His
    company set up action sequences for shows such as "The FB.I.," "Mannix," "Mod Squad," "Mission Impossible," "Spiderman," and many others.

    Hungarian-born Farkas came to the U.S. in 1965 with black belts in judo and karate. He began giving private lessons to some of Hollywood's top
    celebrities, among them Phil Spector, the Beach Boys, Herb Alpert, Jimmy Caan, Dennis Hopper, Fred Williamson, etc. Through his students Farkas
    gained entrance to Hollywood's inner circle and soon was working regularly on T.V. shows and features as a fight choreographer and stuntman.

    Joe Lewis unexpectedly announced his retirement in 1972. During his tenure as champion, Lewis amassed more than 30 major titles. He was the only
    four-time grand champion of the U.S. National Karate Championships (1966-69) and the only three-time grand champion of the International Karate
    Championships (1969-71).

    Coincidental with the entertainment craze, tournament karate was thriving as never before. In
    1972 Mike Stone, now a promoter, conceived the first tournament franchise. Earlier, Stone, together with Chuck Norris and Bob Wall, had created the
    Four Seasons Karate Championships, a quarterly series of contests held in southern California. When the others lost interest, Stone maintained the
    tournaments. In 1972 he sold its name and concept to promoters in other parts of the country and created the Four Seasons Nationals in Las Vegas as
    the culminating event of the network.

    Public interest in martial arts reached its zenith in 1973. Thousands of spectators who formerly had no interest in karate supported tournaments as never
    before. And theaters showcasing martial arts films were doing great box-office business.

    Meanwhile, in Hong Kong, Bruce Lee was working constantly. Following Way of the Dragon, his third hit, he immediately started production on Game ot
    Death. But the film was interrupted when Lee received a co-production offer from Warner Bros. to star in Enter the Dragon. Enter the Dragon was the first
    co-production between Chinese and Hollywood filmmakers. On July 20, 1973, shortly before the U.S. release of Enter the Dragon, the world was
    staggered by the unexpected death of Bruce Lee in Hong Kong.

    Only 32, he allegedly died from acute brain swelling, the cause of which remains enigmatic.
    Lee's chief jeet kune do protg is Dan Inosanto.

    Enter the Dragon became the king of martial arts movies, the unsurpassed classic of the genre. Today, this picture stands out as one of the most
    profitable in international cinema history. Though numerous imitators attempted to replace Lee, no one could duplicate his spectacular success. By 1974
    the martial arts craze, commonly called the "Bruce Lee Era" began tapering off.

    Professional Karate Revival The comeback began in the summer of 1973, when Oklahoman Mike Anderson published his inaugural edition of
    Professional Karate Magazine. Anderson openly campaigned for the restoration of professional karate, backed by his quarterly publication and his
    compilation of national and regional ratings of karate players. Widespread acceptance of these ratings revolutionized the ratings polls, making Black Belt's
    annual Top 10 rating antiquated by comparison.

    Shortly after the release of his inaugural issue, Anderson staged his Top 10 Nationals in St.
    Louis. Anderson offered a$1,000 grand championship purse, a precedent immediately adopted by other major promoters. The event was the first to make
    mandatory the use of Jhoon Rhee's newly created Sate-T Equipment in the black belt fighting divisions. This innovation launched a new form of karate
    fighting, which in 1974 was dubbed "semicontact" by martial arts journalist John Corcoran. The use of Safe-T Equipment, basically foam rubber hand and
    foot pads, added excitement to competition, safely permitting moderate contact to both the face and body.

    At this event Los Angeles' Howard Jackson won the grand championship and prize money. At 5 feet 5 inches, 152 Ibs, Jackson became the first
    lightweight to dominate his sport and professional karate's biggest money winner of 1973.

    Jackson had usurped Bill Wallace, at the time America's top tournament fighter. Wallace was a sport karate phenomenon in that he gained most of his
    victories by relying on one technique exclusively, a left-footed whip-like roundhouse kick. His kicks were clocked at an incredible delivery speed ot 60
    m.p.h., and when he later became the premier star of full-contact karate, he was aptly nicknamed "Superfoot "

    On June 4, 1973, John Corcoran was hired as book editor for Ohara Publications, the sister company of Rainbow Publications, publishers of Black Belt
    and Karate Illustrated. By the end of the year, he had begun to work on both magazines as assistant editor. Corcoran was the first karate black belt to
    become an editor of these publications, and he rose to prominence as one of the first genuine martial arts journalists in America. He was preceded as a
    black belt editor only by Official Karate's Al Weiss. Corcoran was a student of Glenn Premru.

    Corcoran was hired the same week as Jerry Smith, a commercial artist, who was also a black belt and a disciple of Joe Lewis. The pair formed an
    intimate friendship and Corcoran continued his martial arts studies with Smith, who was to become recognized as one of the first full-contact karate
    coaches in the U.S.

    In Aug.1974 Ed Parker offered a winner-take-all purse of $2,500 for the grand champion of his International Karate Championships in Long Beach. In a
    spectacular 25-point overtime match, John Natividad, a student of Chuck Norris and Jerry Taylor, defeated Benny Urquidez,13-12. Even today, spectators
    debate the outcome of this classic contest; some believe Urquidez, a regional favorite, scored an overtime point against the favored Natividad before the
    latter landed his conclusive point. Historians call it one of the greatest bouts of the light-contact era.

    The continuing martial arts mania kept business flourishing through 1974. Aaron Banks' Oriental World of Self-Defense, an annual production of martial
    arts demonstrations, set a gate record in its field. The promotion, held at Madison Square Garden, attracted 19,564 spectators,according to Banks. The
    paid live gate reportedly reached $100,000. The event was aired on
    ABC's "Wide World of Sports."

    Ken Min, of the University of California at Berkeley, conducted the first collegiate survey in
    1974 to determine how many schools offered karate, tae kwon do, and kung-fu classes on campus.

    Judo, which preceded other arts in its American migration, outranked all of them Of 596 colleges
    responding to the survey, 278 offered some type of judo program. At the same time, there was equal interest in karate, tee kwon do, and kung-fu. Of 448
    colleges reporting, 228 offered some type of program in one of these three disciplines.

    Joe Lewis and Tom Tannenbaum decided to resurrect full-contact karate. They planned to promote the World Professional Karate Championships. Lewis
    brought Mike Anderson into the deal and Anderson spent most of 1974 preparing for what was to become the most extraordinary promotion in American
    karate history. He spent months finding and establishing European and Asian representatives. German karate entrepreneur George Bruckner, Anderson's
    friend and business associate, conducted an elimination contest to determine European full-contact representatives. Three of the four American
    representatives were selected on the basis of their divisional supremacy in Professional Karate's ratings: they were lightweight Howard Jackson of Los
    Angeles, middleweight Bill Wallace of Memphis, and light heavyweight Jeff Smith of Washington, D.C. Joe Lewis, originally scheduled to co-host the
    event, chose to come out of retirement and fight as the heavyweight representative. Lewis was the only karate fighter with full-contact experience.

    Jeff Smith, during this year, had surpassed Jackson to become America's foremost tournament fighter. He was, in fact, named the 1974 "Fighter of the
    Year" by Professional Karate Magazine. A product of the rugged Texas school of karate, Smith had moved to the nation's capital in the early 1970s to
    teach for Jhoon Rhee.

    Two months before the event, in July 1974, Anderson relocated his operation to Los Angeles. In August he formed a promotion company with Beverly Hills
    business couple, Don and Judy Quine, who helped finalize negotiations with Universal Television. In late August, the Quines and Anderson formed the
    Professional Karate Association (PKA), the sport's first sanctioning body, to establish full-contact karate as a major professional sport with recognized
    champions, standardized rules, and network television coverage of its bouts. Anderson also persuaded Bob McLaughlin and John Corcoran, editors of
    Black Belt and Karate Illustrated, to work jointly as editors of Professional Karate. Instead of editing, however, the two worked feverishly on the fast
    approaching World Championships.

    On the night of Sept.14, 1974, at the Los Angeles Sports Arena, 14 fighters from eight countries vied in a double elimination for the inaugural titles. Four
    emerged as world professional full-contact champions: heavyweight Joe Lewis, light heavyweight Jeff Smith, middleweight Bill Wallace, and lightweight
    Isaias Duenas of Mexico City. Among the American entrants, only Howard Jackson, suffering from a severe knee injury, lost his bid for the title. This
    extravaganza drew one of the largest live gates for competition karate, $50,000, and attracted more than 10,000 spectators. Anderson awarded an
    unprecedented $20,000 in total prize money Each champion earned $3,000, while runners-up received a smaller purse. All fourteen participants were
    given a guaranteed minimum. Much of this impressive news soured, however, when Anderson later reported a personal loss exceeding $60,000. Tom
    Tannenbaum sold the broadcast rights to ABC's "Wide World of Entertainment." The event aired twice as a 90-minute special, the first time acquiring the
    highest rating of a "Wide World" special for 1974.

    Great controversy ensued. The traditional karate community contended that full-contact degraded the art form and would have a negative influence on
    school enrollments. This faction felt the television coverage for the sport gave the impression that full-contact was taught in schools everywhere as a
    required course of learning and would therefore discourage parents from enrolling their children. Moreover, detractors protested the association of the
    word "karate" with full-contact and vocally sought a name change to "kick-boxing."

    It wasn't to be. For one, the sport could only be sold to television because of the popularity of
    karate. It was a word and an activity with which television executives were familiar. Kick-boxing,
    on the other hand, was associated with the far more brutal sport popular in Thailand and Japan. When its promoters attempted to get it on American
    television, they failed. TV executives felt it was too violent. Consequently, the name "full-contact karate" was retained.

    In Oct. 1974 tae kwon do was recognized as an amateur sport separate from karate by the AAU. This development was chiefly due to the efforts of Ken
    Min, tae kwon do coach of Berkeley University, with the support and aid of members of the AAU Judo Committee and a dozen tae kwon do masters. A
    number of important tournaments-starting with the 1st AAU Invitational Tae Kwon Do Championships in June 1974, held at Berkeley under Min's able
    direction, through the 1st National AAU Tae Kwon Do Championships, conducted at Yale university in Mar. 1975, and the Mar 1976 version held in Kansas
    City-promoted and publicized the sport aspect of this Korean art.

    It was in Kansas City that a U.S. tae kwon do federation was conceived with the purpose of supporting the National AAU Tae Kwon Do Committee. Tae
    Kwon Do programs in American universities reached a new level of progress with the advent of the 1st National Collegiate Tae Kwon Do Championships,
    held at Nicholls State University in Thibodaux, La.

    From 1975 onward, two activities dominated the martial arts: films and the sport. These continue to be the most active and visible aspects of the industry,
    based simply on mass exposure through the various media.

    The year 1975 was one of economic disaster, signaling the beginning of the end of the martial arts movie boom. The industry suffered a double blow
    when it was victimized jointly by the depressed national economy and the pronounced tapering off of martial arts in the cinema. Some instructors blamed
    the new full-contact movement for deteriorating enrollments at the school level. Others felt it was not the sport itself, but poorly conditioned fighters and
    unprofessional promotions.

    Following the inaugural world championships, a rash of full-contact promotions broke out in 1975, spreading to epidemic proportions. At one point in Los
    Angeles alone, hardly a week passed without a full-contact event. Within a year of its birth, no less than seven full-contact karate organizations sprang up.
    Their organizers were convinced that the infant sport and its potential sales appeal to television might be the financial salvation of the declining martial arts
    industry. It wasn't.

    In all fairness, the army of inept promoters who tried to capitalize on the young sport were not totally at fault. Some blame has to be shared by the fighters
    themselves. Many entered the ring preposterously under conditioned, and none of them had any ring experience.

    Those organizations that moved into the promotional end of the sport in 1975 were: Tommy Lee's World Series of Martial Arts; Jhoon Rhee's World Black
    Belt League (WBBL), a team concept; Joe Corley's South East Professional Karate Commission (SEPKC); Aaron Banks' World Professional Karate
    Organization (WPKO); and Larry Scott's and Valerie Williams' National Karate League (NKL), another team concept. Each association created its own
    rules, sanctioned its own promotions, and established its own champions. Each independently sought television exposure for its promotions. Of these
    early organizations only two remain: Banks' WPKO and Rhee's WBBL.

    The Scott/Williams NKL featured Benny Urquidez as its premier star. Urquidez quickly accumulated the most impressive record in his sport by virtue of
    his consistent victories in 3- and 5-round NKL team bouts across the country. However, the NKL was under-financed and suffered major losses. It
    disbanded in 1976. Its principals left substantial debts in their wake, as well as a negative business reputation for karate in general.

    In 1975, 50 million viewers saw full-contact karate when Jeff Smith defeated Karriem Allah. The closed-circuit broadcast was a preliminary card to the
    Muhammad Ali/Joe Frazier "Thrilla in Manila" fight.

    On May 3, 1975, the PKA, in conjunction with Joe Corley's Battle ot Atlanta in Georgia, produced a full-contact card whose main event the
    much-acclaimed bout between Corley himself and Bill Wallace. It marked the first title defense of the new sport and, as in Los Angeles, it attracted more
    than 10,000 spectators to the Omni Arena. Wallace retained his crown with a 9th-round TKO.

    Notable at this event were two new concepts: the addition of professional kata competition to the regular competition, an innovation of Mike Anderson's at
    his Top 10 Nationals in St. Louis; and the introduction of martial ballet, created by Jhoon Rhee, in which a team of black belts perform a synchronized kata
    routine to classical music. This latter concept served as the prototype of the musical kata divisions gaining popularity in American karate tournaments
    today.

    One week later, on May 10, Aaron Banks conducted a title defense held under the auspices of his WPKO. Presented at the Nassau Coliseum in New
    York, Banks' event later aired on ABC's "Wide World of Sports," a development creating a fierce dispute between Banks and the Quines, whose original
    PKA event had aired as an ABC network special. The PKA felt it was a conflict of interest on the part of ABC to air two different events that declared two
    different sets of "world champions." Banks' card crowned four divisional champions: heavyweight Joe Hess of New York (now of Florida), light
    heavyweight Fred Miller of New York, middleweight Kasim Dubar of NewYork, and lightweight Benny Urquidez of Los Angeles. By year's end, Urquidez
    was the leading money winner of his sport,having earned more than $30,000.

    In June 1975, Mike Anderson resigned as an executive officer of the PKA to pursue the promotion of the sport on his own. The Quines assumed complete
    control of the PKA, while Anderson eventually formed the World All-Style Karate Organization (WAKO) with George Bruckner in West Berlin, Germany. At
    the same time, Anderson's Professional Karate magazine was suffering from poor sales. He decided to move His operation back to Oklahoma City. Bob
    McLaughlin entered the public relations business; John Corcoran joined author Bob Wall as editor of Wall's self-published book, Who's Who in the Martial
    Arts. By autumn, Corcoran launched a full-time career as a free-lance writer specializing in the martial arts.

    Professional Karate, it must be emphasized, left a lasting mark in its field. No magazine before or after it had such a profound impact on all aspects of the sport, its participants, and its formation of a professional foundation. Through Professional Karate, careers were launched and professional karate athletes began to receive a degree of respect and admiration they had never before known. Most of these benefits can be directly attributed to the magazine's founder and publisher, Mike Anderson, who often put his money where his heart was to promote the sport.

    The movies of 1975 included the Stirling Silliphant-scripted The Killer Elite, directed by Sam Peckinpah. The film featured a bevy of West Coast martial artists clad in ninja disguises engaging in poorly staged fight scenes having nothing to do with ninjutsu. The Killer Elite suffered from production disputes and inferior editing. It did average box-office business.

    Bruce Lee: His Life and Legend, to which Warner Bros. devoted $200,000 in development costs, never advanced from preproduction. Warners launched a worldwide search for a candidate to play the lead role in this Bruce Lee bio, co-scripted by Linda Lee, Bruce's widow, and director Robert Clouse. Advertisements seeking the candidate were run in major newspapers across the U.S, and thousands of aspiring martial artists swarmed the Burbank studio applying for the role. Denver's Al Dacascos was given serious consideration. The producers eventually settled on Chinese-Canadian Alex Kwok of Vancouver. After changing his name to Alex Kwon, capping his teeth, and paying him a holding fee, the producers dropped the project and the film was never made.

    The big disappointment of 1975 was the final retirement of superstar Joe Lewis following two back-to-back nontitle defeats. Remarkably, in the last of these bouts, Lewis dislocated his right shoulder after the 1st round and, despite excruciating pain, continued fighting for the duration of the contest. He lost a seven-round decision to Ross Scott because of penalties for insufficient kicks.

    Ed Parker's Internationals in Aug.1975 awarded the largest sum of prize money ever for a Pro/Am karate tournament, a total of $16,250. Kata winners were awarded an overall $1,000 of that sum. The two figures stand as records to this day.

    Along with Washington vs. Dominican Republic team matches on Sept.14, 1975, Jhoon Rhee presented a special politician's semicontact division pitting a trio of Democrats against a Republican threesome in whet was called the Capitol Hill Grudge Bout. Presented under the auspices of Rhee's World Black Belt League, the novel division featured Democrats Rep. Walter Fauntroy (D.C.), Rep. Tom Bevill (Ala.), and Sen. Quentin Burdick (N.D.) against Republicans Rep. Willis Grandison, Jr. (Ohio), Rep. Floyd Spence (S.C.), and Sen. Ted Stevens (Alaska). The Congressmen appeared on behalf of the Freedom of the Press Foundation; they were members of Rhee's twice-weekly classes and have come to be known as the "Capitol Hill karate corps." (The match was drawn.)

    On Sept. 21, in conjunction with Georg Bruckner's All European Karate Championships, America's Gordon Franks met Mexico's Ramiro Guzman to decide who would emerge as the first world super lightweight champion of full-contact karate. Franks, then a Ramiro Guzman 20-year-old college student from Minneapolis, won the title in a unanimous 9-round decision. Promoted at the Deutschlandhalle Arena in West Berlin, it was the first full-contact world title fight to be staged in a foreign country. The promotional budget was reportedly $130,000, the single most expensive karate promotion up to that time. Franks, besides being the original champion in this 139-lb division, was also the first black fighter to become a full-contact world champion.

    Also in 1975, the 3rd WUKO World Karate-do Championships were held, for the first time in the U.S., at the Long Beach Arena. It was an uneventful tournament for the U.S. amateur karate athletes. The British team emerged as the new world champions, and the Japanese fighters, as usual, dominated the individual competition.

    In Black Belt's 1976 survey respondents in karate registered an 11 percent increase in students from 1975-76. Judo and tee kwon do registered no increase or decrease. Yet, many leaders in karate stated that a decline took place. One answer may be that the decline was registered in 1974-75 and that interest had picked up in this year. A statistic of interest was that 18 percent of all students in both 1975 and 1976 were female. Approximately 31 percent of all students were children,14 or younger. However, it was not clear from the survey that girls age 14 or younger were not also included in the female as well as the children's statistics.

    In 1976 the full-contact karate movement continued to be the pacesetter for the industry. By now, most of the smaller promoters found the expense prohibitive, and the more distinguished entrepreneurs took command of the sport. Most of the lavish events were filmed for television and appeared on sports shows such as "The Champions," "CBS Sports Spectacular," and the PKA's 90-minute "Sports Special of the Month."

    The year kicked off with champion Bill Wallace becoming the first karate athlete ever to participate in ABC's "Superstars" competition. Wallace appeared in the third set of eliminations on Jan. 31, which was broadcast nationwide on Feb. 7. Wallace placed in two events, but finished only tenth out of 11 entrants in his elimination series, besting Lynn Swann of the Pittsburgh Steelers. Despite a disappointing finish, it was an extraordinary endorsement for the sport of karate.

    Prior to Wallace's appearance, Don Quine, who now managed the champion, originated the nickname "Superfoot," a nickname attributed to Wallace's uncanny kicking ability.

    A PKA event held at the Los Angeles Sports Arena on Oct. 1, 1976, marked the beginning of the association's contractual arrangement with CBS Sports, as well as a merger attempt with promoter Howard Hanson of Westminster, Ca. The CBS deal eventually accounted for tour network broadcasts per year of PKA sanctioned world title tights. Critics accused the PKA of conflict of interest. The organization was operating both as a sanctioning body and, through Sport Karate, Inc., a sister corporation, as a promotional body. The PKA principals, Don and Judy Quine, countered by claiming the sport's survival depended on their synthesis of its various activities. The PKA sanctioned a total of 19 events in 1976.

    After his merger attempt with the PKA soured, Howard Hanson formed the World Karate Association (WKA), a full-contact sanctioning body that became the PKA's strongest competitor. As its president, Hanson survived by arranging promotions in Japan, pitting Japanese kick-boxers against American full-contact karate fighters, using a combination ot the two sports' rules. After the PKA stripped Benny Urquidez ot his lightweight title in 1977, the champion fought predominantly in the WKA and quickly established himself as a superstar in Asia, where he defeated every kick-boxing challenger and champion he tought.

    The most bitter conflict between the PKA and the WKA is a dispute over rules. The WKA advocates the use of leg kicks, while the PKA rigidly opposes them. The issue is one of potential injury to the athletes. The PKA maintains that these techniques are dangerous to the fighter's physical safety and his career longevity. Hanson parries this charge by pointing to the Orient, where some kick-boxing champions remain active after more than 50 fights where leg kicks, at their most vicious, are employed.

    In Sept. 1976 California passed a law placing full-contact karate under the jurisdiction of the State Athletic Commission (SAC), which regulates professional and amateur boxing and wrestling. It marked the first time that any form of American karate was regulated by a government body, even though many martial artists had been attempting tor years to bring traditional karate under government supervision tor licensing ot instructors. The California commission sanctioned the organization of the volunteer group called the Full Contact Karate Advisory Board to assist in the formation of standard rules and practices tor the sport.

    The state athletic commissions, which regulate professional and amateur boxing and wrestling have gradually begun regulating full-contact karate since 1976.

    In California, the SAC generally recognized the PKA's rules and policies as standards tor the sport, with the exception of the controversial leg kicks. In July 1978 the North American Boxing Federation, to which all SACs belong, approved a motion to officially recognize the PKA as the international governing body of professional full-contact karate.

    Finally in 1976, amateur karate, under the WUKO, was accepted for membership in the General Assembly of International Sports Federations (GAIF), bringing it one step closer to the Olympics. In the following year, however, the General Assembly ot the International Olympic Committee (IOC) issued a directive specitying that the two world karate bodies, the WUKO and the IAKF, had to unity before Olympic recognition ot karate would be granted. As a result, that recognition was postponed indefinitely.

    1976 WORLD TITLE FIGHTS

    Date: 2/8; Site: Atlanta, Gal; Sanction: SEPKA; Division: Lt. Hvywt.; Winner: Jeff Smith;
    Loser: Wally Slocki; Promoter: Joe Corley; Television: "The Champions" (Syndication).

    Date: 3/13; Site: Las Vegas, Nev.; Sanction: PKA; Division: Midwt.; Winner: Bill,,Wallace;
    Loser: Jem Echollas; Promoter: SKI; Television: "Sports Special of the Month" (90-minute
    syndication).

    Date: 5/29; Site: Toronto, Can.; Sanction: PKA; Division: Midwt.; Winner: Bill Wallace;
    Loser: Daniel Richer; Promoter: Jong Soo Park; Television: Filmed by ABC "Wide World of
    Sports" but not aired.

    Date: 8/28; Site: Honolulu, Hawaii; Sanction: PKA; Division: Hvywt.; Winner: Teddy
    Limoz; Loser: Mike Arroyo; Division: Ltwt.; Winner: Benny Urquidez; Loser: Earnest Hart, Jr.;
    Promoter: SKI/Hanson.

    Date: 10/1; Site: Los Angeles, Calif.; Sanction: PKA; Division: Mdwt.; Winner: Bill Wallace;
    Loser: Gary Edens; Division: Ltwt.; Winner: BennyUrquidez;Loser: EddieAndujar; Promoter:
    SKI/Hanson; Television: "CBS Sports Spectacular."

    Activities in the sport and movies continued to remain at the forefront of the martial arts for 1977. The big news was the starring debut of Chuck Norris, the first karate champion turned actor. Norris was best known to film peers for his performance against Bruce Lee in the climactic fight scene of Return of the Dragon. His first starring role came in Breaker, Breaker, a low-budget exploitation film that attempted to capitalize on Norris' karate name and expertise and the CB radio trend. Filmed for under $250,000, Breaker, Breaker, according to director Don Hulette, grossed $10 million.

    Before the release of Breaker, Breaker, Norris signed a three-picture deal with a new production company called American Cinema and began filming Good Guys Wear Black. By the time it had run its course, Good Guys had grossed $20 million.

    The ramifications of this film are extraordinary. Norris had single-handedly restored interest in the martial arts genre at a time when Hollywood refused to make such films.

    Other film making efforts featuring the martial arts this year included Revenge of the Pink Panther, starring Peter Sellers with Ed Parker as a hired karate assassin. A Fistful of Yen, starring Bong Soo Han of Billy Jack fame, was one of three vignettes composing the satirical Kentucky Fried Movie. Yen is actually a parody of Enter the Dragon and is perhaps the first American made comedy related to the martial arts genre. It has become a cult classic.

    With two national television broadcasts and a total of ten sanctioned events in 1977, the PKA remained at the forefront of contact karate. The April 23 "Triple Crown" championship from the Las Vegas Hilton was broadcast live by "CBS Sports Spectacular," marking the first live broadcast of karate in any form in U.S. history. But the PKA principals, Don and Judy Quine, were also pressing its world champions to sign exclusive contracts with them. Refusal on the part of several led to the Quines stripping them of their titles. One of these stripped champions was Benny "The Jet" Urquidez.

    Howard Hanson, who had just formed his World Karate Association quickly recruited Urquidez to fight in the Orient under the WKA banner. Urquidez went to Japan and became the first American fighter ever to beat the Japanese kick-boxers at their own genie. Urquidez scored a knockout over champion Katsuyuki Suzuki on Aug. 2 before a national television audience in Japan. His victory amounted to a national insult to the Japanese, who take their sport very seriously. Following his win, retired and undefeated champion Kunimatsu Okao publicly challenged Urquidez to a bout for which he would come out of retirement. Urquidez accepted. On Nov. 14, at the prestigious Budokan in Tokyo, the two met in a vicious showdown resulting in an Urquidez victory. Bloody and battered, Okao was knocked out cold in the 4th round and had to be helped from the ring. The bout was carried over Japanese national television and drew an unprecedented $500,000 live gate, the largest on record for professional karate.

    The victory brought Urquidez' record to 40-0 with 38 knockouts, the best in his sport, and made him an international celebrity. In Japan, he became a cult hero and the central figure of a series of comic books entitled Benny the Jet. He also represented his sport in a Japanese documentary, Kings of the Square Ring, which also features boxing's Muhammad Ali and wrestling's Antonio Inoki.

    Howard Jackson became the first karate champion to enter professional boxing and win. Within one year, Jackson amassed a pro boxing record of 14-1-2 with 11 knockouts. Jackson's precedent has since 1977 led the way for other karate athletes to pursue dual careers in the boxing and karate rings.

    The 4th WUKO World Karate-do Championships in 1977 marked the return of this international event to Tokyo. The tournament, held at the Budokan, featured kata competition for the first time. American players fared better at kata than fighting, but tied for fifth place in team fighting. Japan dominated the kata competition, winning the two top positions, and the strong Dutch contingent surprisingly dominated both the team and individual fighting titles. Otti Roetot of Gary Sproul wins WAKO full-contact light heavyweight title in Tampa, Fla., 1978.

    On March 5, 1977, the 3rd National AAU Tae Kwon Do Championships were held at the University of California at Berkeley, in conjunction with the 1st North American Tae Kwon Do Championships. The latter event was highlighted by the first organizational meeting of the North American Tae Kwon Do Union. Later, on Sept.15-17, at the Amphitheater in Chicago, the World Tae Kwon Do Championships made its debut in America.

    1977 WORLD TITLE FIGHTS

    Date: 3/12; Site: Los Angeles, Calif.; Sanction: WKA; Division: spr.. Ltwt.; Benny Urquidez/Narong Noi (Declared a no contest); Promoter: Howard
    Hanson.

    Date: 4/23; Site: Las Vegas, Nev.; Division: Hvywt.; Winner: Ross Scott; Loser: Everett Eddy; Division: Midwt.; Winner: Bill Wallace; Loser: Pilinky
    Rodriguez; Division: Ltwt.; Winner: Benny Urquidez; Loser: Howard Jackson; Promoter: SKI; Television: "CBS Sports Spectacular" (Wallace/Rodriguez
    aired live).

    Date: 5/21; Site: Providence, R.l.; Sanction: PKA; Division: Midwt.; Winner: Bill Wallace; Loser: Ron Thiveridge; Promoter: Hee II Cho.

    Date: 5/21; Site: Charlotte, N.C.; Sanction: PKA; Division: Lt. Hvywt.; Winner: Jeff Smith; Loser: Keith Haflick; Promoter:
    Jerry Piddington.

    Date: 8/2; Site: Tokyo, Japan; Sanction: WKA; Division: Spr.. Ltwt.; Winner: Benny Urquidez; Loser: Katsuyuki Suzuki; Promoter: Howard Hanson / Ron
    Holmes / Hisashi Shima /Antonio Inoki; Television: Japanese national TV

    Date: 10/8; Site: Indianapolis, Ind; Sanction: PKA; Division: Midwt.; Winner: Bill Wallace; Loser: M. Pat Worley; Division: Welwt.; Winner: Earnest Hart, Jr.;
    Loser: Eddie Andujar; Promoter: SKI; Television: "CBS Sports Spectacular."

    Date: 11/14; Site: Tokyo, Japan; Sanction: WKA; Division: Spr.. Ltwt.; Winner: Benny Urquidez; Loser: Kunimatsu Okao; Division: Ltwt.; Winner:
    Kunimasa Nagae; Loser: Tony Lopez; Promoter: Hanson/Holmes/Shima; Television: Japanese national TV.

    Date: 11 /28; Site: Honolulu, Hawaii; Sanction: PKA; Division: Mdwt.: Winner: Bill Wallace; Loser: Burnis White; Promoter: Kip Russo.

    Participation in the Korean martial arts reached an all-time high from 1977-78, according to Black Belt's 1978 survey. Almost 65 percent of the respondents were either students or instructors in hapkido, tee kwon do, or tang soo do. Also at an all-time high was the percentage of practitioners in the category of "others," those from obscure or combination arts. In comparison to previous surveys, response from practitioners of the Japanese arts was at a low, virtually equal to the number of respondents for the Chinese disciplines.

    In 1978, while the WKA was idle, the PKA coordinated a sanction for a light-heavyweight title fight between champion Jeff Smith and challenger Dominic Valera, for a decade Europe's greatest noncontact karate champion. Valera had made the transition to full-contact fighting in mid-1975 following a fierce dispute with the WUKO's amateur karate politicians. Valera met Smith for the PKA title on May 22 in Paris before a sold-out crowd. Smith won a dull 9-round decision.

    Also on the international front, John Corcoran began to syndicate his articles to martial arts magazines across the world. This marked the first time a domestic writer secured mass exposure abroad for American martial artists and events on a regular basis. He became the world's foremost martial arts magazine writer and joined an elite group of syndicated peers: Zarko Modric in Yugoslavia and John Robertson and Arthur Tansley in Japan.

    Semicontact (often called "point karate" or "tournament karate") in 1976-77 had sunk to an all-time low in popularity and interest. Chiefly responsible for the decline was the absence of recognizable stars: all of the great fighters had turned to full-contact. In 1978, however, a star emerged. Keith Vitali won the grand championships of two of America's most prestigious tournaments: the Battle of Atlanta and the Mid-America Diamond Nationals. The victories catapulted him to the pinnacle of every 1978 Top 10 rating poll in the U.S. Vitali duplicated his number-1 rating for the next three years before retiring in Feb.1981 at 28. He and Bill Wallace are the only point fighters in U S. history to have been ranked number 1 for three years; Vitali, however, is the only fighter to occupy the position in consecutive years Vitali's intense rivalry with Texan Ray McCallum, beginning in 1979, infused new life into a sport sorely needing it. Although the pair met only three times in competition, with Vitali winning twice, the contests were classic encounters. Through their presence and performance, point fighting was rejuvenated and more martial artists took an interest in the sport. Vitali won the rubber match at the 1981 Superstar Nationals in Oakland, Ca., where he was grand champion runner-up and announced his retirement from competition.

    1978 WORLD TITLE FIGHTS

    Date: 3/1 1; Site: Providence, R.l.; Sanction: PKA; Division: Midwt.; Winner: Bill Wallace; Loser: Emilio Narvaez; Division: Welwt.; Winner: Bob Ryan; Loser: Earnest Hart, Jr.; Promoter: SKI/George Pesare; Television: "CBS Sports Spectacular."

    Date: 5/22; Site: Paris, France; Sanction: PKA; Division: Lt. Hvywt.; Winner: Jeff Smith; Loser: Dominic Valera; Promoter: GuyJugla/Marc Counil.

    Date: 7/22, Site: W. Palm Beach, Fla.; Sanction: PKA; Division: Welwt.; Winner: Steve Shepherd; Loser: Bob Ryan; Promoter: Steve Shepherd/Don Haines

    Date: 11/30; Site: Atlanta, Gal; Sanction: PKA; Division: Welwt.; Winner: Earnest Hart, Jr.; Loser: Steve Shepherd; Promoter: SKI /Joe Corley; "CBS Sports Spectacular."

    The SecondBoom By 1979, a martial arts movie renaissance was underway. At the forefront of these films was Chuck Norris, in A Force of One, produced by American Cinema. Due to Norris' personal philosophy, A Force of One earned a PG (Parental Guidance) rating and consequently reached a huge market of youthful moviegoers. Also starring Jennifer O'Neill and Bill Wallace, who made his film debut, Force was a box-office hit from its outset and even received favorable critical reviews.

    Joe Lewis, who once competed against Norris in the karate ring, became the second American karate champion to star in a motion picture. Lewis' transition had been expected by martial artists, since it was common knowledge that he had been seriously pursuing an entertainment career since 1970, when he took up acting. Filmed on locations in Europe and Asia, Jaguar Lives Lewis' first film is a spy action adventure in the James Bond tradition.

    In 1979, two projects that originally involved Bruce Lee finally appeared in American theaters. Game of Death, partially filmed by Lee before Enter the Dragon but unfinished at his death, and Circle of Iron (a.k.a. The Silent Flute), originally written by Lee, Stirling Silliphant, and actor James Coburn, were replete with production complications and controversy.

    Overall, more than 40 PKA-sanctioned events were telecast over the ESPN in 1980, and CBS aired three more. The rival WKA broke into the American network with one broadcast over "NBC Sports World" and signed a television syndication pact with Hollywood Programmed Entertainment for the broadcast of 26 full-contact cards domestically and abroad.

    In August, Chuck Norris, with a media blitz and personal appearances, publicized the release of The Octagon. Having fulfilled his contract with American Cinema, Norris became a free agent. In 1981 -82 he starred in three films-An Eye For An Eye, Silent Rage, and Forced Vengeance-and formed his own production company.

    August also marked the second American tour of a Chinese wu shu troupe, through the coordination of San Francisco's Anthony Chan, a wu shu stylist and one of America's great form champions. The first visit had been in 1974; the 1980 tour took the Peking troupe to San Francisco, Oakland, Los Angeles, St. Louis, Boston, New York, and Houston. The troupe's San Francisco performance was filmed by ABC's "Wide World of Sports" for later broadcast.

    Full-contact karate was televised in two national broadcasts of PKA bouts, one on "NBC Sports World," the other on "CBS Sports Spectacular." NBC aired the unexpected defeat of PKA heavyweight champion Ross Scott by Demetrius Edwards, via a 7th round knockout. This marked the first of two matches within a one-week period in which established world champions were defeated by challengers.

    On August 9th, challenger Cliff Thomas of El Paso, Texas, assumed the PKA world super-lightweight title,
    upsetting Gordon Franks by a 3rd round TKO, Old champions give way to the new young challengers. The field starts opening up on a grandeur scale making way for international contenders. The effect is synergistic as the sport renews itself.

    Perhaps the greatest event of the 1980 martial arts renaissance was the staggering success of the television miniseries Shogun. Based on James Clavell's best-selling novel, the $22 million project aired on NBC the week of Sept. 15-19 in five parts, and presented American audiences with the first insight into the world of the feudal Japanese samurai. Shogun captured 125 million viewers, or more than half of the total television viewing audience in the U.S. Shogun's phenomenal success created a new wave of interest by the American public in learning the "samurai arts." Supply companies reported a sudden boost in orders for samurai swords and other Japanese-related weapons. Karate schools were inundated with phone calls from potential students, and business increased dramatically.

    With the 1980 Warner Bros. release of The Big Brawl, general American audiences were introduced to the irrepressible new king of kung-fu, Jackie Chan. Chan's fame spread from Hong Kong when, beginning in 1978, three of his pictures surpassed the grosses of Bruce Lee's films in Asia: Drunken Monkey in a Tiger's Eye, Fearless Hyena, and The Young Master, the last having sold more tickets, according to its producers, Golden Harvest, than any picture of any genre ever to play Hong Kong. Chan was quickly discovered by Hollywood and cast in his first American-made film, The Big Brawl, his American debut, however, failed to duplicate his international appeal.

    When Mexico suffered last-minute sponsorship problems, the 5th WUKO World Championships was picked up by Spain as the host country. The event, originally scheduled for 1979, was delayed one year by this development. The tournament took place in Madrid on Nov. 28-29, with 55 countries represented. The AAU had conducted its team selection tournament in New Jersey, from which America fielded its strongest, most experienced contingent ever. Head coach Chuck Merriman anticipated the possibility of returning home with a world championship.

    Tokey Hill of Ohio became the first amateur world champion to emerge from the ranks of America's fighters. Not since 1970, at the inaugural WUKO tournament, had an American placed in individual fighting, when Tonny Tulleners won third place. Hill won a gold medal and Pennsylvania's Billy Blanks defeated the Spanish national champion to advance to the finals, where he took a silver medal in the open weight class. Blanks then took a bronze medal in the 80 kg division, making him the only American double medal winner in world class amateur karate competition.

    Another new division, in addition to the open weight class, was women's kata competition. Kathy Baxter of New York and Pam Glaser of Massachusetts placed within the top 8 finalists, with Baxter taking a respectable fifth place.

    Significantly, the 1980 AAU karate team was composed of players representing a multitude of karate styles, whereas earlier, most of the U.S representatives had been predominantly Japanese stylists.

    The international rivalry between the WUKO and the IAKF took a bright turn on Dec. 25, 1980, when a unification meeting between the two organizations took place in Tokyo. Zentaro Kosaka, president of the IAKF, and Ryoichi Saxakawa, president of the WUKO, initiated talks for the consolidation of international amateur karate-do competition.

    Since 1977 the International Olympic Committee had directed that prior to consideration of karate as a recognized non-participatory Olympic sport, application for this status must emanate from only one federation truly representing the great majority of karate federations worldwide. The Dec. 25 conference resulted in unification of the WUKO and the IAKF in Japan only-the intention was to unify amateur karate in those parts of the world still divided between the two organizations. With world unity essential to IOC acceptance, it is believed the organizations can overcome the remaining obstacles to that recognition. 

    HAWAII
    Hawaii During the era of Japanese immigration to Hawaii, in the late 1800s and the early 1900s, many Japanese immigrants trained in the art of Kodokan judo arrived. The first judo club in Hawaii, the Shunyo-Kan, was formed on March 17,1909, by Shigemi Teshima and Naomatsu Kaneshige. Consul-General Isami Shishido, 7th dan, joined the club in 1919 and served as chairman of the club's board of directors for many years.

    The Shobu Kan judo club was founded by Yajiro Kitayama, Nakajiro Mino, and others. Its first dojo site was the basement of the Ono Bakery on Beretania Street, followed by several locations in Honolulu, until it was moved to its present location on Kunawai Lane in the Liliha area.

    Other clubs were subsequently established, and in 1929, three of the major judo clubs, Shunyo Kan, Shobu Kan, and Hawaii Chuugakko (junior high school) initiated an effort to organize judo in the territory of Hawaii. The organization hoped to demonstrate a united effort to the community and to be recognized as an instrument through which the social and cultural significance of this martial art would be transmitted and perpetuated. Organized judo grew rapidly under the supervision of this body, the Hawaii Judo Kyokai. In 1925, the Kodokan issued the first certificates for black belts to judoka in Hawaii. In 1927, a judo seminar was conducted by a visiting Waseda University judo group, headed by Mr. Makino, 6th dan. By 1932, the Hawaii Judo Association had several active clubs, and received official recognition from Prof. Kano during one of his stopovers in Honolulu. The certificate of recognition, #76, issued by the Kodokan Judo Institute on November 15,1932, was the first such authorization granted to a yudanshakai outside of Japan. 


    The histories of the various marital arts are inextricably entiwined with the histories of the countries in which they originated and practiced today. For example, the Shao-lin Temple , built by emperor Haiao-when, was a focal point in the evolution of martial arts in China . Sho-Lin Temple Chinese Buddhist monastery of the “Chan” school located in the Sung-Shan mountains of Tung-Feng county, Honan province. The temple is named after its surrounding “small forest” of trees. Bulid by Emperor Hsiao0Wen in the late 5th century A.D. its construction honored the Indian monk Bodhiruchi. Robert W. Smith, in his book Asian Fighting Arts, quotes a source describing the temple: “It) had twelve upper and lower courts and was ringed almost completely by the mountains, festooned with bamboo, casia, and cedar trees, and laced with waterfalls.” In the Sui dynasty, early Ch’ing , and once again in the early 20th century, the temple was seriously damaged. Surviving structures renovated by the People’s Republic of China include the front gate, guest hall, Bodhidharma pavilion, and the white-robe hall, with two frescoes depicting monks exercising and sparring-the northern wall depicts sparring exercises of the liu-he ch’uan (six- methods boxing) and on the southern wall are a number of monks engaged in wepons training. Also surviving are the thousands-Buddha hall and the forest of stone tablets. This temple became a focal point for martial arts training at one period of China , but not on the grand scale Western journalists and filmmakers depicted. More often than not, kung-fu styles have little if any religious background. Religion’s role in the marital arts was quite small in the overall scheme of things. The Shao-lin order was the exception, not the rule. Evidence identifying the creators of the Shao-lin style itself is inconclusive. Three theories have emerged. The first attributes the creation to the Indian priest Ta-mo (Bohidharma), who followed his predecessor, Bodhiruchi, to the middle-kingdom several decades after the contruction of the temple. This story, though unsubstantianted, is the most popular. It paints a colorful picture of Ta-mo as a staunch ascetic, confining himself to a cave for nine years, where he sat facing a wall in meditation ( the cave can still be viewed). The second theory attributes its creation to Hwei-Kuang and Sung-Chou, monks preceding the Ta-mo’s arrival in China by several years. Yet another theory, the most probable, attributes the style’s origin not to any single individual, but to the collective efforts of the priests over the years. The People’s Republic of China had been investigating the temple’s origins and development. One source, the History of the Shao-lin Monastery, appeared as a four-volume work. Yang-Ya-Shan referred to this work in a translated article, stating that the Shao-lin school of ch’uan-shu (kung-fu), and that is originated in the Southern and Northern dynasties, (420-589), flourished in the Sui (581-618) and T’ang (618-907) dynasties, after which it branched into a number of subsystems. “Shao-lin,” he explains, “first served military purposes in the early T’ang dynasty when the first emperor, T’ai-chung, appealed to the Shao-lin monastery for reinforcements against Wang’She-Ch’ung, who sought to establish a separate regime in Lo-Yang. Joining the punitive expedition, the Shao-lin monk-soldiers captured Wang alive. Thirteen of them were sited for meritorious service, including monk T’an-chung, on whom was conferred the title of Major General. In addition, the monastery was granted 400 mu of land and allowed to set up barracks to give the monks military training. At its peak, Shao-lin boasted a force of 5,000 monk-soldiers. It was known far and wide as the ‘number-one monastery under heaven.’ “Apart from the barehand Shao-lin ch’uan exercises, monks also learned chi-kung( breathing exercises), horsemanship, and combat with weapons. They became, in effect, a special detachment of the Imperial army. “In the middle of the Ming dynasty, China ’s coastal areas were subjected to frequent Japanese harassment. In 522, monk Yueh-kung led a crack force of 40 Shao-lin monks to the Sun-Chiang river area to resist the invaders. Using iron rods as weapons, they won many battles before patriotically laying down their lives. As willing tools of the court, the Shao-lin monk-soldiers were not exempt from being used as elements of repression: in 1341, they attached the Red Turbans- an army of peasant insurgents ( and a secret society which opposed the Chi’ing government). The battle is portrayed in a mural in the white-robe hall. “Though monks are supposed to lead a secluded life, those in Shao-lin, being versed in the martial arts, were often involved in political strife. Using them for its own end, the ruling class kept a wary eye on them. During the Ch’ing dynasty, the monks were once forbidden to practice martial arts. In 1723, when the monastery was to be rebuilt, the blueprint had to be submitted to examination by the Emperor. He decreed the monks be placed under strict supervision by a court-appointed abbot.” Yang-Ya-Shan is here referring to the monastery located in Honan province. Several authorities have claimed the existence of a second Shao-lin Temple located in Fukien , south of the original. Indeed. There is a Buddhist temple at this location, though not of the grand scale of its alleged sister temple in the north. Serval other authorites dispute the existence of an authentic Shao-lin order in Fulien. Be that as it may, many stories concerning this Fukien-based temple are told. One tradition concern a Shao-lin monk’s aid to the emperor of the K’ang-his reign, i.e., the Emperor Sheng-Tsu, who turned back one of the western border raids, and the subsequent praise lavished upon the temple. Another is the story of the later destruction of this temple. Supposedly, five monks, who later became known as the “Five Ancestors,” escaped this distruction. Concerning the temple’s destruction, however, there are two accounts. The first is an oral tradition passed down through the “Triad” society, a secret society reputedly formed by the members of the temple who escaped its destruction, the second is handed down through the martial arts community in general. According to Leung-Ting in his book Wing Tsun, the story perpetuated by the Triads lists the “Five Ancestors” as Choy-Tak-Tei, Ma-Chiu-Hing, and Li-Sik-Hoi ( note: their Madarin romanizations would be T’sai-Teh-Chung, Mang-Ta-Hung, Ma-Ch’ao-Hsing, Hu-Teh-Ti, and Li-Shih-Kai). “ But according to the story retold by people of the martial arts circle,” he explains, “ they were Ng-Mui, the Buddhist nun; Chi-Shin, the Zen master; Pat-Mei, the Taoist master; Fung-To-Tak, the Taoist master; and Miu-Hin, an unshaved Siu-Lam follower. These two sources greatly differ in details regarding names, identities, and sex.” In addition, the first story is supported by authors such as Shuai-Hsueh-Fu in his Chung-Kuo pang-hui shih ( History of Chinses Secret Society), and Hsu-K’o in his Ch’ing-pei lei-ch’go ( Incidents of the Ch’ing period). Both of these works, however, seem primarily interested in recounting the history of secret societies. Still other sources support the probably less accurate second story. One noted authority believes this second story to have stemmed directly from the fictional novel Ch’ien-lung huang yu Chiang-nan (The Ch’ien-lung Emperor Visits the South), in which the monk Chih-Shan (or Chi-Shen) is portayed as the abbot of the Shao-lin Monastery who is killed by the monk Pak-Mei- before the sestruction of the temple ever took place. The facts in kung-fu, for several reasons, have often been systematically distorted. In the much quoted Chung-kuo pang-hui shih, Shuai-Hsueh-Fu states that in the eleventh year of the K’ang-his emperor (1662-1723), Tibetans invaded China ’s borders and were successful enough to prompt the government to plave posters before the public requesting volunteers to bolster its army. At the lesser Shao-lin Temple in Fukien , one of the priests, Cheng Chun-Ta, rallies behind him some 128 other monks to aid the effort. His plan, however, was not to help strengthen the current Ch’ing government. He and his fellow monks were “Ming’ loyalists who, in fact, opposed the government. Cheng had in mind a plan to infiltrated the government by gaining political favor through this particular war effort to attack the government from within. The 128 Shao-lin priests managed to push back the Tibetan invasion without help from the Ch’ing troops. For this, official titles were conferred upon them. Only Cheng, however, accepted a title, in accordance with his plan. The other monks allowed the emperor to help renovate the Fukien temple. An antagonist appears in this story, a monk named Ma Fu-I, who seduced Cheng’s wife and sister. He was, consequently, ostracized from the temple. Ma later came to be known as A-tsat ( literally, seven) in the secret society vernacular, because he has ranked seventh in the temple in physical prowess. The Triads considered the number seven taboo due to its relationship to Ma. In its place, the word “kat” (good luck) was substituted while the name A-tsat was given to a white rooster, sacrificed during an inductee’s blood oath to the secret organization ( signifying “should I prove a traitor, may I perish as did A-tsat”). Ma sought revenge after being ousted from the temple. He went to the governor of the province, who was himself jealous of the attention Shao-lin was getting. He convinced the governor and his two officers, Ch’en-Wen-Yao and Chang-Chin-Ch’in, to appeal directly to the emperor for support in destroying the temple. Stories differ here once again. Shuai-Hsueh-Fu states that K’ang-his was the emperor who received the appeal from the governor and his officers, and who eventually was responsible for destroying the Shao-lin Temple . Other sources place K’ang-hsi’s successor, Yung-Cheng, in this position, while still another source insists the whole event was drummed up as a ploy to foment anti-government feeling. Accounts seem to agree that the official formation of the Hung-Men-Hui or Traids society (which could only have been formed after the fall of the temple, if we are to believe the story), was in 1674. If this case, it is reasonable to assume the burning of Shao-lin could not have occurred in the reign of Yung-Cheng, who did not come to the throne until after K’ang-his died in 1723. Some 3,000 Ch’ing troops were sent to destroy the Shao-lin Temple . Led by Ma, they successfully entered the temple grounds and killed all but eighteen of the monks. Thirteen more died soon after escaping. The remaining five became known as the “Five Ancestors” and formed the Triad secret society. The distinctive features of the Shao-lin style of kung-fu, according to Yang-Ya-Shan, include a blending of both the hard and soft elements of movement, following six core principles including skill, tact, boldness, quickness, ferocity, and practicality. “ in a word,” Yang explained, “emphasis is on striking effectively. Naturally, this involves long years of painstaking practice, as is evidenced by the three rows of 20 hollows-each about 50 centimeters in diameter-on the brick floor of the thousand-Buddha hall of the Shao-lin Monastery. It is said that these were shaped through generations by monk’s stamping their feet during training.” (Michael P. Staples) In Japan , many marital arts developed as outgrowth of the samurai tradition. Samurai were feudal Japanese warriors who adhered to a code of ethics called bushido. The symbol of the samurai was the sword, but his skills included the use of the spear, the bow, horsemanship, hand-to-hand combat, and other military arts. During the dictatorship of the Tokugawa clan (1600-1867), the samurai were placed in the service of the shogun (military dictators), or stationed in the provinces under the command of various daimyo (territorial lords). From the humblest foot soldier to the mounted warriors to the upper ranks, they all belonged to the same warriors class (buke), and were known as bushi. After 1869, they were qualified as former military subjects, but the world at large continued to refer to them by that Chinese name usually translated as “vassal” (samurahi; samurai). In earlier times, the title of samurai had been assigned to leaders of armed aristrocratic clans attached to the imperial court during the Muromachi period. The term was later expanded to include all warriors permitted to wear the long and short swords (daisho) in the service of a lord, and was more specifically translated as “one who serves.” So strong was this bond that when a master died many of his retainers took their own lives, to follow him in death as they had in life. The practice became so widespread that it had to be forbidden by law and enforced by inflicting sever penalties ipon the samurai’s surviving family. In battle, the retainer fought under his direct superior’s command. If his superior chose to elude capture by committing hara-kiri, the samurai acted as his second, shortening the agony of a single sword stroke. Usually, the samurai would flee with the severed head to prevent enemies from making a war trophy of it. Often, however, a retainer would facilitate his superior’s escape by doning his lord’s armor and fleeing, drawing off the enemy. Japanese warriors have always displayed a preference for death over capture. His contempt for death was fostered from infancy. A military household’s child was exposed to cold in winter and expected to endure without complaint the heat of summer. He was often sent on a purposely difficult errands. His fear death and of the supernatural was substantially reduced, it is told, by sending him in such locations as cemeteries and palces of execution at night, even while quite young. Physical pain was endured without betraying the slightest emotion. The eagernesswith which the thoroughly conditioned warrior of the early feudal period engaged in combat is proveribial. In times of peace particularly during the Tokugawa period, that eagerness turned to murderous disdain for all other social classes, as well as an hysterical tendency to overreact to even imagined indications of lack of respect. A retainer’s servility toward his masters within the clan was in startling contrast to his arrogance outside this hierarchy. The status of a warrior within the clan of his birth of the clan to which he had been assigned was generally immutable. Only exceptional circumstances might relese him from the bond of loyalty and turn him into a masterless warrior (ronin). But according to ancient ordinances, any warrior who severed ties with his clan without permission could not be accepted into the ranks of any other clan. Thus, no matter where he turned, the samurai met obstacles, insuring that he would cling to the position assigned him within the social order. While the upper ranks of the military class were exposed to education, their retainers seem to have concentrated almost exclusively upon perfecting military skills. The lower samurai was trained at home or in clan centers for military instruction. His education in the literary sense was neglected; there was a continuing condition of the establishment of schools of lower samurai. The Tokugawa encouraged the establishment of schools of lower samurai, but with a limited curriculum. During this period, the noticeably inferior quality of the education of low ranking retainers only widened with respect to the attainments of ranking leaders. Further reading: Samurai, The Invincible Warriors, Cap. F. Brinkley, 1975; Bushido, The Soul of Japan, Inazo Nitobe, 1969; The Martial Arts, Michael Random, 1973; Secrets of the Samurai, Oscar Ratti and Adele Westbrook, 1973; The Samurai- A MilitaryHistory, Stephen Turnbull, 1977; Samurai, H. Paul Varley and Nobuku Morris, 1970.
    U.S. JUDO The first known meeting of Kodokan judo and any American occurred in 1879, when President U.S. Grant was in Japan on a state visit and observed a demonstration of judo techniques by 19-year-old Jigoro Kano. The official date given for the start of Kodokan Judo us 1882, and most likely Kano did not explain his Kodonka Judo then but may have lectured on his study of jujutsu. In any case, President Grant was exposed to the judo master at a very fertile and productive period in pre-Kodokan judo’s history. The next contact came in 1889, when Kano lectured on the educational values of judo before a group of foreign dignitaries. There were several Americans present but this contact had no discernible result. The first American to study seriously at the Kodokan was Prof. Ladd from Yale University . Ladd came to the Kodokan sometime during 1889, ten years after Kano ’s demonstration for President Grant. Ladd studied nage (throwing), katame (mat work), atemi-waza (striking techniques), and koshiki-no-kata (self-defense forms). The number of Americans at the Kodokan did not rise immediately after Ladd’s visit. By 1908, the Kodokan had a total of 13 American members studying in Japan . During 1919 Prof. John Dewey of Columbia University went to the Kodokan to observe as demonstration. Dewey discussed Kodokan judo with Kano and many have been instrumental in the beginning of a pioneering judo program at Columbia University . Yoshiaki Yamashita, then 6th dan, was the first person to the judo in the U.S. He arrived in 1902 at the invitation of Mr. Graham Hill, director of the Great Northern Railroad. Hill contacted a Mr. Fujiya, who contacted Mr. Shibata, who was a student of Prof. Yamashita, concerning Yamashita’s coming to the U.S. to teach his children judo. After Yamashita arrived, the Hill family decided that judo was much to dangerous for their children. Mr. Hill arranged for judo demonstrations in New York and Chicago . He also tried to arrange for Harvard University to hire Yamashita as a judo teacher. At the same time, Sen. Lee’s wife and Mrs. Wadsworth started taking judo lessons from Yamashita. They had the sixth floor of a nag-no-kata. There few women started the first judo classes in the country. A men’s judo group made up from various embassies in the area appeared. Thus judo traveled in prominent circles in its embryonic stage in America . For lack of wider participation this judo mission died out with Yamashita’s return to Japan in 1907. Mrs. Wadsworth was a fine horseman and went to the same country club as did President Theodore Roosevelt. She mentioned to the president that Yamashita was teaching judo and that Roosevelt might be interested in the art. Yamashita was subsequently invited to Washington to give a demonstration at the White House. There was a contest with a wrestler by the name of John Graft, who was the coach at the U.S. Naval Academy and who was teaching President Roosevelt wrestling. Although Yamashita threw him time after time, Graft continued to get up. Finally, Yamashita decided that he would do mat work with Graft, since there seemed to be no end to the match. In the mat work, Yamashita got an arm lock on Graft, but the wrestler would not give up. Yamashita kept up the pressure until Graft groaned as his arm came close to breaking. President Roosevelt was impressed and took judo lesions. After leaving office, he kept mats at home. Roosevelt studied judo for about a year, earning a brown belt in the process. Through the help of the president, Yamashita taught judo at the Naval Academy . In 1935, Yamashita was promoted to 10th dan, the first person to hold that rank. He died later that year. Pacific Narthwest In 1903, one year after Yamashita’s arrival in America , Shumeshiro Tomita journeyed to the U.S. He was the first person to sign the rolls of the Kodokan; he was instrumental in establishing judo in the U.S. as well as in Japan . Tomita stayed in the U.S. for seven years and taught judo at Princeton and Columbia Universities . After the arrival of Tomita and Yamashita, many judo instructors came to America . Among the very first were Miada Kousen, Sataki Nobushitam, and Ito Tajugoro. Judo in the U.S. first flourished on the West Cost because of its large Japanese population. Judo in the Pacific Northwest dates back to the beginning of the century when judo was practiced in small, scattered clubs. The first dojo was opened in the Settle area by a judoka named Kano in 1903, but this club closed after only a few months. Prof. Takugoro Ito, then 4th dan, arrived in America in 1907 and opened the Seattle Dojo. Ito, like many other early judoka, was a wrestler. He held challenge matches, in which he was unbeatable. After several years he left the Seattle area, traveling to South America . Eisei Madia, Akitoro Ono, Satake, and Matruura traveled with him, touring South America as professional wrestlers and returned to San Fancisco in 1914. (Eisei Media stayed in Brazil and the Brazilian government gave him a quarter-million acres near the Amazon for his wrestling feat.) In the 1920’s, there were two dojos in the state of Washington, the Seattle Dojo and the Tacoma Dojo, operated mainly by yudansha of the respective communities, businessmen, farmers, and laborers. Yoshida sensei of Tocoma, then 3rd dan, was the best judo player. He was employed as a laborer in a sawmill. The other black belts were 1st and 2nd dans. Factions within the Seattle Dojo difficulty working together. It is not known what the exact problem was but, arounf 1930, some members of the Seattle Dojo withdrew and formed their own Tentokukan Dojo. Each club hired teachers from Japan . Among the Seattle Dojo’s teachers in the 1920’s and early 1930’s were senseis: Miyazawa, Shibata, Kaimon Kudo, and Suzuki. Before World War II, three main styles of judo were prominent in North America . The Budokan Style and the Kodokan style predominated in the U.S. In Canada the Kito-ryu was strong, especially in Vancouver , B.C. the Seattle Judo Black Belt Association was organized around 1935 by Kumagai and Salata senseis, tending to unite the two rival American factions. The two instructors were also responsible for organizing the bi-annual 24-man team contests with the Nanka( southern California ) team. Southern California and the Northwest had the strongest judo groups at that time. After World War II, the Tentokukan Dojo was no re-activated because the former membership was spread around the county. This closed out a pioneering judo effort on the West Coast. The Seattle Dojo owned their building and were able to continue with practice after the war. The Washington team competed against the Vancouver B.C. team annually, against sailors from visiting Japanese training ships, and occasionally with college teams from Japan . Eventually, Nisei yudansha were hired when dojos were opened in Spokane . 1930’s some dojos existed in the state of Washington , and each sponsored an annual tournament. Judo in the Tacoma , Washington , area as started by Prof. Iwakiri, who was born in Japan, and who came here in 1912. Iwakiri exhibited such skill that he received his 1st dan from Prof. Kano at the age of 13. the Fife- Tacoma Dojo was originally formed as the St. Regis Dojo and was located in the St. Regis lumberyard sawdust pit. ( The dojo was later moved from the lumberyard to the corner of 17th and Market Streets). Prof. Kano made two trips to the Fife-Tacoma dojo, in 1932 and 1938, in recognition of its outstanding achievements. In 1932 he presented the dojo a scroll and in 1938 another was given to the yudanshakai. In the 1938 scroll Kano wrote “return to the source,” and the ambiguity of his phrase still caused debate. Most opinion holds that the statement refers to Zen training. Rev. Yukawa was the first yudanshakai president and served the Fife-Tacoma, Washington area from 1924 to 1925. After Rev. Yuikawa, Prof. Iwakiri served as president from 1940 to 1958. Before World War II, there were six dojos in the state of Oregon: Shudo-Kan Dojo, Obukan Dojo, Salem Judo Club, Milwaukee Dojo, G.T. Dojo, and the Shobukan Dojo was the first, and was organized under Mitis Nikata, then a 2nd dan. Prof. Kano visited the Portland area in 1932; during the visit he took the occasion to rename the Portland Dojo the Obukan Dojo. Some of the pioneering judo specialists in the Portland area were Mr. Nishizim of Kito-ryu;Mr. Kodayashi of the Kito-ryu; Mr. Sakanio Ichiro,3rd dan from the Kodokan; Mr. Sazaki Ojiro, 2nd dan from the Kandokan; and Mr. Tomori, 2nd dan from the Kokodan. After World War II, Buddy Ikata gathered together some of the people who knew judo and got the Portland-Obukan Dojo going again. The Obukan was re-established in 1952. Rev. Homma, a Buddhist priest, started judo at the YMCA and the YWCA. The Guiki Dojo started practice again in the spring of 1953 under Mr. Kato and Mr. Hamado, both 2nd dans, and Rev. Homma and Nakata, 3rd dans. March 3, 1960 ,, was the 42nd anniversary of the Obukan Dojo. Hawaii During the era of Japanese immigration to Hawaii , in the late 1800’s and the early 1900’s, many Japanese immigrants trained in the art of Kodokan judo arrived. The first judo club in Hawaii , the Shunyo-Kan, was formed on March 17, 1909 , by Shigemi Teshima and Naomatsu Kaneshige. Consul-Gereral Isami Shishido, 7th dan, joined the club in 1919 and severed as chairman of the club’s board of directors for many years. The Shobu Kan judo club was founded by Yajiro Kitayama, Nakajiro Mino, and others. Its first dojo site was the basement of the Ono Bakery on Beretania Street , followed by several locations in Honolulu , until it was moved to its present location on Kunawai Lane in the Liliha area. Other clubs were subsequently established, and in 1929, three of the major judo clubs, Shunyo Kan , Shobu Kan , and Hawaii Chuugakko (junior high school) initiated an effort to organize judo in the territory of Hawaii . The organization hoped to demonstrate a united effort to the community and to be recognized as an instrument through which the social and cultural significance of this marital art would be transmitted and perpetuated. Organized judo grew rapidly under the supervision of this body, the Hawaii Judo Kyokai. In 1925, the Kodokan issued the first certificates for black belts to judoka in Hawaii . In 1927, a judo seminar was conducted by a visiting Waseda University judo group, headed by Mr. Makino, 6th dan. By 1932, the official recognition from Prof. Kano during one of his stopovers in Honolulu . The certificate of recognition, #76, issued by the Kodokan Judo Institute on November 15, 1932 , was the first such authorization granted to a yudanshakai outside of Japan . The Los Angeles Area The story of judo in southern California begins with Prof. Ito. Prof. Yamashita and Tomita were his contemporaries in American judo, but of the three only Ito made a lasting contribution to the development of American judo. Wherever Ito stayed, judo took hold and flourished. In 1915 he moved to Los Angeles and established the Rafu Dojo on the first floor of the Yamato Hall, near Jackson and San Pedro Streets. When Prof. Ito returned to Japan after seven years in Los Angeles , the Rafu Dojo continued under management of Prof. Seigoro Murakami, Sr. Matsutaro Nitta, and Ryuji Tatsuno. In July 1917, there were still only two dojos in southern California . The Nanka Judo Yudanshakai was organized in 1928. In 1930, the Kodokan Nanka Judo Yudanshakai was formed and Yasutaro Matsuura, then 4th dan, was elected president. Still only eight dojos and fewer than twenty black belts existed in southern California . The Kodokan Nanka Judo Yudanshakai was reorganized at the direction of Prof. Jigoro Kano in 1932 while he was visiting the Los Angeles Olympic Games. The yudanshakai was renamed once more, this time the Hokubei Judo Yudanshakai or Southern California Judo Black Belt Association of North America; its presidency to devolve permanently upon the Lost Angeles Consul General of Japan. A formal organization of judo occurred as a result of Prof. Kano’s visit, and four yudanshakais, or judo black belt associations were formed: Southern California , Northern California , Seattle and Hawaii . When World War II started in Dec. 1941, there were twenty-six dojo in southern California , with 422 black belts and about 2,000 students. The black belts were distributed in the following manner: 6th dan-2: 5th dan-5: 4th dan- 6: 3rd dan-42: 2nd dan-101: 1st dan-264: and 2 honorary black belts. During World War II, judo continued to flourish in relocation camps such as Manzanar, Heart Mountain , Post Gila River, and Rule Lake . Although all other judo clubs ceased operations during the war years, Seinan Dojo kept its doors open. Jack Sirgel, then 2nd dan, the head instructor, visited the Manzanar Relocation Camp with his students to improve their judo techniques, even though the war was as its peak. San Diego As the last major port of entry for the Japanese on the west coast of the U.S. , the pacific southwest failed to develop large judo communities characteristic of northern cities. According to oral reports, the only judo club or judo activity in the San Diego area before World War II was begun in 1925, and continued for several years, upstairs in the Taiikuki Hall on 6th and Market Streets. The first instructor, Mikinishake Kawaushi, taught for several years; Mizuzaki Showa, 5th dan, taught for about one year before the organization ceased activities. The only other organized martial arts activity in the San Diego area before World War II was a kendo society located in the Buddhist temple at 29th and Market Streets. This organization ceased activities after outbreak of the war. Judo activity after World War II commenced in the San Diego area in April 1946 with the opening of classes in the city YMCA by AI C. Holtmann. From 1946-54 much prejudice against the Japanese existed. The promotion of judo in the San Diego area proved difficult during the early post-war years. In 1952, with hostility abating, the general public expressed an interest in Japanese goods, culture, arts, and sports. The San Diego Judo Club joined the Nanka Judo Yudanshakai ( Los Angeles ) in 1954, at the invitation of Mr. Kenneth Kuniyuki. Under Nanka’s jurisdiction much assistance was given in San Diego area in the way of advice, promotions, and technical help. An open invitation to all of Nanka’s tournaments was extended also to the San Diego judoka. The Sanshi Judo Club, located in Oceanside , in 1955, taught by Sachio Matsuhara, joined Nanka in 1955. In that year Benso Tsuji, now a 7th dan, became technical director for the San Diego Judo Club. As the highest graded black belt in the area, he brought his technical knowledge to bear on the teaching and promoting of Judo in the community. Western United States . The earliest record of judo being taught in the Denver area is that of Dr.T. Ito. Ito had learned his judo in Hawaii and was teaching in the early 1930s. James Fukumitsu, who had studied judo in Japan , was in the area and teaching judo to put himself through college from 1937-40. Some of the other early area judoka were Bill Ohikuma, Don Tanabe, and Nob Ito. During World War II, judo activity ceased in the area. In 1944, George Kuramoto left the Amachi Relocation Center and with Fred Okimoto started judo classes in the local gymnasium, in the 20th Street Recreation Building, during 1950. During this time Toro Takematsu, 4th dan, had moved to the Denver area and notice and announcement in the Japanese community paper. Takematsu introduced himself to George Kuramoto and Fred Okimoto. Together, they purchased straw mats and started the original Denver Dojo, located between 19th and 20th Streets and Lawrence , the heart of the Japanese community. As the dojo developed, a larger building was rented and renovated. During 1954, the Judo Black Belt Federation stated to establish local chapters, of yudanshakais. The Rocky Mountain Regional Black Belt Association was recognized as the local governing body. Intermountain Area The first, post-was judo club in the Salt Lake area was formed in 1950 by Frank Nishimura and George Akimoto. Hot Springs , Utah , had a judo club that was started in 1954 by Mr. Mimya and Mr. Okawa, both 1st dans. Their club was active for about three years. In 1955, Mr. Ichi Isogi started judo in Corinnes, Utah . It was later started up again under Mr. Yamasaki. In Ogden , Utah , judo was started in 1956 through the efforts of Mr. Masaichiro Manomoto, 4th dan, Ted Sakawa, 1st, Tom Kimomto, 1st dan, and Mr. Yonetani, 1st dan. Frank Oryu, an old pioneer in the area, started the first Oregon dojo. An older 4th dan by the name of Muramoto, who also worked for Oryu, helped Oryu organize judo in 1949 and Ontario Dojo was founded in 1950. the Ontario Dojo had a membership of about twenty black belts. According to a report from Mas Yamashita, judo in the Caldwell-Boise Valley area started about two years after judo in Ontario , Oregon . Judo experienced a strong growth and was doing well when the first tournament was held in 1952. Judo in Omaha began during the mid-1950s. Mike Meriwather taught at the YMCA and Dr. Ashida (at 22 one of the youngest 5th-degree black belts) taught at the University in Lincoln . Also, a number of black belts practied judo at Offutt Air Force Base. Among the better known military judoka were Sgt. Mann, Augie Hauso, Phil Porter, Carl Flood, and La Verne Raab. The military people did not get involved in civilian judo until about 1958. Around 1960, Darrell Darling, Phil Porter, Paul Own, Wally Barber, who was director of the local YMCAm and Mike Manly me at Dr. Ashida’s house and decided to form a yusanshakai. They framed a constitution and made contacts with the yudanshakai officers in Chicago and Denver to implement the project. In 1961 the yudanshakai, which covered the greater part of six states, was formed. The first president of the Midwest Judo Associtaion was Dr. Ashida. The second was La Verne Raab. The third Ike Wakadyashi, had a strong judo program established at Kansas University . The forth president Dr. Loren Braught. The fifth and sixth presidents were Bill Stites and Darrell Darling respectively. The first commercial judo school, the Omaha Judo Academy , was opened by La Verne Raab and Carl Flood after they left the military. Mel Bruno, who later became head of judo for SAC, taught judo at the Omaha YMCA and at the Omaha Athletic Club. Chicago Judo first arrived in the Chicago area in Sept. 1903, when Mr. Graham Gill arranged for a judo demonstration by Prof. Yamashita in the cities of New York and Chicago . According to Prof. Kotani, in 1916, Heita Okabe, 4th dan; Toshitaka Yamauchi, 4th dan and Ken Kawabara, 4th dan were teaching judo while studying at the University of Chicago ; this would be the earliest organized judo activity in the Midwest . Mr. Harry Auspitz incorporated the first judo club in the Chicago area in 1938, the Jiu Jitsu Institute. Prior to 1939, judo was practiced sporadically by members of the Japanese Counsulate and other interested individuals. The Ju Jitsu Institute became the first Kodokan instructor was Ralph Mori, who eventually opened his own judo club in 1941. Mori named his dojo the International Judo Club. Mr. Shozo Kuwashima came from New York in 1939 to teach at the institute; he later opened his own dojo. Also in 1941, Mr. Yasushi Tomonari came from New York to teach at the institute. During May of that year, Mr. Masato Tamura, then a 4th dan, came to Chicago from Fife , Washington , and also taught at the institute. With the illness of Mr. Auspitz in 1944, Mr. Tamura became the owner of the Jiu Jitsu Institute. The Chicago Judo Club was founded by Shozo Kuwashima in 1941. When Kuwashima moved to the West Coast, the Chicago Judo Club was taken over by John Osako and Ruth Gardner. After World War II, Judo in Chicago received numbers of Japanese who were relocating in the Midwest section of the country. Vince Tamura came to Chicago and helped out at the Jit Jitsu Institute. In 1944, Mr. Yoshitaro Sakai moved in to the area, and Hiro Okamura arrived in 1945 as the relocation camps closed. Hank Okamura relocated close to the Lawson YMCA in 1946 and joined the “Y.” Okamura, wrestling at the YMCA, met Kenji Okimoto; and the two men, who discovered they were both judoka, began to practice together. From this start, judo remained at Lawson YMCA for the next twenty year. The Chicago Judo Black Belt Association was formed during 1947 and a charter was received directly from the Kodokan. (As a recognized judo organization the yudanshakai could promote up to 3rd-degree black belt.) At that time the Chicago Judo Black Belt Association covered the states of Wisconsin , Missouri , Minnesota , Ohio , Indiana , Arkansas , Louisiana , and Michigan . The first constitution for Chicago , a rather informal document, stated the John Osako would be president of the association, and the vice-president would be Mas Tamura. There was not much more to the constitution that that. The charter members of the Chicago Judo Black Belt Association were Masato Tamura, Hank Okamura, Hik Nagao, Yosh Sakai, Carl Shojii, Carl Kalaskai, Jack Ohashi, and Tom Watanabe. In 1949, Masato Tamura became the president of the yudanshakai and remained in that office for the next fourteen years. During the late 1940’s the Oak Park YMCA stated under Bob Matsuoka. Some noted members of the Chicago Judo Club were Hik Nagao, Tom Okamura, and Kenji Okamoto. The Jiu Jutsu Institute had Masato Tamura, Vince Tamura, Bob Belhatchet, Frank Leszczynski, Bill Burk, Bill Berndt, and Bill Kaufman. During these years, any team that represented the U.S. was mostly made up of people from the Chicago Judo Black Belt Association. Chicago sent teams to the first two Pan-American Judo Tournaments and one of the two American representatives to the 1st World Tournaments in Japan . Judo was intensively promoted in Chicago during the 1950’s. There were a number of self-defense demonstrations conducted for television shows. Tournaments became regular events with the Lawson YMCA providing a central location. Konan, of Detroit , was encouraged to break away, about 1952. This change relieved Chicago of the responsibility for all of Michigan and come of the Midwestern areas. Milwaukee , Wis. , And St. Louis , Mo. , were starting to develop judo groups during this time, but, unlike Chicago, these two areas did not have strong Japanese judo players to get the sport going and give guidance to its development. With the stat of the 1950’s, judo in Chicago began to develop into a citywide sport as new dojos were opened. Bill Kaufman was discharged from the service in 1952 and came back from Japan as a 2nd-degree black belt. Kaufman worked out at the Jiu Jitsu Institute and started his own club at the Hyde Park YMCA. Later he taught at the University of Chicago . Mr. Hikaru Nagao was teaching judo at the Illinois Institute of Technology. In time, these two clubs combined to form the Uptown Dojo. In the early 1950’s, some students from the original dojos began teaching at various locations around the city, and the Oak Park YMCA was developing a good judo group also. Indiana at this time had a judo community developing under the guidance of Mr. Bill Craig. In local tournaments there would be as many as 80 brown belts competing at one time. National registration was adopted during this period and was run by the Chicago Yudanshakai for a few years. In the late 1950’s, Chicago had 2,800 registered members. In 1954, Vinve Tamura represented the Chicago Yudanshakai and the U.S. in the 1st World Tournament. There were no weight divisions in early world competitions, so the matches were rough. Tamura lasted until the semi-finals, defeating heavier and higher ranking people. His only loss was to a future world champion. Texas In 1957 the Second Air Force held its championship tournament in Austin Tex., and invited Roy H. “Pop” Moore to officiate the tournament. Pop decided to stay, and , with the help of Col. Walthrop, Beberly Sheffield, from Austin Recreation Department, and a young competitor, Jerry Reid, from Bergstrom Air Force Base, the Austin Judo Club opened its doors. With the addition of members such as Bill Nagase and Sam Numahiri in Fort Worth , Karl Geis and Rick Landers in Houston , and Rick Mertens in Shreveport , the Southwestern U.S. Judo Association came into being. The association annexed small areas out of several yadanshkais and covered the stated of Texas , Louisiana , Arakansas , Oklahoma , and New Mexio. In 1959 the Southwestern U.S. Championships were helpd in Austin , Tex. , with over 300 competitors attending. In the late 1950’s Bill Nahases and Gail Stolzenburg competed in the National AAU Senior Judo Championships. The sport continued to grow and attracted several talented instructors to Texas- Ace Sukigara, 3rd dan, to Longview , and Vince Tamura, 5th dan, to Dallas . In 1961 the Southwestern U.S. Judo Yusanshakai became the Texas Judo Black Belt Association, and in 1962 the Texas Yudanshakai was approved by the Judo Black Belt Federation as a regional association. The first officers included John Ebell, Rick Landers, Gail Stolzenburg, Karl Geis, and Vince Tamura. In 1964 the National Collegiate Championships were held in El Paso with Texans Ace Sukigara, John Rowlett, Wes Maxwell, and Joe Rude among the winners. In 1971 Odessa Boys Club hosted the USJF Junior National Championships with many trophies staying in Texas . In 1975 the High School National Championships were held in Houston . To keep all the clubs informed of the Judo activities in Texas and surrounding areas, the Texas Yudanshakai had produced since 1963 a bi-monthly magazine entitled Texas Judo News. (Gail Stolzenburg) Shufu Shufu Yudanshakai at one time had the largest judo area in the U.S. Over the years, new, localized judo organizations grew out of the initial central organization. James Takemori, 5th dan, had served as rank registration chairman, secretary, and president of Shufu. He related the following information concerning shufu’s history: “ I was in Washington before Shufu was organized. There were only a hanful of men in the area, approximately ten yudansha. Among the black belts present were Kenzo Uyeno, Eichi Koiwai M.D., Nonkey Ishiyama, Donn Draeger, Bill Berndt, Lanny Miyamoto president. There were five yudanshakais prior to the formation of Shufu. The earlier five were in Chicago, Seattle , Hawaii , Hokka, and Nanka. Donn Draeger was and early advocated of a yudanshakai of the East Coast. His efforts resulted in the first meeting of the forming yudanshakai, in the spring of 1953. There were some differences of opinion regarding a name for the new organization. Some felt it should be called, using Japanese terminology, East Coast, while others felt the Japanese for Capitol was more appropriate. The name Capitol final won, thus Shufu Yudanshakai. The early officers of Shufu were: Mr. Hashimoto, president; Kenzo Uyeno, vice-president; Lanny Miyamoto, secretary-treasurer; and Donn Draeger, chairman of the board of examiners. Shufu eventually stretched from Maine to Florida , including the Panama Canal Zone . Those seeking examination or further study might have had to travel two days for such an activity. Takemori and Uyeno traveled a great deal during that early period; to North Carolina twice a year for promotional tournaments; to New England twice a yearly; and to Dixie states twice yearly. Early applicants for examinations were not very knowledgeable about judo. Many of those tested had learned judo from a book, owing to the small number of instructors on the East Cost. The candidates usually were designed to develop instructors, which the large area desperately needed. Terminology was very highly stressed. Shufu, unlike many of the other yusanshakais, did not have a large indigenous Japanese population from which to form the basis of the organization. Many of the judo people came from the military. Often, men recently home from military service overseas, would return to the U.S. from Japan as 1st- or 2nd-degree black belts. Among the instructors in the area were Dr. Koiwai, teaching in Philadelphia at a YMCA; Lanny Miyamoto in Baltimore; Ken Freeman and George Uchida in New York; and Kames Takemore, Bill Berndt, Kenzo Uyeno, and Donn Draeger in Washington. There was earlier named the Pentagon Judo Club, established a dojo outside of the Pentagon. The level of judo awareness and numbers of practicing judokas in the various areas of Shufu increased. It soon became practical for more localized judo organizations to exist. The first to develop a base sufficient to fun its own affairs was the Florida area. Next, New England formed its own yudanshakai, followed by the Dixie States , and Allegheny Mountain . As long as the local judo population has sufficient number and knowledge to administer judo in its area, the more efficient service of a local yudanshakia is preferred. This concepts has motivated the spilling of areas from Shufu’s original territory. Intercollegiate Judo The first record of any U.S. collegiate judo participation was in the early 1930’s when Henry Stone, a young coach at the University of California , Berkeley sent a few students to participate in some tournaments held in San Francisco . In 1937 Emilio Bruno, a student, introduced judo as a sport to the physical education department at San Jose State College; later the judo program was taken over by another student, Yosh Uchida. Mr. Uchida took the first group of college judo competitors from San Jose to Southern California to participate in yudanshakai tournament. The beginning of sectional tournaments. World War II interrupted all collegiate judo. In 1946, Yosh Uchida returned to college and helped revive the judo program at San Jose State . Many of the students, who were World War II veterans, had been taught strictly self-defense in the service. Because fine technique was lacking among the judo participants, great force was used on opponents and small competitors were easily injured. In 1948 Henry Stone devised a weight system that he hoped would aid the growth and development of judo. For several years, the weight system was experimented with at San Jose State in the physical education classes and proved worthwhile. The original weight divisions were: 130, 150, 180 lbs, and unlimited. These divisions were adopted by the AAU, but have since been revised several times in an effort to keep up with changes in body size. The weight divisions adopted by the Olympic Judo Committee, and used in the Olympic Games in Tokyo in 1964, were 156, 176, heavyweight, and open. Most of the early college judo participation and development was carried out on the west coast at San Jose and U.C. Berkeley. Dual meets between the two schools were initiated in the early 1950s. Un 1953, the first collegiate judo championships were held at U.C. Berkeley, called the Pacific Coast Intercollegiate Judo Championships. Also in 1953, the first National AAU Judo Championships were held in San Jose State . Lyle Hunt, a San Jose State senior, was the first grand champion of the National AAU Championships. Later in 1953, as a college student, Lyle represented the U.S. in several tournaments in Europe , along with John Osoko from Chicago . Yosh Uchida, from San Jose State , was coach. This was the first U.S. representation abroad in the sport. Judo was recognized as in intercollegiate sport at San Jose in 1954, but the growth of judo was definitely hampered over the years by a general lack of understanding and knowledge of the sport by athletic directors and physical education departments chairmen, who have been traditionally reluctant to accept new minor sports. In 1955 San Jose State hosted the first International All-Star Collegiate competitors. Haruo Imamura, who won the U.S. National AAU Grand Championships in 1960, was a member of that team. The tournament was the first all-college judo participation on an international scale between two countries, although sometime during the mid-1930s, a team from Keio University had participated in a yudanshakai tournament in southern California . Henry Stone, the great leader of judo, passed away suddenly in 1955 and judo floundered on the university level. A long-smouldering feud between the NCAA and the AAU flared up in 1960, and it became impossible for college teams to compete in AAU-sanctioned tournaments. On May 12, 1962 college leaders met and organized the National Collegiate Judo Association. In 1962 the first National Collegiate Judo Championships were held at the U.S. Air Force Academy, San Jose State , U.C. Berkeley, University of Minnesota , Mankato State College, and the Eastern Collegiate Judo Association. Since then many National Collegiate Judo Championships have been held in various colleges and universities across the country. In 1967, the National Collegiate Judo Association selected Howard Fish to represent the U.S. in the University Games held in Tokyo . George Uchisa, of U.S. Berkeley, was coach and manager. The only U.S. representative, Fish won a bronze medal in both the heavyweight and open divisions. Because of Fish’s outstanding performance, the NCJA was invited to send a team to Lisbon , Portugal , in 1968. The U.S. sent Mike Ogata, Doug Graham, Roy Sukimoto, Gary Martin, and Yosh Uchida as coach. Doug Graham won a silver medal in the 205 lb division. These two U.S. collegiate judoists lost only to collegiate competitors from Japan . In 1972 the University Games were held in London . Team members included David Lond, John Reed, Tom Cullen, Louis Gonzalez, Tom Masterson, and Tom Tigg. In Soo Hwang, From Yale University, severed as coach-manager. Tigg won the silver medal in the 139 lb division. For all the University Game competition, financial help was received from the USJF. Without this national governing body, U.S. judo would have had a far greater struggle; and certainly, without its financial aid, competitors would never have been able to compete internationally. (Yosh Uchida) The Armed Forces The organized judo program in the U.S. Armed Forces began in the Air Force in 1950 when Gen. Curtis E. LeMay, then commander-in-chief of the Strategic Air Command, USAF, directed the setting up of a model physical conditioning unit at Offutt AFB, Neb. In 1951 similar conditioning units were set up at other SAC bases. Gen. LeMay appointed Emilio (“Mel”) Bruno, a former National AAU Wrestling Champion and 5th-degree in judo, to direct the program. At this time, civilian judo instructors staffed six SAC bases; that rest had physical conditioning units, but no judo instructors. In direct charge of the judo and conditioning program for SAC was Gen. Tomas Power, laters honorary chairman of the National AAU Judo Committee. Because of an obvious deficiency of instructors, Power sent two classes of airmen (24 men) to the Kodokan Institute in Tokyo in 1952 for several weeks training. This was the first such training for any Armed Forces group. Air Force judo received asses impetus in 1953 when ten experts from Japan, six in judo, three in karate, and one in aikido, gave demonstrations at over 70 Air Force Bases over a three-month period. The purpose of this tour was to train judo instructors and combat crews and to give exhibitions on and off base. Many civilian judo clubs had their first visit from high-ranking judo teachers as a result of this tour. One of the highlights of the tour was a demonstration at the White House on July 22. The year 1953, was also marked by the first National AAU Judo tournament held at San Jose State College. A SAC team participated in these first Nationals. In 1954, the first SAC Judo Tournament was held at Offutt AFB; the Grand Champion was Airman Morris Curtis. Also in 1954, 26 SAC Air Police went to the Kodokan to study judo for ten weeks. The curriculum consisted of police tactics, aikido, karate, and of course, judo. Two SAC judoists advanced to the last few rounds in the 1954 AAU National Championships at Kezar Stadium, San Francisco . The 12-man SAC team won 29 rounds and lost 19 but was unable to place a man. Staff Sgt. Ed Maley, SAC, member of the 1955 SAC Judo Team, placed in the 1955 AAU National Championships-third in the 150-lb division. The Air Research and Development Command, USAD (ARDC), also entered a team in 1955, after only a year of competition, and A/1C Vern Raab won an unofficial fourth place in the heavyweight division. The year 1954 also brought 10-man AAU-Air Force teams visits to six Japanese cities to compete in 16 contests. Five members of the team were Air Force, and the most successful member for the team was to heard from many times in the future. This man Staff Sgt, George Harris, won all of his 19 contests. Seventy men from SAC and ARDC Judo Association was formed and received recognition from the Kodokan in 1956. Emilio Bruno was elected president, and the association was permitted to grant judo rank. This was the first and only Armed Forces judo association to be so recognized by the Kodokan. SAC and ARDC sent 280 Air Policemen for four-week classes at the Kodokan during 1956. Again in 1956, the Air Force placed one man in the national AAU Judo Tournament at Seattle . Returning from his successful Japanese tour, George Harris, then a 2nd dan, placed third in the heavyweight division. In 1957, after only five years in judo Staff Sgt. George Harris won the Grand Championship in the National AAU Judo Championships in Hawaii . Harris was first in the heavyweight division; sweeping the division with him were A/1C Lenwood Williams in second place and A/2C Ed Mede, third. The Air Force also took the National 5-man Team Championship for the first time. Winners of the SAC and ARDC tournaments represented the Air Force in the AAU tournaments on April 13 and 14 in Chicago . Twelve Air Force judoists participated, with George Harris successfully defending his Grand Championship, and the Air Force team captured the National 5-Man Team Championship for the second year in a row. Due to the great power of southern California in the lower weight divisions, the Air Force was unable to win the overall team championships. The SAC Judo Team, consisting of L. Williams, E. Mede, G. Harris. J. Reid, R. Moxley, and M. O’Connor (trainer) was designated as the U.S. Pan- American Judo Team in 1958. Team members won first and fourth in the 3rd dan category (Harris and Williams), third in the 2nd dan(Reid), and second in the 1st dan (Mede). In the fall of 1958, George Harris and Ed Mede represented the U.S. in the 2nd World Tournament, held in Tokyo . Harris’s three wins before losing to Sone, a Japanese 5th degree, placed him in a tie for fifth place along with the four other defeated quarter finalists. As a result of this fine record, George Harris was promoted to 4th degree in judo, the first Armed Forces man to be so honored. (Lt. Agulla Gibbs Dibrell) The Governance of U.S. Judo The development of a national governing body for U.S. judo started in 1952, through the efforts of Dr. Henry A. Stone, Maj. Draeger, and others. At the time there was no national authority to give guidance to local judo communities and insure the logical and orderly development of judo as a sport. The Amateur Judo Association was a first attempt at establishing a national governing structure. Dr. Stone served as the first president. Authority to grant the most coveted Kodokan judo rank was assumed by the national organization. High ranking individuals were no longer permitted to grant promotions independently. The growth of local judo organizations was encouraged, promotion privileges were granted to yudanshakais, and national communications avenue was opened. Until the early 1960’s, judo in the U.S. had grown in a haphazard, somewhat informal fashion. Most leaders tended to be purists, preferring the security and recognition offered by their local influence. Judo was structured strictly on rank, and those without the proper credentials were considered outsiders. It was judo rank, that coveted mantle of recognition, which for so many years retarded the formation of a strong, responsive national organization. As judo spread across the nation, false claims to rank and promotions were commonplace, and the existing organization was powerless to take action. Those leaders who had feared a national organization and popularization of judo in time became the strongest voices for change. The national organization was renamed the Judo Black Belt Federation. President Yosh Uchida (1960-61) delegated the task of laying the groundwork for reorganization to Donald Pohl, a relatively unknown 1st dan from Detroit . Pohl, the executive secretary of the Detroit Judo Club (then the nation’s largest non-profit club), had effected a pilot program for a national rank system. During the brief tenure of President Renyo Uyeno (before his untimely death at the age of 39 on June 1, 1963), the Judo Black Belt Federation launched a national rank registration procedure, which was coupled with a detailed rank identification system. This was the basis for future financial stability of the organization. The Judo Black Belt Federation also adopted a comprehensive system and published the Judo Bulletin. Although the early leaders of the Judo Black Belt Federation (then known as the Amateur Judo Association), had actively sought out the Amateur Athletic Union and had been granted the right to represent U.S. judo on the international level, little attention or significance was attached to this accommodation until early in the 1960s when amateurism and sanctions began to become important. As the Judo Black Belt Federation expanded (18 yudanshakais in 1963) and tournaments were more widely attended, the importance and presence of the AAU began to be noticed. The Judo Black Belt Federation and Amateur Athletic Union succeeded in maintaining an atmosphere of cooperation and mutual assistance during the remainder of the decade. In 1963 the Judo Black Belt Federation joined the Amateur Athletic Union in producing the first of what were to be five joint handbooks (two published by Phil Porter and three by Don Pohl). Sales of the books, mostly through the Federation, exceeded 1000,000 copies. All proceeds were given to the Amateur Athletic Union Judo Committee to help finance its operation. When proceeds from the sale of handbooks failed to provide the necessary funding for the expanding program, the Judo Black Belt Federation authorized grants in excess of $75,000 to the Amateur Athletic Union to help finance international competition and related programs. In 1964 and 1966, Hiro Fujimoto of Detroit was elected president of the Federation and Dr. Eichi Koiwai of Philadelphia , vice-president. Dr. Koiwai assumed the presidency at the 1968 election, holding office for several terms. During the uncertain years of the 1960s the Federation changed its name to the U.S. Judo Federation, published a book of procedures, rewrote the judo contest rules, adopted a comprehensive promotion procedure, drafted a new referees’ certification procedure, and expanded to 25 yudanshakais. Judo soon grew to the third largest sport in the array of Amateur Athletic Union activities. What were first considered minor contentions between the Union and the Federation soon grew to open disagreement over philosophy, priorities, and control. Amateurism became a none of contention, considered by many a stumbling block in the way of development. Amateur Athletic Union advocates, on the other hand, questioned the unchallenged control of rank exercised by the U.S. Judo Federation. In 1969 the differences and positions that had been fought out at the meetings finally culminated in one of the yudanshakais (the Armed Forces Judo Association) withdrawing from the U.S. Judo Federation to start a rival nation organization. The Armed Forces judo Association adopted a name similar to that of the parent organization, the U.S. Judo Association. The association closely aligned itself with the philosophy and position of the Amateur Athletic Union. (Dennis Helm) KARATE Kung-fu arrived in the U.S. with the first Chinese immigrants in the mid-19th century, but the growth of karate is largely owed to contact between American servicemen and Japanese experts during the post-World War II occupation of Japan and Okinawa . Kung-fu: the Forerunner of Karate King-fu was a part of the Chinese lifestyle in the labor camps and mining towns that grew up following the gold rush of 1848. With the importation of large numbers of Chinese laborers to work on the Central Pacific Railroad, beginning in 1963, the swelling Chinese communities isolated themselves within their own, transplanted culture. Conflicts over control of gambling, prostitution, and the like arose; rival secret societies fought each other in the notorious “Tong Wars,” which lasted until the 1930s. The troops in these internecine wars were “hatchetmen,” so-called because they used mean cleavers and hatchets as weapons. They were skilled also in kung-fu, in the art of “pin-bowing,” and in hurling lethal, razor-edged coins. Hatchetmen in the U.S handed down, form one generation to the next, the secret and sinister practice of kung-fu, the forebearer of modern karate. Until roughly two decades after World War II, kung-fu was not available to non-Chinese on the U.S. mainland. The early Japanese and Okinawan communities in the U.S. were isolated, introverted, and intensely secretive about their ethnic arts and crafts. Judo was the only exception; Jigoro Kano, the founder of judo, encouraged its spread. According to martial arts scholar Donn F. Draeger, Kano asked that “judo training be undertaken not only in the dojo but also outside it, and so make its physical aspects the focus of human endeavor for the progress and development of man.” The other martial arts had no such original intention. The first club to practice kung-fu in organized classes with instructors from Chinese provinces was a branch of the Chinese Physical Culture Association, founded in Honolulu in 1922. This association promoted physical culture among the islands’ Chinese communities, but kung-fu remained unavailable to non-orientals until 1957, when Tinn Chan Lee, a t’ai-chi-ch’uan specialist, became the first Chinese sifu to open his teaching to the general public. In 1964 the closely-guarded doors of kung-fu finally opened in the U.S. mainland. Art Y. Wong of Los Angeles , born in China , broke the traditional kung-fu “color line” by accepting students of all races at jos Wah Que Studio in Los Angeles ’s old Chinatown . Also in 1964 the movie idol Bruce Lee and his one-time partner, James Yimm Lee, began accepting non-Orientals at Lee’s kwoon in Oakland , Calif. In fact, notorious John Keehan, a.k.a. “Count Dante,” claimed to have trained there as early as 1962. Teachers like New York ’s Alan Lee, Ark Y. Wong, and T.Y. Wong popularized Shao-lin. Choy-Li-Fut and t’ai-chi-ch’uan quickly became public and, soon after the various branches of northern and southern Shao-lin kung-fu. In northern California , sifus Kwong and Brendan Lai helped establish the praying mantis system. Y.C. Wong promoted the hung gar and tiger crane systems; Kuo-Lien-Ying promoted t’ai-chi; George Long, the white crane; and Lau Bun and the Luk Mo Studio, Marshal Ho, Started the National T’ai-Chi-Ch’uan Association in the early 1960s, opening up instruction in this “soft style” of kung-fu to Caucasians. Throughout the U.S. kung-fu spread, especially during the Bruce Lee era, when so-called Eastern Westerns dominated American and international movie screens. Even so, the majority of kung-fu styles and teachers still remain hidden. Many of the first karate students were street fighters. Few of these rough types possessed, however, the discipline necessary to remain with the art and learn it thoroughly. The small number who did found their original attitudes startlingly transformed. Today, karate classes are predominantly composed of businesspersons, professionals, skilled workers, and students-a cross section of American society. Karate Comes to Hawaii In Hawaii , a great cultural crossroads, karate secured a ffoothold long before its emergence on the mainland. Although practiced within the Okinawan community, no wider audience had seen karate in Hawaii until 1927, when Kentsu Yabu, a famous Okinawan master, introduced Shuri-te in a public demonstration at the Nuuana YMCA in Honolulu . A few “naichi” Japanese(i.e., Japanese from one of the four main islands of Hawaii ) who observed the YMCA demonstration adjudged karate a strong fighting art, possibly even stronger than their judo. Interest in karate by non-Okinawans flourished thereafter. Yabu’s opean teachings also brought together interested groups of Okinawans for practice and recreation, something the rivalries of Naha , Shuri, and Tomari had prevented on Okinawa . In 1932 Choki Motobu, a legendary, eccentric Okinawan karate fighter, was denied entry to Hawaii when a group of Okinawan promoters living in Hawaii tried to import him for a public match against well-known Island fighters. In 1933 Zuiho Mutsu and Kamesuke Higaonna were allowed into Hawaii with the understanding that they would teach and lecture but not compete in the boxing ring. Both refused to engage in public matches and prepared to depart immediately. Tomas Miyashiro, who had studied with Yabu in 1927, convinced other karate enthusiasts to approach the pair collectively and urge that they remain in Hawaii to teach their art. They agreed and, after great initial success at the Asahi Photo Studio, the site of their classes, the Izumo Taishi Shinto Mission. The club formed from these classes, the Hawaii Karate Seinin Kai (Hawaii Young People’s Karate Club, subsequently staged a public karate demonstration at the Honolulu Civic Auditorium. A number of Caucasian spectators in attendance, mostly members of the First Methodist Church , became interested in learning karate. Through their efforts, the first known Caucasian group in the Westen world to study openly and to sponsor karate activities was formed in 1933. shortly thereafter, both Mutsu and Higonna departed for Japan , where they had been teaching previously. In May 1934 Chinei Kenjo, editor of the Okinawan newspaper Yoen Fihn Sha, invited grandmaster Chojun Miyagi, the founder of goju-ryu karate, to Hawaii . Miyagi lectured and taught to popularize Okinawan goju-ryu karate-do, staying almost a year and returning to Okinawa in Feb. 1935. The spread of kempo to the Islands is largely owed to Dr. James Mitose, a Japanese-American born in Hawaii in 1916. At age five he was sent to Kyushu , Japan , for schooling in his ancestral art of self-defense, called “kosho-ryu kempo,” said to be based directly on Shao-lin kung-fu. Mitose retruned to Hawaii in 1936. in 1942 he organized the Official Self-Defense Club at the Beretania Mission in Honolulu . This club continued under his personal leadership until 1953, when it was assigned to Tomas Young, one of his chief students. Only five of his students- Young, William K.S. Chow, Pauls Yamaguchi, Arthur Keawe, and Edward Lowe-attained the rank of black belt. But the kempo arts flourished in Hawaii and later on the west coast of the mainland, where three of Mitose’s protégés formed clubs of their own. In 1953 before going to the mainland, Mitose wrote What is Self-Defense, reprinted by his students in 1980. Of Mitose’s students, perhaps Chow played the most significant role in the evolution of the American marital arts. Although he had learned kosho-ryu kempo under Mitose, Chow was the first to teach what he called kenpo(first law) karate. From 1949 Chow trained a great number of students to the rank of black belt, including Adriano Emperado, Ralph Castro, Bobby Lowe, John Leone, and Paul Pung. By far the most famous of Chow’s students is Ed Parker, a leading pioneer in the American karate movement. Adriano “Sonny” Emperado was a co-founder in 1947 of the kajukenbo system, former by five experts: Walter Choo (karate), Joseph Holke (judo), Frank Ordonez (jujutsu), Emperado (kenpo), and Clarence Chang (Chinese boxing). The name is an acronm derived from the five disciplines of its founders: ka from karate, ju from judo and jujutsu, ken from kenpo, and bo from Chinese boxing. Today, this style is one of the most prominent in Hawaii . In 1950 Emperado founded Hawaii ’s first and largest chain of karate schools, the Kajukenbo Self-Defense Institute, Inc., in which he still holds the office of vice-president. Probably Emperado’s most famous student Al Dacascos, founder of the won hop kuen do system. In 1954 Japan ’s colorful Mas Oyama visited Hawaii for a month to assist Bobby Lowe, a Chinese-American, in setting up the first overseas branch of Oyama’s kyokushinkai style. Karate Emerges on the Mainland The first karate school on the U.S. mainland was established by a former sailor, Robert Trias, who began teaching karate in Phoenix in 1946. In 1942, while stationed in the Pacific, Trais trained with Tong Gee Hsing, a teacher of hsing-i and Shuri tode ryu, and a nephew, according to Trais, of Okinawa ’s Choki motobu. The word “karate” was not then in universal use; Shuri tode ryu was a style of Okinawan shorei-ryu karate. Upon his discharge in 1946, Trais retruned to the U.S. and established his private, 14-foot-square dojo. He charged a low annual fee for instruction in judo or karate for two to three hours daily, seven days a week. Until the late 1970s when John Corcoran investigated the subject, little acknowledgement was give Trais as the actual founder of karate in America . Later, in 1948, Trais formed of the United States Karate Association (USJA), the first karate organization on the mainland. From Mar. to Nov. 1952 Mas Oyama of Japan tourned 32 states by invitation of the U.S. Professional Wrestling Association-officials famous challenge matches with professional wrestlers and boxers, all of whom he is said to have defeated. Oyama’s exhibition bouts and demonstrations, including breaking of boards, bricks, and stones, received great public attention, including articles in the New York Times, which covered his bout with a pro boxer at Madison Square Garden . In 1951 Emilio Bruno, judo teacher, pioneer, and administrator, had been named supervisor of judo and combative measures for the Strategic Air Command(SAC), Bruno formulated a new approach karate into a systematic unarmed combat technique. To implement his idea, he suggested a pilot program to Gen. Curtis LeMay, then commander of the U.S. Air Force and one of Bruno’s judo students. The program had a significant effect on the subsequent propagation of karate in the U.S. With Gen. LeMay’s endorsement and SAC’s sponsorship, Bruno initiated eight-week training programs for Air Force instructors at the Kodokan, judo’s mecca, in Japan . Kodokan officials contacted the Japan Karate Association(JKA) to manage the karate instruction, and that organization selected Higetaka Nishiyama as one of the coaches. Financially backed and supported by SAC, Bruno invited famous four-month 1953 tour of every SAC base in the U.S. and Cuba . The touring group included seven judoka and three karate dignitaries: Nishiyama, Toshio Kamata, and the late Isao Obata, a JKA co-founder and senior disciple of Gichin Funakoshi. The 1953 SCA tour was responsible for opening up communication between Japan and the U.S. , accounting for the migration of dozens of Japanese karate instructors to America . It also influenced other U.S. military branches and departments to adopt similar martial arts programs. In 1954 the JKA established its first, small headquarters in Tokyo , and, with the establishment of a central dojo, Nishiyama was elected chief of the JKA instruction department. He conceived a plan to train large numbers of karate. His plan, once put into operation, accounted for the migration, beginning in 1955, of many instructors who pioneered Shotokan karate wherever they settled. Nishiyama himself assumed responsibility for furthering karate in the U.S. In 1954 Ed Parker, black belt kenpo student of William Chow, began teaching a karate course at Brigham Young University . Hawaiian-born Parker, who had arrived on the mainland in 1951, limited instruction to Americans attending the university. His evening classes enrolled as many as 72 students; city police, state highway patrolmen, fish and game wardens, and sheriffs’ deputies. With some of his students, Parker formed an exhibition team, and through various chambers of commerce, he and his group performed in several Utah cities. William Dometrich, who began his karate training in Japan in 1951, returned in Dec, 1954, settling in Kentucky . A student of Dr. Tsuyoshi Chitose, the founder of Chito-ryu karate, Dometrich was the first to teach this system in America . He formed the U.S. Chito-Kai in 1967. Denver ’s Frank Goody, Jr., who had as early as 1924 started judo lessons with his father, is the first instructor to have taught karate in the Rocky Mountain region. Jack Farr, in compiling the history of martial arts in Colorado , reported that between 1945 and 1951, Goody promoted yawara tournaments within his judo school in Denver . While Goody’s background is the subject of much confusion, his contribution to karate school in Boulder , Colo. , and is credited with teaching nearly all the other karate pioneers in the Colorado area. Dewey Deavers, a jujutsu and karate instructor who reportedly traveled in China and Japan in the 1920s, surfaced around 1954 in Pittsburgh . By then he had already trained two students to the rank of black belt: Warren Siciliano and Larry Williams. Williams in that year introduced karate to a promising student, Glenn Premru, who in the late 1960s and early 1970s, became a noted performer and national kata champion. In 1957 Cecil Patterson, a wado-ryu black belt, opened a private club in Sevierville , Tenn. In 1962 he opened his first commercial school in Nashville , which, by the mid-1970s, expanded to as many as 17 dojo across Tennessee . Patterson also began the Eastern U.S. Wado-Kai Federation. Okinawa kempo master Zempo (atsu) Shimabuku founded the first known karate dojo in Philadelphia in 1957. In 1958, Roger Warren, who studied in the Orient, stated teaching karate in Chicago and Peoria . Charles Gruzanski (d. 1973) also opened a marital arts school in Chicago in the same year. Gruzanski, who spent many years in Japan , was a black belt in a number of different arts and was one of the few Caucasian experts in masaki-ryu-manriki-gusari, a viscous chain and sickle weapon. In the mid-1950s Ed Kaloudis traveled to Japan to improve his judo knowledge. While there he studied koei-kan karate from Eizo Onishi. In 1958 Kaloudis moved to New York where he began to teach at NYU and also to members of the New York City Police Department. He later moved in New Jersey and opened up schools in Clifton and Caldwell . Today he oversees a large number of affiliated schools. Robert Fusaro, who trained under Nishiyama in Japan , was the first man to teach karate in Minnesota . He began teaching his shotokan style in 1958 in Minneapolis and founded the Midewest Karate Association. Today he runs a number of schools in Minnesota . In 1958 George Mattson was discharged from the U.S. Army. He returned home to Boston where he became the first Uechi-ryu instructor in America , as well as the first karate pioneer in the New England region. Mattson became a leader of karate on the Eastern Seaboard sponsoring the first karate tournament in New Enland in 1961. Mattson also wrote one of the first books on karate, The Way of Karate, published in 1963. In 1958 in Portland , Oreg., Moon Yo Woo began teaching kong su an obscure Koren style of karate. In 1958-59 Harry Smith, a students of Don Nagle, opened the first-known karate school in western Pennsylvania . He trained several students including Joe Penneywell, Harry Ackland and James Morabeto. Around this time Walter Mazak and Joe Hedderman opened a dojo in Pittsburgh , Hedderman was a student of Chito-stylist William Dometrich. In 1959 Philip Koeppel was discharged from the Navy. He has studied karate in Japan with Richard Kim and Kajukenbo with Adriano Emperado in Hawaii . In 1960 he joined the USKA and studied under Robert Trias. In 1963 he helped promote the 1st World Karate Championships in Chicago and had since built a strong chain of karate studios throughout the Midwest . In 1959 Natamoro Naikima opened a school in Philadelphia teaching shorin-ryu. Peter Urban, one of the founders of karate on the East Coast, opened his first goju-ryu karate school in Union City , New Jersey , in Sept. 1959. Urban had studied in Japan with Richard Kim and later became a top student of Gogen “The Cat” Yamaguchi. In 1960, Urban moved to New York City and taught karate at the Judo Twins (Bernie and Bob Lepkofker) and later established his own dojo, the famous “Chinatown Dojo.” He also broke away from the goju-kai organization and formed his own, which he called USA Goju. Urban probably trained more top black belts than anyone on the East Coast; among them were: Chuck Merriman, Al Gotay, William Louis, Frank Ruiz, John Kuhl, Lou Angel, Thomas Boddie, Joe Lopez, Joe Hess, Bill Liquori, Aaron Banks, Ron Van Cleif, Susan Murdock, Owen Watson, and Rick Pascetta. Dr. Maung Gyi, a master of Burmese bando, founded the American Bando Association in Washington , D.C. , in 1960. This was the first Asian boxing association in the U.S. Ron Duncan, a karate student of Don Nagle, began teaching in Brookly in 1959. Besides karate, he taught jujutsu as well as weaponry. Another dojo, the Tong Dojo, also opened in Brooklyn in 1959. Founded by George Cofield , who got his black belt from Maynard Minor (one of the first shotokan instructors in the U.S. affiliated with the JKA), Cofield taught such well-known students as Tomas LaPuppet, Alex Sternberg, and Hawk Frazier. LaPuppet went on to become one of America ’s premier tournament fighters of the 1960s, and is considered one of the greatest championships ever to emerge from New York City . During this same period, Chris DeBais was teaching karate at the Judo Twins. He later went on to train with Peter Urban. The New York Karate Club was founded in 1959 by Hiroshi Orita. Orita, a renukan stylist, later switched to shotokan in 1961 and affiliated himself with Philadelphian Teruyuki Okazaki . Also in 1959, Wallace Reumann began teaching karate at his judo club in Newark , N.J. When he departed a few years later, his senior student, James Cheatham, took over the instruction. Cheatham trained the controversial Karriem Allah who fought Jeff Smith in a full-contact bout, which was seen worldwide as part of the Ail/Frazier “Thrilla in Manilla” in 1975. Don Nagle moved to New Jersey in 1959 and with his partner Joe Bucholtz opened a school in Jersey City . Upon his discharge from the U.S. Marines, Harold Long began teaching isshinryu in eastern Tennessee . In 1962 he opened his fist dojo in Knoxvill, one of the earliest karate schools in the South. Finally in 1959, Mas Oyama visited the U.S. for the second time, opening schools across the country. His California affiliate was Don Buck, a rugged individual who generated much attention to Oyama’s style over the years. Dan Ivan, who was one of the first postwar Americans to study at the Kodokan, settled in southern California in 1956 and opened a karate school in Orange County . A former C.I.D. agent in Japan , Ivan made periodic trips back to the Orient. In 1963 he saw a karate and weapons demonstration by Fumio Demura; impressed, he brought Demura to the U.S. in 1965 to help him teach in his growing chain of schools. In the ensuring years the two would become inseparable partners and would establish more than 20 schools teaching Shito-ryu karate. In addition, Demura became one of the most sought after performers-demonstrating his karate and weaponry at Japanese Village , Sea World, and Las Vegas ’ Hilton Hotel. The first person to introduce Okinawan goju-ryu karate to the U.S. was Anthony Mirakian, who founded the Okinawan Karate-do Academy in Watertwon , Mass. , in 1960. A quite individual who learned his karate in Okinawa , Mirakian is one of the most knowledgeable instructors to teach in the U.S. He has, over the years, kept a low profile in American karate community but was persuaded to make major contributions to this encyclopedia. Goju-ryu instructor Charles Iverson visited Robert Trais in 1960 and exchange numerous katas with Trais. This led to the latter’s formation of his shorei-goju-ryu style, which became a common style in the USKA. New York saw the arrival of Henry Cho in 1960. Cho was the first to introduce tae kwon do in the eastern U.S. Cho’s ability, as well as his keen business sense, made him an instant success, and even today he runs one of the largest schools in Manhattan . After becoming isshin-ryu founder Tatsuo Shimabuku’s number 1 student, Steven Armstrong-a former Marine-settled in Seattle , Wash. In 1960. Armstrong taught karate out of his garage for a while and later opened a full-time dojo, which by the 1970s expanded into a chain of nine schools throughout the Pacific Northwest . Other early pioneers of the region included Bill Ruder, Ernest Brinekee, Morris Menk, Bob Hill, Don Williams, and Bill Weaver. Another principal force in the area at the time was Bruce Terrill of Portland , Oreg. Behinning in 1960, Terrill expanded his one school into a chain of twenty affiliated studios. Terrill, a founder of his own style of wu ying tao, trained nationally ranked Dan Anderson and Pauline Short, one of the first female back belts in the U.S. Short opened a school exclusively for the instruction of women, one of the first in the U.S. Virgil Adams was the first to teach karate in the state of Kansas , in 1960. He operated out of Wichita . Ralph Lindquist, an isshin-ryu stylist, opened a school in 1960 in New Cumberland, Pa. In Michigan , Al Horton began teaching his uechi-ryu in Kalamazoo in 1960. Other early pioneers included J. Kim in Lansing ; Ernest Leib in Mushegon; David Praim in Mt. Clemens (1962), who taught fighters Everett Eddy and Johnny Lee; and Paul and Larry Malo from Detroit who taught Shito-ryu and operated a number of multi-million-dollar karate centers. As the decade closed, karate was gaining appeal. While no single member of the 1950-60 group of pioneers appears to have been greatly successful, the fact that so many individuals were operating schools, whose enrollments ere increasing steadily, proved this new form of self-defense was attractive to the general public. In this decade the foundation was laid for the circulation of styles, instructors, and masters that would in the 1960s see the art of karate surpass judo in numbers of active practitioners. The 1960s also marked the beginning of an extensive immigration of Korean tae kwon do instructors. After Jhoon Rhee, who introduced tae kwon do in the U.S. in 1956, the first wave included; S. Henry Cho, Richard Chun, and Duk Sung Son in New York; D.S. Kim in Georgia; J Kim and Sang Kyu Shim in Michigan; Mahn Suh Park in Pensylvania; Haeng Ung Lee in Omaha; Ki Whang Kim in Maryland; and Jack Hwang in Oklahoma. In all, it is estimated that more than 25 masters during the early and mid-1960s settled in the U.S. The Vietnam War gave this native Korean art visibility. Pictures of Korean instructors training American GIs in hand-to-hand combat appeared in Time and Newsweek. While these legitimate instructors were encouraged to emigrate to the U.S. , the teaching credential itself was to create an intense controversy in American karate. As more and more Korean tae kwon do instructors and masters arrived in the U.S. , it was clearly unlikely that all of them could have taught American military personnel. Yet this claim, coupled with insupportable claims to unreasonably advanced degree of black belt rank-usually no less than 7th dan-first caused suspicion, then rebellion by an “All Korean Champion,” was another of the tae kwon do credentials. It is improbable that there were more than a few dozen All Korean Champions, since tae kwon do embraced no organized competitions until the 1960s- when more than 800 master instructors were teaching tae kwon do in the U.S. The degree and intensity of business competition was undoubtedly the motive for these exorbitant claims. At any rate, potential martial arts students now had a choice of where and with whom to study. By the early 1970s more than 1,200 tae kwon do instructors were reportedly teaching in the U.S. Such phenomenal growth placed increasing demands of the tae kwon do community as a whole, and the need for a central organization quickly became apparent. In the U.S. , as in Korea , the cause of organization was initially obstructed by affiliations of master instructors to parent schools and associations in Korea . Meanwhile, within the Japanese karate community, Tsutomu Ohshima, who was still traveling, arranged in 1961 for Hidetaka Nishiyama to come to California to preside over his Los Angeles headquarters. Nishiyama arrived in July and within four months struck out on his own to form the All America Karate Federation (AAKF), a branch of the powerful Japan Karate Association (JKA). Today, the AAKF is one of the largest karate organizations in the U.S. This development spawned a bitter political rivalry between Ohshima and Nishiyama, which continues under the surface of the international amateur karate movement. Both pioneers, however, are consummate karate masters. Each is responsible for having firmly planted Shotokan karate in the U.S. , and for having trained numerous disciples of high technical skill. Richard Kim, sensei to such American karate pioneers as Peter Urban, Phil Koeppel, and Canada ’s Benny Allen, came to America from Japan in 1961 and began teaching at the Chinese YMCA in San Francisco Calif. Later Kim became the foremost karate historian residing in the U.S. Top JKA instructor Teruyuki Okazaki arrived in the U.S. in May 1961 and began teaching Shotokan karate in west Philadelphia . In Sept. 1962 he formed the East Coast Karate Association, a branch of the AAKF. Today he oversees the 50,000-member International Shotokan Karate Federation. Also in Philadelphia that year, Mahn Suh Park established his first tae kwon do dojang, which, like Okazaki ’s dojo, is still in operation today. It was around 1961 that John Keehan, alias “Count Dante,” began teaching karate in the Midwest from his base dojo in Chicago, III. Keehan joined the USKA in 1961, at age 22, and was instrumental in helping Trais firmly entrech the USKA in the Midwest , the association’s strongest territory. He taught numerous students all the way to black belt, who opened their own schools and turned out respected students. On the night of April 23, 1970, he took part in the infamous “dojo war” that ended in the brutal stabbing death of his friend and students, Jim Koncevic, at the Green Dragon’s Black Cobra training hall in Chicago. The tragedy left a profound mark on Keehan until his death from bleeding ulcers in 1975. An early pioneer of karate in the South was John Pachivas, who became the first karate instructor in Miami Beach area in 1961. Pachivas reportedly has been active in the marital arts since the mid-1940s, and holds degrees in judo, jujutsu, and goju-ryu karate. In Jan. 1961 George Pesare introduced kenpo karate to Rhode Island in Providence . Preceded only by Ted Olsen, Pesare would in time become the foremost instructor in his state and an influential leader in the northeastern U.S. One of the first New York instructors to be affiliated with Mas Oyama was Augustin DeMello, who opened the New York Kyokushinkai karate club in Greenwich Village in 1961. he later broke away from Oyama and quit teaching. Daeshik Kim, a judo and tae kwon do instructor, came to Atlanta , Ga. , in 1961 where he began teaching tae kwon do in the physical education department of Georgia State College. Among Kim’s students were Joe Corley, Chris McLoughlin, “Atlas” Jesses King, Larry McClure, and Dick Lane . In 1966, Kim sold his Institute of Self-Defense , a non-campus club, to McLoughlin and Corley. Corley and McLoughlin established several branch schools over the years, all in and around Atlanta , and they jointly produced the first Battle of Atlanta in 1970. Later, the tournament would become one of the most prestigious in American sport karate. Individually, Corley would become one of the most influential voices in Southern karate by spearheading the formation of the Southeast Karate Association (SEKA). In the 1970s, he would invest most of his time and money in the full-contact karate movement. McLoughlin would make his mark as one of the first professional martial arts journalists who also was a black belt. In Los Angeles , Mito Uyehara, an aikido practitioner, and his brother, Jim, published the inaugural issue of Black Belt Magazine in 1961. the first issue was in digest from, with articles on judo, karate, aikido, and kendo. Though it suffered lean years, the publication became one of the most successful in its field. In the late 1960s, the brothers dissolved their partnership, Jim taking with him the merchandise trade-which later developed into Marital Arts Supplies- and Mito retaining ownership of the magazine. The publication struggled until Mito launched a line of paperback textbooks, which eventually brought large profits. This, coupled with shred capitalization on the marital arts movie trend of early 1970s, made Mito Uyehara one of the few millionaires of the martial arts business. Out of the Uyehara publishing empire have come some 60 textbooks, the monthly, Karate Illustrated (since 1969), and the monthly Fighting Stars (since 1973). In 1975 Mito reduced his active involvement and moved to Hawaii . In 1961 New York ’s John Kuhl wrote, edited, posed for, and published a karate manual/magazine called Combat Karate. Kuhl stated his karate training in Montreal in 1957 under Ari Anastasiata. After moving to New York City in 1970, he continued his training with Peter Urban and Gosei Yamaguchi, son a Gogen, the goju-ryu teacher. Two of Kuhl’s early students were Aaron Banks and Al Weiss. Kuhl and Weiss co-produced in 1962 a manual entitled Karate, the most popular instruction book at its price. Its success prompted the 1968 publishing of Official Karate Magazine, a bi-monthly. It soon became a monthly, with international distribution. The magazine’s outlook is radical compared to the conservative Black Belt. It was an animated voice in the movement toward an Americanized form of karate. And Weiss, its editor, had been recognized for writing the most potent monthly editorials in his field. Bob Yarnall, a shorin-ryu instructor, opened his first dojo in 1962 in St. Louis , Mo. , where he has remained to this day. A student of James Wax, Yarnall has instructed such pioneers as Jim Harrison, Parker Shelton, and Bill March, who was a successful competitor in the European karate circuit. Yarnall is probably the best-known exponent of Matsubayashi-ryu in the U.S. and had been a long itme member of Trais’ USKA. His wife, Joyce, assists her husband in the operation of his schools, and is a photographer whose collection includes many historic pictures of the sport and its early champions. Jhoon Rhee opened his first school in Washington , D.C. , in 1962, and within three months had amassed more than 100 students. This, then, became the basis of the Jhoon Rhee empire, which later blossomed into one of the largest privately-owned marital arts enterprises in the world today. The Jhoon Rhee Institute have developed many of the most accomplished karate competitors in American karate. Some notable students are: Larry Carnahan, Michael Coles, Gordon Franks, Jeff Smith, Jose Jones, Wayne Van Buren, John and Pat Worley, Otis Hooper, John Chung, and Rodney Batiste. Rhee would also being teaching tae kwon do to distinguished members of the U.S. government hierarchy, senators and congressmen among them. Through his endeavors, Rhee would become a genuine celebrity to the D.C. general public. Allen Steen, Rhee’s student, established the first school of his eventual empire in 1962 in Dallas , Tex. Only Johnny Nash preceded him by a few months. No one, however, would dominate the Southwest territory as would Steen. Like Rhee, Steen trained many of America ’s top karatemen, among them Mike Anderson, Skipper Mullins, Pat Burleson, Fred Wren, Roy Kurban, and Jim and Jenice Miller. In 1962 after a visit to Pittsburgh by Master Tatsuo Shimabuku, at the invitation of James Morabeto and Harry Smith, disharmony once again set in among the city’s isshinryu principals. Morabeto opened several dojo of his own, while Harry Ackland and Joe Penneywell established the Academy of Isshinryu Karate in downtown Pittsburgh . William Duessel and William Wallace, students of Shimabuko, assumed ownership in the late 1960s. At this time, Nick Long began teaching Okinawan kempo in Greensburg , Pa. , where he built a large following of college students. In Denver , Robert Thompson and Fran Heitmann jointly opened a tang soo do school in 1962. that same year, Chuck Sereff, a black belt student, of Heitmann’s, established his first school and brought in Korean instructor Moon Ku Baek to teach there. Sereff and one of his black belts, Ralph Krause, opened another Denver karate school, but later the two went separate ways. Today, Sereff had one of the largest operations in Colorado . Frank Ruiz earned a chestful of medals including the Purple Heart, Silver Star, and Bronze Star during the Korean War. Upon his release, he became one of Peter Urban’s first students in 1960. In 1962, he launched his own teaching career in New York City, and produced two nationally recognized fighters, Louis Delgado and Herbie Thompson (of Florida), and East Coast karate champions Ron Van Clief, Owen Watson, and the late Malachi Lee. Ruiz later broke away from Urban to form his own Nisei Goju organization. In 1970 Ruiz cheated death after being stuck y a car traveling 80 m.p.h., managing four years later to walk normally and even practice karate. The Birth of Franchised Karate In 1963 two brothers, Jim and Al Tracy, founded their first kenpo karate school in San Francisco ; both had been students of Ed Parker. After spending large sums in development costs, the brothers launched what became the largest chain of karate schools in the world, under the trade name “ Tracy ’s Krate.” The Tracy brothers brought big business practices to karate. Their strategy included a proven sales system, adapted from commercial dance studios. At its peak, 1969-73, the Tracy organization was estimated to have 70 studios under its franchise banner. After hiring Joe Lewis, one of the sport’s brightest starts, as a figurehead for its franchise recruitment program, the organization attracted instructors who, using the knowledge gained in business indoctrination courses, were able to make careers in the marital arts. Among the early corps of Tracy ’s novitiates were Jay T. Will, Al Dacascos, Jerry Smith, Jerry Piddington, Dick Willett, Roger Greene, Steve LaBounty, and Ray Klingenberg. At the same time, throughout the mid- and late 1960s, other instructors and organizations were developing sales systems and business practices particulary sited to the marital arts. Jhoon Rhee, Allen Steen, Chuck Norris, and Ed Parker soon expanded into franchising. Bob Wall of Los Angeles is credited with having helped many marital artists adopt sound business practices in their schools, among them Norris, Rhee, and Colorado ’s Jim Harkins. An astute businessman, Wall developed and manualized a sales system still in use many professional karate studios across then nation. In 1963 Chuck Norris, who would become one of the most respected karate fighters in the world, established his first school in Torrance , south of Los Angeles . In 1968 he and Bob Wall bought out Joe Lewis’ interest in the Sherman Oaks Karate Studio. From there he launched a chain of seven studios until 1975m when he gave up the operation to concentrate fully on a motion picture career. Norris was responsible for guiding more than 100 students to black-belt rank and dozens to competitive prominence. Among them are: Jerry Taylor, Pat Johnson, John Natividad, Howard Jackson, Ralph Alegria, Darnell Garcia, and Bob Burbidge, among many, many others. In April 1963 Master Duk Sung Son, president of the World Tae Kwon Do Association, immigrated to the U.S. and began teaching in and around New York City. Within a few years, Son was teaching his art at Princeton , N.Y. , Brown and Fordham Universities , and later at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point . Francisco Conde in 1963 initiated classes exclusively for females at the Women’s Karate Club of Fort Meade, Maryland. There his wife, Kathleen, received some of his early training before going on to become one of the premier black belt competitors in her region. Known for his tournament promotions, as early as 1963 Conde became a driving force behind man of the regional activities of the Mid-Atlantic states . Roger Carpenter, a black belt student of George Pesare, came to Wichita , Kans. , in Sept. 1963. Carpenter taught karate for two years at churches, YMCAs, and a National Guard Armory. In the spring of 1965, he opened the first commercial karate school in Wichita . By 1964, Jim Harrison had also established a school in Kansas City . In Denver , Shotokan stylist Joe Costello (d.1973), from Hawaii , opened a dojo downtown. That same year, Ralph Krause opened the first of an eventual chain of karate schools in Colorado . Ki Whang Kim, a highly respected tae kwon do master, organized a YMCA class in Washington , D.C. , in 1963. This class produced some outstanding D.C. martial artists including John Camance, Albert Cheeks, Phil Cunningham, Mike Warren, Furman Marshall, and John Mickens. During the 1970s Mike Warren was widely considered to be America ’s best tournament fighter and, indisputably, one of the best technicians in the sport. Lou Angel, Jack Hwang, and Bill Brisco, all Oklahoma City , are the recognized pioneers of karate in Oklahoma . Angel, a former U.S. Marine and student of Peter Urban, arrived in Oklahoma at an unspecified date in the early 1960s. He is best known for having produced the Tulsa Southwest Karate Championships in 1963, where Mike Stone would launch his impressive fighting career. Stone, then still a brown belt, became an overnight sensation by winning first place in the sparring division and soon rose to prominence as the sport’s first superstar. Jack Hwang, a pioneer of tae kwon do , immigrated to the U.S. in 1960. he taught quietly until opening his first school in Oklahoma City in 1964. In 1965, Hwang produced his inaugural All American Open Karate Championships, which is a highlight of the southwestern karate circuit. Marine sergeant Sam Pearson, a disciple of Master Eizo Shimabuku, founded a shorin-ryu karate club in 1963 at Camp LeJeune , N.C. His most famous student is the aforementioned Glenn Premru of Pittsburg , who would become one of the sport’s first corps of great kata champions and flamboyant performers. Tournaments The early 1960s brought the first American karate tournaments. Until 1963 several local and, at best regional competitions were organized in deifferent parts of the U.S. Principal among these early evernts were the All American Karate Championships and the North American Karate Championships. The former was held in Los Angeles in Dec. 1961 by Hidetaka Nishiyama, concurrent with his formulation of the All American Karate Federation. Nishiyama chose as the tournament site the Olympic Auditorium, the West Coast boxing center. The tournament was produced as a fund-raiser for the March for Muscular Dystrophy. Participants were chiefly members of the Shotokan style of karate, but some came from as far as Canada and Hawaii . The North American Karate Championships, conducted on Nov. 24, 1962 , was the first karate tournament held at Madison Square Garden , and the first open karate competition in America . Here, Mas Oyama appeared for the second time in his illustrious career, and this time the appearance was not for the purpose of demonstrating karate’s superiority to professional boxing and wrestling. Preceding the finals, Oyama presented one of his impressive breaking routines, crushing rocks, bricks, and boards with his bare hands, feats even at that time considered phenomenal by the American public. Gary Alexander, one of the early wave of “fighting” instructors, won the black belt sparring championship. In 1963 he established his first school in New Jersey and began promoting notable karate tournaments himself. On July 28, 1963 , Robert Trais and John Keehan jointly hosted the 1st World Karate Tournament at the University of Chicago Fieldhouse , gathering contestants and officials from around the country. (The 1963 event was won by AlGene Caravlia.) This was the first truly national American karate tournament and the forerunner of the many subsequent tournaments using and abusing the title of “World Championships.” To date, this misnomer had been attached by various promoters to more than 20 North American karate tournaments. Clearly, it is an inexact title, since the participants do not come from all over the world. Tournament titles were not an issue, however, during the embryonic stage. What is important is the Trais’ event attracted most of the prominent American karateka. What took place in Chicago set a precedent for the emergence of large-scale, national-caliber competitions. This particular event was retitled the USKA Nationals in 1966, and in 1968 adopted its present title, the USKA Grand Nationals. It is one of the longest-funning annual karate tournaments in America . Also in 1963, Texan Allen Steen inaugurated his Dallas Southwest Karate Championships, in which Mike Stone, still a brown belt, won the black belt fighting division. Steen’s tournament was retitled in 1965 the U.S. Karate Championships. David Moon, one of the few Asian instructors competing in open sparring divisions, won the first of three consecutive grand championships there. The tournament maintained its national prestige until the mid-1970s. During this period many judo and jujutsu black belts had begun studying karate; their styles were often unrefined. Some were the recipients of “cross-over” ranks, i.e., because of their proficiency in one art they might receive dan rank in karate. As each generation of American karate black belts became progressively more polished, fluid, and performance-conscious, the old ex-judo/jujutsu converts appeared out of touch with new developments in the art. Despite criticism, many of these same figures were responsible for introducing the marital arts to individuals who would later make contributions to the growth of American karate. One of these, Jerry Durant, trained top fighter Artis Simmons as well as Art Sykes, William Cavalier and Vince Christeano. In 1964 Trais again staged his World Championships in Chicago , but this year two new tournaments shared the spotlight. The first was Ed Parker’s International Karate Championships in Long Beach , Calif. Parker’s tournament, like Trais’ the year before, attracted the biggest names in American karate. Mike Stone became the event’s first grand champion, an accomplishment overshadowed historically by the results of a demonstration presented there by an unknown Chinese stylist Bruce Lee. Lee was a sensation. Demonstrating his skills, he sent partners reeling backward with his 1-inch punch, a technique that became a personal trademark. Lee’s performance left a lasting impression on many practitioners and non-marital-artist spectators. Parker’s Internationals grew in size and prestige until about 1976, reaching its zenith in 1974, when Parker drew a record-setting 6,000 contestants. In 1975 Parker awarded prize money totaling $16,250, the largest yet at an American Pro/Am tournament. The second prominent event of 1964 was Jhoon Rhee’s U.S. National Karate Championship, held in Washington , D.C. Pat Burleson of Texas , winner of the black belt grand championship, joined AlGene Caraulia in becoming the first recognized national champion of the new sport. Today Burleson is looked upon as the “granddaddy” of tournament fighters and the first genuine star in the sport. In late 1964 Mahn Suh Park produced the first open tournament in Philadelphia , the Globe Tae Gyun Championships; it became an annual promotion enjoying steady growth. Jhoon Rhee pulled off a coup in 1965: he persuaded Wide World of Sports to film and subsequently broadcast segments of his U.S. National Karate Championships. His was the first American karate tournament to receive television coverage from a network sports program. However, a heated match for the grand championship between Stone and Walt Worthy, in which there was bloodshed and heavy contact, earned the displeasure of the show’s producers. Select excerpts only were broadcast. And the program ignored the sport for the next nine years. It is important to recall here the nature of competition in this period. It was a time of bloodshed and brutality. Historians have called it-suitably-the “blood and guts era” of American sport karate, a period spanning from 1963, when the major open tournaments began, to roughly 1970, when the sport temporarily graduated to its first kick-boxing phase. During this time tournaments were an arena for only the most courageous karate fighters, with a high tolerance for absorbing punishment. The type of sparring then popular is called “non contact” or “light contact.” Rules stipulated closely pulled blows to the face and only light body contact. Excessive contact was grounds for disqualification. Despite this general rule, heavy contact to both the face and body was so common that competitors and officials alike appeared to accept it. The techniques, crude and calamitous by today’s standers, were as unrefined as the rules governing the infant sport. A fighter might break an opponent’s bones of knock him into the grandstand and not be disqualified. If he was a true fighter, the opponent was expected to come back and dish out the same punishment he had received. The Second Generation In karate instruction a virtual explosion took place from 1964 onward, not only in the U.S. , but in Canada , South America , Europe and Asia . Ex-military personnel, having studied the marital arts in the Orient, returned home en masses to open karate schools. Augmenting this rapid growth were the second generation, students of the original pioneers, who concurrently established studios of their own. In Sept. 1964 the Institute of Technology in Pasasena adopted a regular course of karate instruction supervised by Tsutomu Ohshima. This is the first known karate program to have been accepted as an accredited course by an American college. The move to establish karate as part of the educational curriculum had enjoyed widespread success in Japan . Thus, the early Japanese stylists in the U.S. concentrated on this aim. Later, the Korean tae kwon do instructors, perhaps even more meticulously organized, likewise made significant progress toward gaining acceptance for the marital arts in American institutions of higher learning. In Beaver Falls , Pa. , Willie Wetzel, a master of pukulan, was one of the first instructors of an Indonesian discipline to surface in the U.S. One of his students, Barbra Niggel, in the mid-1970s distinguished herself as a national kata champion. Pauline Short should probably be called the “mother of American karate.” Short opened in 1965, the first karate schools exclusively catering to a female clientele, in Portland , Oreg. In 1975 she became one of the nation’s top 10 female fighters. Also in 1964, Bill Readers emerged in Erie , Pa. He trained Art Sykes. In 1965 Glenn Premru returned to Pittsburgh , having trained with Shorin-ryu instructor Sam Pearson. He opened a dojo in the North Hills section of town. Mike Stone became the first superstar of the sport. He had dominated competition since 1963, and by the time of his retirement had been active for only eighteen months. Although he competed in a total of nine tournaments, all of them were large-scale events featuring highly rated fighters. Stone won in 1965 what could be considered Karate’s Triple Crown: the Internationals in Long Beach , U.S. Nationals in Washington , D.C. , and World Championships in Chicago . Although Stone claims to have won 89 consecutive black belt matches, the record shows he lost a grand championship match in the middle of his run, at the 1964 Western U.S. Karate Championships in Salt Lake City . (Stone won the heavyweight title, but was defeated by David Johnson in the grand championships play-off.) The first genuine martial arts craze in America began in 1966, with Bruce Lee made his acting debut as Kato in the Green Hornet TV series. From Sept. 9, the weekly series remained on the air until Mar. 17, 1967 . There were 26 half-hour episodes, and reruns began in 1968. Although this series was short-lived, Lee’s provocative kung-fu action in the show’s numerous fight scenes stirred the public’s imagination. Thousands of new students became involved in the marital arts. This development seemed to prove that the popularity and acceptance of the Asian marital arts was directly related to the degree of its exposure in the visual media. During the mid- and late 1960s “American karate” emerged. The name describes an open minded practice method and philosophy that challenged time-honored Asian patterns, traditional karate. America karate gained support from both anit-traditionlists, opposed to the strict oriental ideology, and non-traditionalists, a less radical sect, opposed to the study of one system exclusively. Basically, it was traditional karate put to tropically American uses. Until the late 1960s Asian instructors in the U.S. wielded considerable political power, chiefly because they controlled large numbers of students. This status slowly began to change as Trias, Parker, Steen, Urban, Nagle, and other American karate advocates built personal following, the American names started to become synonymous with karate. After 1969 American athletes dominated the fighting division of major tournaments with very few exceptions. This development, in conjunction with the proliferation of American karate instructors, worked to precipitate an important shift in the marital arts hierarchy. With the rapid growth and diversification of karate during this era, there came about, perhaps inevitably, political fragmentation and an unprecedented degree of stylistic prejudice. There was, and still is, a tendency among various styles and stylists to ignore the merits, however consequential, of other styles. Among karate styles and karate organizations there are factions that multiply alarmingly each year. Out of this dissonance and confusion have emerged three loosely identifiable legions in the U.S. : traditionalists of purists, the non-traditionalists and anti-traditionalists-both of which have been called the commercialists- and a mixed group that can be called the commercial-traditionalists. The year 1966 marked the competitive debut of Joe Lewis, who had distinguished himself quickly, earning his black belt in Okinawa in a mere seven months. With just twenty-two months of training, Lewis entered his first tournament in 1966, Rhee’s U.S. Nationals. He won the black belt championships, using one technique exclusively, the side kick. Demonstrating his versatility, Lewis also won the black belt kata championships. During the late 1960s the number of karate tournaments swelled substantially on a state, regional, and especially, on the national level. Yet, as the sport grew, so did its problems. Promoters disagreed on rules and procedures; the sport suffered from a lack of unification and standardization, a problem that continues to plague it today. Thse difficulties did not impede two rising tournament stars, both of who became recognized world champions: Chuck Norris and Skipper Mullins. After losing the 1966 International grand championships to Allen Steen, Norris came back to win the grand title two years running, 1967 and 1968. He also won the grand title of the 1967 and 1968 All American Karate Championships, produced by S. Henry Cho in New York . Norris was an innovator in combination techniques; until his arrival fighters usually delivered only one technique to score a point. After his victories combinations became standard in the sport. Skipper Mullins, 6 feet, 150lbs., was heralded as the fastest kicker in karate. Many of his victories were the result of whiplike kicks, at a time when punchers dominated the tournament circuit. Mullins rose to prominence on lightweight and middleweight victories in the All American Karate Championships, produced by Jack Hwang in Oklahoma City , and the Top 10 Championships. In one weekend in Feb. 1967 Mullins fought in New York City on Friday, Dallas on Saturday, and Los Angeles on Sunday. Norris and Mullins, with Mike Stone and Joe Lewis, are the great karate champions of the 1960s-only Lewis continued competing into the 1970s. Team Competition In 1967, in New York City , team competition was introduced. The concept was originated by Aaron Banks, who became karate’s most prolific promoter. Banks continued the team competition format, producing the first team event of national caliber in 1968, the East Coast vs. West Coast Team Championships. The victorious West Coast contingent was represented by Joe Lewis, Steve Sanders, Chuck Norris, and Jerry Taylor. Representatives for the East Coast were Tomas LaPuppet, Joe Hayes, Kazuyoshi Tanaka, and Louis Delgado. Team competition was soon adopted by karate promoters throughout the country. Banks also deserves credit for keeping sport karate flourishing in New York when others could not: form 1967 to1975: his over 100 flamboyant productions gave regional exposure to aspiring East Coast competitors. The Sport Turns Professional For five years, from 1963-68, sport karate had grown strictly on an amateur basis. In 1968 several promoters endeavored independently to add to professional dimension, offering prize money to victorious fighters and meeting the expenses of star names participating in the events. In Feb. 1968 Jim Harrison staged the 1st World Professional Karate Championships (WPKC), the first of a string of tournaments to use this popular title. In principle, at least, this was the first professional tournament in the history of American karate. Harrison conducted the event in his Kansas City dojo two days after Allen Steen’s U.S. Championships in Dallas . Many top fighters were invited, but in view of Harrison ’s permissive rules, which endorsed heavy contact, only six fighters participated. They were: Joe Lewis, Bob Wall, Skipper Mullins, J. Pat Burleson, David Moon, and Fred Wren. Several fighters suffered broken ribs and noses and were forced to forfeit. Lewis won the title, becoming karate’s first paid professional fighter when Harrison awarded him the token sum of one dollar. In Aug. 1968 Robert Triad and Atlee Chittim produced the World’s Hemisphere Karate Championships in San Antonio , Tex. The second professional karate promotion held in the U.S. , this was the first to be conducted as a genuine tournament. Victor Moore of Ohio won the grand championship in a spirited battle with Joe Lewis and took a purse of $500. (Lewis also took away $500, a contract guarantee.) The most important professional karate even of the decade was Aaron Banks World Professional Karate Championship, produced on Nov. 24, 1968 , at the Waldorf Astoria Hotel in New York City . This invitation established four fighters as recognized world champions. In contrast to Harrison ’s event, each champion was paid $600. And Banks paid all of his ringside personnel, from officials to the announcer. The champions were heavyweight Joe Lewis (over Victor Moore); light-heavyweight Mike Stone (over Bob Taiani); middleweight Chuck Norris (over Louis Delgado); and lightweight Skipper Mullins (over Kazuyoshi Tanaka). There were subsequent protests disputing the event’s status as a legitimate world championship, in the sense that the contestants were predominantly American, but no one disputed the world-class skill of the four winners. (Only Norris returned in 1969 to defend-successfully-his title.) Another karate competitor who made his bid for national prominence at this time was Ron Marchini of Stockton , Calif. He won Henry Cho’s Tournament of Champions in 1968 in New York City , and then went on to distinguish himself as one of the top competitors of the late 1960a and early 1970s. Challenge to authority and inconsistent tournament regulations became the rule rather than the exception, though tournament planning was steadily improving. The amount of promiscuous contact in tournaments became a destructive issue, and injuries increased dramatically, often because of inexperienced and intimated officials. Some believed the sport should encourage contact; others wanted contact barred. Commercial karate came of age in 1969. Women and children flocked to the schools, as more and more instructors expanded classes to accommodate them. In 1968, two influential marital artists, Jay T. Will, and AlGene Caraulia established schools in Ohio . Will, a student of Ed Parker and Scott Loring, had relocated to Cleveland from Chicago . Until 1965 the Japanese styles had the largest following in the U.S. , but by 1967 Okinawan karate was attracting more students. In 1969, with the great influx of Korean immigrants, tae kwon do suddenly outdrew the others. More than ever before, practitioners were changing from one style to another. Consequently, interest in organizations and unification dwindled. The Birth of Full-Contact Karate Joe Lewis objected to the unrealistic structure of non contact karate, in which blows were to be pulled short of actual contact. Its nature was to score points without producing results-what Bruce Lee called “swimming on dry land.” At the peak of Lewis ’ disenchantment, which had begun as early as 1969, he started training with , and was influenced by, Bruce Lee and ranked heavyweight boxer Joey Orbill. He began training in various Los Angeles boxing gyms, with the intentions of becoming a professional boxer. In later 1969 Lewis was contacted by Los Angeles promoter Lee Faulkner, who was organizing a major noncontact team contest in which he wanted Lewis to participate. Lewis agreed on the condition that Faulkner permit him to fight also in a full-contact match. Faulkner agreed to promote the bout, but only if Lewis fought in the teams event as well. Lewis searched frantically for a suitable opponent. After repeated rejections from top karate fighters, he found Greg Baines, a San Jose kenpo stylists, who agreed to meet Lewis under full-contact conditions. The bout, preceded by the U.S. Team Championship, took place on Jan. 17, 1970 , at the Long Beach Sports Arena. Results of the contests were victories for Lewis, by a 2nd-round knockout, and for a West Coast team composed of Lewis, Mike Stone, Bob Wall, Chuck Norris, and Skipper Mullins. And, while the Lewis/Baines bout had been promoted as the “first full-contact” championship, during the fight itself the uninformed announcer inadvertently but repeatedly called it “American kick-boxing.” The announcer’s blunder kick-boxing. The term “full-contact karate” would not be used for several years later. In this its original form, full-contact karate survived for only a year; Lewis successfully defended his title during that year ten times, with no opponent lasting past the 2nd round. The Jan. 17 team bout also marked the last fight in Chuck Norris brilliant competitive career. Karate in the 1970s Pat Johnson of Sherman Oaks, Calif. , a nationally respected tournament referee, originated the “penalty point” system for excessive contact in 1970. The “Johnson Ruling,” as it was called by Karate Illustrated, essentially ended the uncontrolled “blood and guts era” of non contact sport karate. Johnson’s innovation, introduced at the National Black Belt Championships in Albuquerque , is used as a standard today in every U.S. karate tournament. Under this rule, competitors who make excessive contact forfeit one point; The year 1970 also marked the emergence of amateur sport karate on a truly international scale: 32 nations took part in the 1st WUKO World Karate Championships at Tokyo ’s Budokan. A conference held prior to the even had resulted in the name of World Union of Karate-do Organizations (WUKO). Qualification and participation rules, however, were ill-defined and competition of organizational rules covering the tournament. As such, Japan was permitted to have four teams competing and the U.S. three. All other nations had one. The U.S. members had been selected by extensive negotiations among the principal U.S. Japanese stylists. The only nationally known U.S. member was Tonny Tulleners of Los Angeles; he won third place in individual fighting at the WUKO event. The disorganization of the 1st WUKO World Championships was the chief reason for the eventual existence of two organizations governing international amateur karate: WUKO and the International Amateur Karate Federation (IAKF) with Los Angeles ’ Hidetaka Nishiyama the elected executive director as of 1974, when the association was formed. The struggle to organized international karate has engaged these two bodies since then. The goal is a worthy one: Olympic recognition and acceptance for the sport. The AAKF resisted a move in 1973 by the AAU to relinquish its rights as the international karate representatives of the U.S. , in WUKO, and subsequently resigned its membership in the AAU. Afterwards, the AAU formed its own karate committee with Carylor Adkins, a student of Tsutomu Ohshima, named its first chairman. So bitter were the political conflicts that in 1976 Adikins dropped out of karate altogether and moved from Los Angeles to a farm in middle America . In Thailand , its homeland, kick-boxing, or more properly, Muay Thai (Thai kick-boxing) was- and is-national pastime. In America , however, it failed dismally. In 1971 American kick-boxing dies almost as suddenly as it begun. There was virtually no spectator support, and promoters were losing more money than ever before. Along with kick-boxing, professional karate, in its noncontact form, also died. Chuck Norris held perhaps the last important pro tournament of the initial era. His 2nd World Pro/Am Championships of 1971 attracted a large representations of top-rated fighters, but barely 1,00 spectators showed up at the spacious Los Angeles Sports Arena where it was staged. In the 1970s, the ties between parent schools in Korea and tae kwon do instructors in the U.S. had been weakened by a decade of separation and “Americanization.” Consequently, a number of regional tae kwon do associations were born. On the nation’s college and university campuses the American Tae Kwon Do Coaches Association and the American Collegiate Tae Kwon Do Association were created in 1972. These organizations worked jointly to send a U.S. team to the inaugural World Tae Kwon Do Championships in 1973, at which the U.S. team placed second, and the 2nd World Championships in 1974, both held in Seoul , Korea . The most significant development of 1971 was the advent of the “Longstreet” television series, co-starring Bruce Lee. Unlike productions that had preceded it, the one-hour season opener actually identified the art being shown and was the first to explain on screen the philosophy behind the Asian fighting arts. The program was a showcase for Lee’s innovative teaching methods. Cast as a martial arts master, Lee tought the blind detective, Longstreet (James franciscus), how to protect himself, through both the physical maneuvers of jeet kune do and Lee’s personal philosophy. That particular school is now considered by many marital arts aficionados Bruce Lee’s best work on film, and it had become a classic. The season opener was written by Stirling Silliphant, one of Lee’s students. This year marked the rise to stardom of Bill Wallace, who rocketed from virtual obscurity to America ’s number-1-ranked karate fighter a position he also held in 1972 and again in 1974. Wallace won Allen Steen’s highly competitive U.S. Championships and the USKA Grand Nationals. In 1972 an astonishing growth occurred in the martial arts. Much of it was directly attributable to the marital arts’ sudden emergence as a bona fide entertainment vehicle. It began when filmmaker Tom Laughlin released Bill Jack in which he starred. Although the karate sequences in Billy Jack took but a few minuets, with hapkido master Bong Soo Han doubling for Laughlin, they demonstrated more than any previous motion picture the electrifying visual aspects of the martial arts. Bruce Lee’s Fists of Fury, released on the heels of Billy Jack, became one of the first Chinese films to be distributed to general movie theaters. In the Orient, it unexpectedly broke all box-office records, eventually surpassing the longstanding hit, The Sound of Music. Shortly afterward, Lee’s second film venture with Raymond Chow, Fist of Fury (The Chinese Connection in the U.S. ), eclipsed the success of its predecessor and catapulted Lee to stardom as the biggest box-office draw in the history of Asian cinema. Back in the U.S. , the mounting martial arts mania was accommodated by and influx of Hong Kong kung-fu films that virtually flooded the American market. Critics labeled them “Eastern Westerns” or “chop-sockeys.” But the trend found its way into big-budget projects such as Red Sun, starting Charles Bronson and featuring Hollywood karate master Tak Kubota. Kung Fu, starring David Carradine, aired as an ABC-TV Movie of the Week on Aug 8, 1972 . This weekly series, which showcased marital arts philosophy as well as physicality, had a positive effect on the trend, introducing martial arts on a regular basis directly to American living rooms. The need for stuntmen familiar with the marital arts grew. Conventional Hollywood stuntmen were at the time inexperienced in the arts, and marital artists poured into Hollywood casting offices. Some of the more flamboyant and fortunate were catapulted to stardom. With the release of Melinda, Los Angeles ’ Jim Kelly, hired as a fight-scene choreographer, was made a co-star. Kelly went on to star in Enter the Dragon, Black Belt Jones, The Golden Needles, Tuck Turner, Three the Hard Way, Hot Potato, Black Samurai, and Take a Hard Ride. Also in 1972 Emil Farkas founded Creative Action Associates, the first martial arts company to cater to the motion picture and television industries. His company set up action sequences for shows such as “The F.B.I.,” “Mannix,” “Mod Squad,” “Mission Impossible,” “Spiderman,” and many others. Hungarian-born Farkas came to the U.S. in 1965 with black belts in judo and karate. He began giving private lessons to some of Hollywood’s top celebrities, among them Phil Spector, the Beach Boys, Herb Albert, Jimmy Caan, Dennis Hopper, Fred Williamson, ect. Through his students Farkas gained entrance to Hollywood ’s inner circle and soon was working regularly on T.V. shows and features as a fight choreographer and stuntman. Joe Lewis unexpectedly announced his retirement in 1972. During his tenure as champion, Lewis amassed more than 30 major titles. He was the only four-time grand champion of the U.S. National Karate Championships (1966-69) and the only three-time grand champion of the International Karate Championships (1969-71). Coincidental with the entertainment craze, tournament karate was thriving as never before. In 1972 Mike Stone, now a promoter, conceived the first tournament franchise. Earlier, Stone, together with Chuck Norris and Bob Wall, had created the Four Seasons Karate Championships, a quarterly series of contests held in southern California . When the others lost interest, Stone maintained the tournaments. In 1972 he sold its name and concept to promoters in other pars of the country and created the Four Seasons Nationals in Las Vegas as the culminating event of the network. Public interest in marital arts reached its zenith in 1973. Thousands of spectators who formerly had no interest in karate supported tournaments as never before. And theaters showcasing marital arts films were doing great box-office business. Meanwhile, in Hong Kong , Bruce Lee was working constantly. Following Way of the Dragon, his third hit, he immediately started production on Game of Death. But the film was interrupted when Lee received a co-production offer from Warner Bros. to start in Enter the Dragon, Enter the Dragon was the first co-production between Chinese and Hollywood filmmakers. On July 20, 1973 , shortly before the U.S. release of Enter the Dragon, the world was staggered by the unexpected death of Bruce Lee in Hong Kong . Only 32, he allegedly died from acute brain swelling, the cause of which remains enigmatic. Lee’s chief jeet kune do protégé is Dan Inosanto. Enter The Dragon became the king of marital arts movies, the unsurpassed classic of the genre. Today, this picture stands out as one of the most profitable in international cinema history. Though numerous imitators attempted to replace Lee, no one could duplicate his spectacular success. By 1974 the marital arts craze, commonly called the “Bruce Lee Era” began tapering off. Professional Karate Revival The comeback began in the summer of 1973, when Oklahoma Mike Anderson published his inaugural edition of Professional Karate Magazine. Anderson openly campaigned for the restoration of professional karate, backed y his quarterly publication and his compilation of national and regional rating of karate players. Widespread acceptance of these rating revolutionized the rating polls, making Black Belt’s annual Top 10 rating antiquated by comparison. Shortly after the release of his inaugural issue, Anderson staged his Top 10 Nationals in St. Louis . Anderson offered a $1,000 grand championship purse, a precedent immediately adopted by other major promoters. The even was the first to make mandatory the use of Jhoon Rhee’s newly created Safe-T Equipment in the black belt fighting divisions. This innovation launched a new form of karate fighting, which in 1974 was dubbed “semicontact” by marital arts journalist John Corcoran. The use of the Safe-T Equipment, basically foam rubber hand and foot pads, added excitement to competition, safely permitting moderate contact to both the face and body. At this even Los Angeles ’ Howard Jackson won the grand championship and prize money. At 5 feet 5 inches, 152 lbs, Jackson became the first lightweight to dominate his sport and professional karate’s biggest money winner of 1973. Jackson had usurped Bill Wallace, at the time America ’s tow tournament fighter. Wallace was a sport karate phenomenon in that he gained most of his victories by relying on one technique exclusively, a left-footed whip-like roundhouse kick. His kicks were clocked at an incredible delivery speed of 60 m.p.h., and when he later became the premier star of full-contact karate, he was aptly nicknamed “Superfoot.” On June 4, 1973 , John Corcoran was hired as book editor for Ohara Publications, the sister company of Rainbow Publications, publishers of Black Belt and Karate Illustrated. By the end of the year, he had begun to work on both magazines as assistant editor, Corcoran was the first karate black belt to become an editor of these publications, and he rose to prominence as one of the first genuine martial arts journalists in America . He was preceded as a black belt editor only by Official Karate’s Al Weiss. Corcoran was a student of Glenn Premru. Corcoran was hired the same week as Jerry Smith, a commercial artist, who was also a black belt and a disciple of Joe Lewis. The pair formed an intimate friendship and Corcoran continued his martial arts studies with Smith, who was to become recognized as one of the first full-contact karate coaches in the U.S. In Aug. 1974 Ed Parker offered a winner-take-all purse of $2,500 for the grand champion of his International Karate Championships in Long Beach . In a spectacular 25-point overtime match, John Natividad, a student of Chuck Norris and Jerry Taylor, defeated Benny Urquidez, 13-12. Even today, spectators debate the outcome of this classical contest; some believe Uruidez, a regional favorite, scored an overtime point against the favored Natividad before the latter landed his conclusive point. Historians call it one of the greatest bouts of the light-contact era. The continuing martial arts mania kept business flourishing through 194. Aaron Banks’ Oriental World of Self-Defense, an annual production of martial arts demonstrations, set a gate record in its field. The promotion, held at Madison Square Garden , attracted 19,564 spectators, according to Banks. The paid live gate reportedly reached $100,000. The event was aired on ABC’s “Wide World of Sports.” Ken Min, of the University of California at Berkeley , conducted the first collegiate survey in 1974 to determine how many schools offered karate, tae kwon do, and kung-fu classes on campus. Judo, which preceded the arts in its American migration, outranked all of them. Of 596 college responding to the survey, 278 offered some type of judo program. At the same time, there was equal interest in karate, tae kwon do, and kung-fu. Of 448 colleges reporting, 228 offered some type of program in one of these three disciplines. Joe Lewis and Tom Tannenbaum decided to resurrect full-contact karate. They planned to promote the World Professional Karate Championships. Lewis brought Mike Anderson into the deal and Anderson spent most of 1974 preparing for what was to become the most extraordinary promotion in American karate history. He spent months finding and establishing European and Asian representatives. German karate entrepreneur George Bruckner, Anderson ’s friend and business associate, conducted an elimination contest to determine European full-contact representatives. Three of the four American representatives were selected on the basis of their divisional supremacy in Professional Karate’s ratings; they were lightweight Howard Jackson of Los Angeles, middleweight Bill Wallace of Memphis, and light heavyweight Jeff Smith of Washington, D.C. Joe Lewis, originally scheduled to co-host the event, chose to come out of retirement and gith as the heavyweight representatives. Lewis was the only karate fighter with full-contact experience. Jeff Smith, during this year, had surpassed Jackson to become America ’s foremost tournament fighter. He was, in fact, named the 1974 “Fighter of the Year: by Professional Karate Magazine. A product of the rugged Texas schools of karate, Smith had moved to the nation’s capital in the early 1970sto teach for Jhoon Rhee. Two months before the event, in July 1974, Anderson relocated his operation to Los Angeles . In August he formed a promotion company with Beverly Hills business couple, Don and Judy Quine, who helped finalize negotiations with Universal Television. In late Augest , the Quines and Anderson formed the Professional Karate Association (PKA), the sport’s first sanctioning body, to establish full-contact karate as a major professional sport with recognized champions, standardized rules, and network television coverage of its bouts. Anderson also persuaded Bob McLaughlin and John Corcoran, editors of Black Belt and Karate Illustrated, to work jointly as editors of Professional Karate. Instead of editing, however, the two worked feverishly on the fast approaching World Championships. On the night of Sept. 14, 1974 , at the Los Angeles Sports Arena, 14 fighters from eight countries vied in a double elimination for the inaugural titles. Four emerged as world professional full-contact champions: heavyweight Joe Lewis, light heavyweight Jeff Smith, middleweight Bill Wallace, and lightweight Isaias Duenas of Mexico City . Among the American entrants, only Howard Jackson, suffering from a severe knee injury, lost his bid for the title. This extravaganza drew one of the largest live gates for competition karate, $50,00, unprecedented $20,000 in total prize money. Each champion earned $3,000, while runner-up received a smaller purse. All fourteen impressive news soured, however, when Anderson later reported a personal loss exceeding $60,000. Tom Tannenbaum sold the broadcasting rights to ABC’s “Wide World of Entertainment.” The event aired twice as a 90-minuet special, the first time acquiring the highest rating of a “Wide World” special for 1974. Great controversy ensued. The traditional karate community contended that full-contact degraded the art form and would have a negative influence on schools enrollments. This faction felt the television taught in schools everywhere as a required course of learning and Moreover, detractors protested the association of the word “karate” with full-contact and vocally sought a name change to “kick-boxing.” It wasn’t to be. For one, the sport could only be sold to television because of the popularity of karate. It was a word and an activity with which television executives were familiar. Kick-boxing, on the other hand, was associated with the far more brutal sport popular in Thailand and Japan . When its promoters attempted to get it on American television, they failed. T.V. executives felt it was too violent. Consequently, the name “full-contact karate” was retained. In Oct. 1974 tae kwon do was recognized as an amateur sport separate from karate by the AAU. This development was chiefly due to the efforts of Ken Min, tae kwon do coach of Berkeley University , with the support and aid of members of the AAU Judo Committee and a dozen tae kwon do maters. A number of important tournaments –starting with the 1st AAU Invitational Tae Kwon Do Championships in June 1974, held at Berkeley under Min’s able direction, through the 1st National AAU Tae Kwon Do Championships, conducted at Yale University in Mar. 1975, and the Mar. 1976 version held in Kansas City- promoted and publicized the sport aspect of this Korean art. It was in Kansas City that a U.S. tae kwon do federation was conceived with the purpose of supporting the National AAU Tae Kwon Do Committee. Tae Kwon Do programs in American universities reached a new level of progress with the advent of the 1st National Collegiate Tae Kwon Do Championships, held at Nicholls State University in Thibodaux , Ls., that same year. From 1975 onward, two activities dominated the martial arts; films and the sport. These continue to be the most active and visible aspects of the industry, based simply on mass exposure through the various media. The year 1975 was one of economic disaster, signaling the beginning of the end of marital arts movie boom. The industry suffered a double blow when it was victimized jointly by the depressed national economy and the pronounced tapering off of martial arts in the cinema. Some instructors blamed the new full-contact movement for deteriorating enrollments at the school level. Others felt it was not the sport itself, but poorly conditioned fighters and unprofessional promotions. Following the inaugural world championships, a rash of full-contact promotions broke out in 1975, spreading to epidemic proportions. At one point in Los Angeles alone, hardly a week passed without a full-contact event. Within a year of its birth, no less than seven full-contact karate organization sprang up. Their organizers were convinced that the infant sport and its potential sales appeal to television might be the financial salvation of the declining marital arts industry. It wasn’t. In all fairness, the army of inept promoters who tried to capitalize on the young sport were not totally at fault. Some blame had to be shared by the fighters themselves. Many entered the ring preposterously undercondidioned, and none of them had any ring experience. Those organizations that moved into the promotional end of the sport in 1975 were: Tommy Lee’s World Series of Martial Arts; Jhoon Rhee’s World Black Belt League (WBBL), a team concept; Joe Corley’s South East Professional Karate Commission (SEPKC); Aarons Bank’s World Professional Karate Organization (WPKO); and Larry Scott’s and Valerie Williams’ National Karate League (NKL), another team concept. Each association created its own rules, sanctioned its own promotions, and established its own champions. Each independently sought television exposure for its promotions. Of these early organizations only two remain: Banks’ WPKO and Rhee’s WBBL. The Scott/Williams NKL featured Benny Urquidez as its premier star. Urquidez quickly accumulated the most impressive record in his sport by virtue of his consistent victories in 3-and 5-round NKL team bouts across the country. However, the NKl was under-financed and suffered major losses. It disbanded in 1976. Its principals left substantial depts. In their wake, as well as a negative business reputation for karate in general. In 1975, 50 million viewers saw full-contact karate when Jeff Smith defeated Karriem Allah. The closed-circuit broadcast was a preliminary card to the Muhammad Ali/Joe Frazier “Thrilla in Manila ” fight. On May 3, 1975 , the PKA in conjunction with Joe Corley’s Battle of Atlanta in Georgia , produced a full-contact card whose main event was the much-acclaimed bout between Corley himself and Bill Wallace. It marked the first title defense of the new sport and, as in Los Angeles , it attracted more than 10,000 spectators to the Omni Arena. Wallace retained his crown with a 9th-round TKO. Notable at this even were two new concepts: the addition of professional kata competition to the regular competition, an innovation of Mike Anderson’s at his Top 10 Nationals in St. Louis; and the introduction of marital ballet, created by Jhoon Rhee, in which a team of black belts perform a synchronized kata routine to classical music. This latter concepts served as the prototype of the musical kata divisions gaining popularity in American karate tournaments today. One week later, on May 10, Aaron Banks conducted a title defense held under the auspices of his WPKO, Presented at the Nassau Coliseum in New York, Banks’ event later aired on ABCs “Wide World of Sports,” a development creating a fierce dispute between Banks and Quines, whose original PKA event had aired as an ABC network special. The PKA felt it was a conflict of interest on the part of ABC to air two different events that declared two different sets of “world champions.” Banks’ card crowned four divisional champion:Joe Hess of New York (now of Florida ), light heavyweight Fred Miller of New York , middleweight Kasim Dubar of New York , and lightweight Benny Urquidez of Lost Angeles. By year’s end, Urquidez was the leading money winner of his sport, having earned more than $30,000. In June 1975, Mike Anderson resigned as an executive officer of the PKA to purse the promotions of the sport on his own. The Quines assumed complete control of the PKA, while Anderson eventually formed the World All-Style Karate Organization (WAKO) with George Bruckner in West Berlin , Germany . At the same time, Anderson ’s Professional Karate magazine was suffering from poor sales. He decided to move his operation back to Oklahoma City . Bob McLaughlin entered the public relations business; John Corcoran joined author Bob Wall as editor of Wall’s self-published book, Who’s Who in the Martial Arts. By autumn, Corcoran launched a full-time career as a free-lance writer specializing in the marital arts. Professional Karate, it must be emphasized, left a lasting mark in its field. No magazine before or after it had such a profound impact on all aspects of the sport, its participants, and its formation of a professional foundation. Through Professional Karate, careers were launched and professional karate athletes began to receive a degree of respect and admiration they had never before known. Most of these benefits can be directly attributed to the magazine’s founder and publisher, Mike Anderson, who often put his money where his heart was to promote the sport. The movies of 1975 included the Striling Silliphant-scripted The Killer Elite, directed by Sam Pechinpah. The film featured a bevy of West Coast martial artists clad in ninja disguises engaging in poorly staged fight scenes having nothing to do with ninjutsu. The Killer Elite suffered from production disputes and inferior editing. It did average box-office business. Bruce Lee: His Life and Legend, to which Warner Bros. devoted $2000,000 in development cost, never advanced from preproduction. Warner launched a worldwide search for a candidate to play the lead role in this Bruce Lee bio, co-scripted by Linda Lee, Bruce’s widow, and director Robert Clouse. Advertisements seeking the candidate were run in major newspapers across the U.S. and thousands of aspiring marital artists swarmed the Burbank studio applying for the role. Denver ’s Al Dacascos (now of Hamburg , Germany ) was given serious consideration. The producers eventually settle on Chinese-Canadian Alex Kwok of Vancouver . After changing his name to Alex Kwon, capping his teeth, and paying him to holding fee, the producers dropped the project and the film was never made. Released films of 1975 included Paper Tiger, starring Toshiro Mifune, David Niven and Irene Tsu, and Hot Potato and Take A Hard Ride, starring Jim Kelly. None left an impression. The big disappointment of 1975 was the final retirement of superstar Joe Lewis following two back-to-back nontitle defeats. Remarkably, in the last of these bouts, Lewis dislocated his right shoulder after the 1st round and, despite excruciating pain, continued fighting for the durations of the contest. He lost a seven-round decision to Ross Scott because of penalties for insufficient kicks. Ed Parker’s Internationals in Aug. 1975 awarded the largest sum of prize money ever for a Pro/Am karate tournament, a total of $16,250. Kata winners were awarded an overall $1,000 of them sum. The two figures stand as records to this day. Along with Washington vs. Dominican Republic team matches on Sept. 14, 1975 , Jhoon Rhee presented a special politician’s semi-contact division pitting a trio of Democrats against a Republican threesome in what was called the Capitol Hill Grudge Bout. Presented under the auspices of Rhee’s World Black Belt League, the novel division featured Democrats Rep. Walter Fauntroy(D.C.), Rep. Tom Bevill ( Ala. ), and Sen. Quentin Burdick (N.D.) against Republicans Rep. Willis Grandison Jr. (Ohio), Rep. Floyd Spence (S.C.) and Sen. Ted Stevens (Alaska). The Congressmen appeared on behalf of the Freedom of the Press Foundation; they were members of Rhee’s twice-weekly classes and have come to be known as the “Capitol Hill karate corps.” (The match was drawn.) On Sept. 21, in conjunction with George Bruckner’s All European Karate Championships, America’s Gordon Franks met Mexico’s Ramiro Guzman to decide who would emerge as the first world super lightweight champion of full-contact karate. Franks, then a 20-year-old college student from Minneapolis , won the title in a unanimous 9-round decision. Promoted at the Deutschlandhalle Arena in West Berlin , it was the first full-contact would title fight to be staged in a foreign country. The promotional budget was reportedly $130,000, the single most expensive karate promotion up to that time. Franks, besides being the original champion in this 139-lb division, was also the first black fighter to become a full-contact world champion. Also in 1975, the 3rd WUKO World Karate-do Championships were held, for the first time in the U.S. , at the Long Beach Arena. It was an uneventful tournament for the U.S. amateur karate athletes. The British team emerged as the new world champions, and the Japanese fighters, as usual, dominated the individual competition. In Black Belt’s 1976 survey respondents in karate registered an 11 percent increase in students from 1975-76. Judo and tae kwon do registered no increase of decrease. Yet, many leaders in karate stated that a decline took place. One answer may be that the decline was registered in the 1974-75 and that interest had picked up in this year. A statistic of interest was that 18 percent of all students in both 1975 and 1976 were female. Approximately 31 percent of all students were children, 14 or younger. However, it was not clear from the survey that girls age 14 or younger were not also included in the female as well as the children’s statistics. In 1976 the full-contact karate movement continued to be the pacesetter fro the industry. By now, most of the smaller promoters found the expense prohibitive, and the more distinguished entrepreneurs took command of the sport. Most of the lavish events were filmed for television and appeared on sports shows such as “The Champions,” “CBS Sports Spectacular,” and the PKA’s 90-minute “Sports Special of the Month.” The year kicked off with champion Bill Wallace becoming the first karate athlete ever to participate in ABC’s “Superstars” competition Wallace appeared in the third set of eliminations on Jan. 31, which was broadcast nationwide on Feb. 7. Wallace placed in two events, but finished only tenth out of 11 entrants in his elimination series, besting Lynn Swann of the Pittsburgh Steelers. Despite a disappointing finish, it was and extraordinary endorsement for the sport of karate. Prior to Wallace’s appearance, Don Quine, who now managed the champion, originated the nickname “Superfoot,” a nickname attributed to Wallace’s uncanny kicking ability. A PKA event held at the Los Angeles Sports Arena on Oct. 1, 1976 , marked the beginning of the association’s contractual arrangement with CBS Sports, as well as merger attempt with promoter Howard Hanson of Westminster , Calif. The CBS deal eventually accounted for four network broadcasts per year of PKA-sanctioned world title fights. Critics accused the PKA of conflict of interest. The organization was operating both as a sanctioning body and , though Sport Karate, Inc., a sister corporation, as a promotional body. The PKA principals, Don and Judy Quine, countered by claiming the sport’s survival depended on their synthesis of its various activities. The PKA sanctioned a total of 19 events in 1979. After his merger attempt with the PKA soured, Howard Hanson formed the World Karate Association (WKA), a full-contact sanctioning body that became the PKA’s strongest competitor. As its president, Hanson survived by arranging promotions in Japan , pitting Japanese kick-boxers against American full-contact karate fighters, using a combination of the two sports’ rules. After the PKA stripped Benny Urquidez of his lightweight title in 1977, the champion fought predominantly in the WKA and quickly established himself as a superstar in Asia , where be defeated every kick-boxing challenger and champion he fought. The most bitter conflict between the PKA and the WKA is a dispute over rules. The WKA advocates the use to leg kicks, while the PKA rigidly opposes them. The issue is one of potential injury to the athletes. The PKA maintains that these techniques are dangerous to the fighter’s physical safety and his career longevity. Hanson parries this charge by pointing to the Orient, where some kick-boxing champions remain active after more than 50 fights were leg kicks, at their most vicious, are employed. In Sept. 1976 California passed as law placing full-contact karate under the jurisdiction of the State Athletic Commission (SAC), which regulated professional and amateur boxing and wrestling. It marked the first time that any form of American karate was regulated by a government body, even though many marital artists had been attempting for years to bring traditional karate under government supervision for licensing of instructors. The California commission sanctioned the organization of the volunteer group called the Full-Contact Karate Advisory Board to assist in the formation of standard rules and practices for the sport. The state athletics commissions, which regulates professional and amateur boxing and wrestling in 13 of the United States , have gradually begun regulating full-contact karate since 1976. In California , the SAC generally recognized the PKA’s rules and policies as standards for the sport, with the exception of the controversial leg kicks. In July 1978 the North American Boxing Federation, to which all SACs belong, approved a motion to officially recognize the PKA as the international governing body of professional full-contact karate. Finally in 1976, amateur karate, under the WUKO, was accepted for membership in the General Assembly of International Sports Federations (GAIF), brining it one step closer to the Olympics. In the following year, however, the General Assembly of the International Olympics Committee (IOC) issued a directive specifying that the two world karate bodies, the WUKO and the IAKF, had to unify before Olympic recognition of karate would be granted. As a result, that recognition was postponed indefinitely. 1976 WORLD TITLE FIGHTS Date: 2/8; Site: Atlanta , Ga. ; Sanction:SEPKA;Division:Lt.Hvywt,; Winner: Jeff Smith; Loser: Wally Slocki; Promoter: Joe Corley; Television: “The Champions” (Syndication). Date: 1/13; Site: Las Vegas , Nev ; Sanction: PKA; Division: Midwt.; Winner: Bill Wallace; Loser: Jem Echollas; Promoter;SKI Telvision: “Sports Special of the Month” (90-minuet syndication). Date: 5/29; Site: Toronto , Can. ; Sanction: PKA; Division: Midwt,; Winner: Bill Wallace; Loser; Daniel Richer; Promoter; Jong Soo Park ; Television: Filmed by ABC “Wide World of Sports” but not aired. Date: 8/28; Site: Honolulu , Hawaii , Sanction; PKA; Division: Hvywt.; Winner: Teddy Limoz; Loser; Mike Aroyo; Division: Ltwt.: Winner: Benny Urquidez; Loser: Earnest Hart, Jr.; Promoter: SKI/Hason. Date: 10/1; Site: Los Angeles , Calif ,; Sanction; PKA; Division: Mdwt,; Winner: Benny Urquidez; Loser: Gary Edens; Division: Ltwt,; Television: “CBS Sports Specturlar. Activities in the sport and movies continued to remain at the forefront of the martial arts for 1977. The big news was the starring debut of Chuck Norris, the first karate champion turned actor. Norris was best known to filmgoers for his performance against Bruce Lee in the climactic fight scene of Return of the Dragon. His first starring role came in Breaker, Breaker, a low-budged exploitation film that attempted to capitalize on Norris’ karate name and expertise and the CB radio trend. Filmed for under $250,000, Breaker, Breaker according to director Don Hulette, grossed $10 million. Before the release of Breaker, Breaker, Norris signed a three-picture deal with a new production company called American Cinema and began filming Good Guys Wear Black. By the time it had fun its course, Good Guys had grossed $20 million. Other filmmaking efforts featuring the marital arts this year included Revenge of the Pink Panther, starring Peter Sellers, with Ed Parker as a hired karate assassin. A Fistful of Yen, staring Bong Soo Han of Billy Jack fame, was one of three vignettes composing the satirical Kentucky Fried Movie. Yen is actually a parody of Enter the Dragon and is perhaps the first American made comedy related to the martial arts genre. It had become a cult classic. With two national television broadcast and a total of ten sanctioned events in 1977, the PKA remained at the forefront of contact karate. The April 23 “Triple Crown” championship for the Las Vegas Hilton was broadcast live by “CBS Sports Spectacular,” marking the first live broadcast of karate in any form in U.S. history. But the PKA principals, Don and Judy Quine, were also pressing its world champion to sign exclusive contracts with them. Refusal on the part of several led to the Quines stripping them of their titles. One of these stripped champions was Benny “The Jet” Urquidez. Howard Handson, who had just formed his World Karate Association, quickly recruited Urquidez to fight in the Orient under the WKA banner. Urquidez went to Japan and became the first American fighter ever to beat the Japanese kick-boxers at their own game. Urquidez scored a knockout over champion Katsuyuki Suzuki on Aug. 2 before a national television audience in Japan . His victory amounted to a national insult to the Japanese, who take their sport amounted to a national insult to the Japanese, who take their sport very seriously. Following his win, retired and undefeated champion Kunimatsu Okao publicly challenged Urqidez to a bout for which he would come out of retirement. Urquidez accepted, On Nov. 14, at the prestigious Budokan in Tokyo , the two met in a vicious showdown resulting in an Urquidez victory. Bloody and battered, Okao was knocked out cold in the 4th round and had to be helped form the ring. The bout was carried over Japanese national television and drew an unprecedented $500,000 live gate, the largest on record for professional karate. The victory brought Urquidez’ record to 40-0 with 38 knockouts, the best in his sport, and made him and international celebrity. In Japan , he became a cult hero and the central figure of a series of comic books entitled Benny the Jet. He also represented his sport in a Japanese documentary, Kings of the Square Ring, which also featured boxing’s Muhammad Ail and wrestling’s Antonio Inoki. Howard Jackson became the first karate champion to enter professional boxing and win. Within one year, Jackson amassed a pro boxing record of 14-1-2 with 11 knockouts. Jackson ’s precedent had since 1977 led the way for other karate athletes to pursue dual careers in the boxing and karate rings. The 4th WUKO World Kararte-do Championships in 1977 marked the return of this international event to Tokyo . The tournament, held at the Budokan, featured kata competition for the first time. American players fared better at kata than fighting, but tied for fifth place in team fighting. Japan dominated the kata competition, winning two top positions, and the strong Dutch contingent surprisingly dominated both the team and individual fighting titles. Otti Roetof of Holland defeated Great Britain ’s Eugene Codrington to become the WUKO amateur world champion. On March 5, 1977 , the 3rd National AAU Tae Kwon Do Championships were held at the University of California at Berkeley , in conjunction with the 1st North American Tae Kwon Do Championships. The latter event was highlighted by the first organizational meeting of the North American Tae Kwon Do Union. Later, on Sept. 15-17, at the Amphitheater in Chicago , the World Tae Kwon Do Championships made its debut in America . 1977 WORLD TITLE FIGHTS Date: 3/12; Site: Los Angeles , Calif ,: Sanction:WKA; Division:Spr. Ltwt,; Benny Urquidez/Narong Noi (Declared a no contest); Promoter Howard Hanson Date: 4/23; Site: Las Vegas , New,; Division: Hvuwt; Winner: Ross Scott; Loser; Everett Eddy; Division: Midwt,: Winner: Bill Wallace; Loser: Pilinky Rodriguez; Division:Ltw: Winner: Benny Urquidez Loser; Howard Jackson; Promoter; SKI; Television: “CBS Sports Spectaculer” (Wallace/Rodriguez aired live). Date: 5/21; Site: Charlotte , N.C. ; Sanction: PKA; Division;Lt Hvywt; Winner: Bill Wallace; Loser; Ron Thiveridge; Promoter: Hee II Cho. Date: 5/21; Site: Charlotte , N.C. ; Sanction; PKA; Division; Lt Hvywt,; Winner: Jeff Smith; Loser” Jim Horsley; Promoter: Jerry Piddington. Date: 8/2; Site; Tokyo , Japan ; Sanction: WKA; Division; Spr. Ltwt: Winner: Benny Urquidez; Loser; Katsuyuki Suzki; Promoter: Howard Hanson/Ron Holmes/Hisashi Shima/Antonio Inoki; Television: Japanese national TV. Date: 10/8; Site: Indianapolis , Ind ,; Sanction: PKA; Division:Midwt,; Winner: Bill Wallace; Loser; M. Pat Worley; Division: Welwt,; Winner: Earnest Hart, Jr.; Loser: Eddie Andujar; Promoter: SKI; Television: “CBS” Sports Spectacular.” Date: 11/14: Site: Tokyo , Japan ; Sanction: WKA; Division:Spr. Ltwt Winner: Benny Urquidez; Loser: Kunimatsu Okao; Division; Ltwt Winner: Kunimasa Nagae; Loser: Tony Lopez; Promoter’ Hanson/Holmes/Shima; Television: Japanese national TV. Date: 11/28; Site: Honolulu , Hawaii ,; Sanction: PKA; Division:Mdwt,; Winner: Bill Wallace; Loser: Burnis White; Promoter;Kip Russo. Participation in the Korean martial arts reached an all-tome high from 1977-78, according to Black Belt’s 1978 survey. Almost 65 percent of the respondents were either students of instructors in hapkido, tae kwon do, or tang soo do. Also at an all-time high was the percentage of practitioners in the category of “others,” those from obscure or combination arts. In comparison to previous surveys, response form practitioners in theof the Japanese arts was at a low, virtually equal to the number of respondents for the Chinese disciplines. In 1978, while the WKA was idle, the PKA coordinated a sanction for a light-heavyweight title fight between champion Jeff Smith and challenger Dominic Valera, for a decade Europe ’s greatest noncontact karate champion. Valera had made the transition to full-contact fighting in mid-1975 following a fierce dispute with the WUKO’s amateur karate politicians. Valera met Smith for the PKA title on May 22 in Paris before a sold-out crowd. Smith won a dull 9-round decision. Also on the international front, John Corcoran began to syndicate his article to martial arts magazines across the world. This marked the first time a domestic writer secured mass exposure aboard for American marital artists and events on a regular basis. He became the world’s foremost martial arts magazine writer and joined an elite groups of syndicated peers: Zarko Modric in Yugoslavia and John Robertson and Arthur Tansley in Japan . Semicontact ( often called “point karate” or “tournament karate”) in 1976-77 had sunk to an all-time low in popularity and interest. Chiefly responsible for the decline was the absence of recognizable stars; all of the great fighters had turned to full-contact. In 1978, however, a star emerged. Keith Vitali won the grand championships of two of America ’s most prestigious tournaments: the Battle of Atlanta and the Mid-America Diamond Nationals. The victories catapulted him to the pinnacle of every 1978 Top 10 rating poll in the U.S. Vitali duplicated his number-1 rating for the next two years before retiring in Feb. 1981 at 28. He and Bill Wallace are the only point fighters in U.S. history to have been ranked number 1 for three consecutitive years. Vitali’s intense rivalry with Texan Ray McCallum, beginning in 1979, infused new life into a sport sorely needing it. Although the pair met only three times in competition, with Vitali winning twice, the contests were classic encounters. Though their presence and performance, point fighting was rejuvenated and more martial artists took an interest in the sport. Vitali won the rubber match at the 1981 Superstar Nationals in Oakland Calif. , where he was grand champion runner-up and announced his retirement from competition. 1978 WORLD TITLE FIGHTS Date:3/11 Providence , R.I. ; Sanction: PKA; Division:Midwt,; Winner: Bill Wallace; Loser: Emilio Narvaez; Division: Welwt,; Winner: Bob Ryan; Loser: Earnest Hart, Jr.: Promoter: SKI/George Pesare; Television: “CBS Sports Spectacular.” Date: 5/22; Site: Pairs, France; Sanction: PKA; Division: Lt. Hvywt; Winner: Jeff Smith; Loser: Dominic Valera; Promoter: Guy Jugla/ Marc Counil. Date: 7/22; Sites; W. Palm Beach , Fla ,; Sanction: PKA; Division: Welwt,; Winner: Steve Shepherd; Loser: Bob Ryan; Promoter: Steve Shepherd/ Don Haines. Date: 11/30; Site: Atlanta , Ga ,: Sanction: PKA; Division: Welwt,: Winner: Earnest Hart, Jr.; Loser: Steven Shepherd; Promoter: SKI/Joe Corley; “CBS Sports Spectacular.” The Second Boom By 1979, a martial arts movie renaissance was underway. At the forefront of these films was Chuck Noriss, in A Force of One, produced by American Cinema. Due to Norris’ personal philosophy, A Force of One earned a PG (Parental Guidance) rating and consequently reached a huge market of youthful moviegoers. Also starring Jennifer O’Neil and Bill Wallace, who made his film debut, Force was a box-office hit form its outset and even received favorable critical reviews. Joe Lewis, who once competed against Norris in the karate ring, became the second American karate champion to star in a motion picture. Lewis’ transition had been expected by martial artists, since it was common knowledge that he had been seriously pursuing an entertainment career since 1970, when he took up acting. Filmed on location in Europe and Asia , Jaguar Lives-Lewis’ first film- is a poorly written “travelogue” intended as a spy action adventure in the James Bond tradition. In 1979, two projects that originally involved Bruce Lee finally appeared in American theaters. Game of Death, partially filmed by Lee before Enter the Dragon but unfinished at his death, and Circle of Iron (a.k.a. The Silent Flute), originally written by Lee, Striling Silliphant, and actor James Coburn, were replete with production complications and controversy. Back in 1977 producer Raymond Chow decided to string together select footage of Lee from Game of Death and integrate it with a film and story line engineered for and around it. The resulting film was an ill-assorted mixture of action by no less than four doubles who played the role of Lee. Nevertheless, the approximately 10 minuets of Bruce Lee footage tacked onto the new footage, however absurd, gave the audience their idol. The Silent Flute, despite a reported $4 million budget, a host of name actors, countless collaborators, an Oscar-winning screenwriter, and two cult heroes, turned out a week fantasy/odyssey, and was probably a decade too late to appeal to the martial arts consciousness of the U.S. in the late 1960s and early 1970s. it starred David Carradine. The martial arts resurgence was not limited to film. Joe Hyams took three years to complete Zen in the Martial Arts, a collection of compelling personal anecdotes touching upon the wisdom transmitted by his martial arts master instructors, including the late Bruce Lee. Predicted to become a classic whose lesions will be as relevant in the future as they are now, the book was a sensation in its field. In October, the PKA signed a pact with the Entertainment and Sports Programming Network (ESPN), a new 24-hour cable company that broadcast sports exclusively. In Nov. 1979 ESPN broadcast five PKA –sanctioned events form across the country. By Mar. 1980 the PKA was selling weekly bouts for ESPN broadcast. At the time the agreement was signed, ESPN had four million viewers nationwide and anticipated growth based on pay-TV revolution and the phenomenal American sports appetite. Finally, in 1979 the International Olympic Committee (IOC) approved tae kwon do as a sport worthy of Olympic recognition. According to Dr Dong Ja Yang, president and chairman of the National AAU Tae Kwon Do Committee, this development ment that tae kwon do would not “be eligible for selection into the games.” The approval came too late for the sport to be included in the 1984 Olympics in Los Angeles , but there was indication that it would enter the 1988 games, which will be hosted by Korea . Another encouraging growth factor was the inclusion of amateur tae kwon do, as well as amateur karate competition, in World Games I, held in July 1981 in San Jose , Calif. 1979 WORLD TITLE FIGHTS Date: 3/? ; Site: Tokyo , Japan ; Sanction: WKA; Division: Spr. Welwt,: Winner: Alvin Prouder; Loser: Toshihiro Nishiki; Promoter: Howard Hanson/Hisashi Shima; Television. “ NBC Sports World”/Japanese national network. Date: 5/2: Sites; So. Lake Tahoe , Nev ,; Sanction: WKA; Division: Spr. Ltwt,; Winner: Benny Urquidez; Loser: Rick Simerly; Promoter; Howard Hanson: Television: “NBC Sports World.” Date: 5/26; Site: W. Palm Beach , Fla. ; Sanction: WKA; Division: Midwt,: Winner: Steve Shepherd; Loser: Chris Gallegos; Promoter: Steven Shepherd. Date: 10/?; Site: Tokyo , Japan ; Sanction: WKA; Division; Ltwt,; Winner: Benny Urquidez; Loser: Yoshimitsu Tomashiro; Promoter; Howard Hanson/ Hisashi Shima; Television: Japanese national network. Date: 8/25; Site: Hampton , Va. ; Sanction: PKA; Division; Banwt,; Winner: Veron Mason; Loser: ? ; Promoter: Frank Hargrove. Welwt.; Winner: Steve Sheperd; Loser: Earnest Hart, Jr.; Promoter; Steve Shepherd/Don Haines Date: 12/23; Site: Las Vegas , Nev. ; Sanction: WKA; Division; Banwt; Winner: Graciela Casillas; Loser: Irene Garcia; Promoter: Hap/Holloway/Ron Holmes. After a career spanning 12 years, Bill Wallace retired on June 15. He won a 12-round decision over Robert Biggs in a bout broadcast live on “CBS Sports Spectacular.” July marked the release of the inaugural issue of Kick Illustrated, the second marital arts magazine published by Curtis Wong (his first in 1973, was Inside Kung-Fu). Kick, edited by John Corcoran, was an immediate success; it helped restore traditional values to the martial arts media. Late in 1980 Wong and Corcoran produced a one-shot special entitled Marital Arts Movies. So impressive were its sales that Wong launched it in July 1981 as a month magazine with editor Sandra Segal at the helm. In Sept. 1979 a group of enterprising karate instructors from St. Paul , Minn. , published the first edition of Sport Karate Magazine. Its reception by the sports community led to expansion to a monthly magazine format in July 1980. edited by Gary Hestilow and John Worley, Sport Karate had come closest to duplicating the defunct Professional Karate in serving the interest of the sports athletes. Limited by regional distribution and direct mail subscriptions, Sport Karate ceased publication in June 1981. Overall, more than 40 PKA-sanctioned events were telecast over the ESPN in 1980, and CBS aired three more. The rival WKA broke into the American network with one broadcast over “NBC Sports World” and signed a television syndication pact with Hollywood Programmed Entertainment for the broadcast of 26 full-contact cards domestically and abroad. In August, Chuck Noriss, with a media blitz and personal appearance, publicized the release of the Octagon. Having fulfilled his contract with American Cinema, Norris became a free agent. In 1981-82 he starred in three films- An Eye for and Eye, Silent Rage, and Forced Vengeance- and formed his own production company. August also marked the second American tour of a Chinese wu shu troupe, through the coordination of San Francisco ’s Anthony Chang, a wu shu stylists and one of America ’s great form champions. The first visit had been in 1974; the 1980 tour took the Peking troupe to San Francisco , Oakland , Los Angeles , St. Louis , Boston , New York , and Houston . The troupe’s San Francisco performance was filmed by ABC’s “Wide World or Sports” for later broadcast. Full-contact karate was televised in two national broadcasts of PKA bouts, one on :NBC Sports World,” the other on “CBS Sports Spectacular.” NBC aired the unexpected defeat of PKA heavyweight champion Ross Scott by Demetrius Edwards, via a 7th round knockout. This marked the first of two matches within a one-week period in which established world championships were defeated by challengers. On August 9th, challenger Cliff Thomas of El Paso , Texas assumed the PKA world super-lightweight title, upsetting Gordon Franks by a 3rd round TKO. Old champions give way to the new young challengers. The field starts opening up on a grander scale making way for international contenders. The effect is synergistic as the sport renews itself. Perhaps the greatest event of the 1980 martial arts renaissance was the staggering success of the television mini-series SHOGUN. Based on James Clavell’s best-selling novel, the $22 million project aired on NBC the week of Sept 15-19 in five parts, and presented American audiences with the first insight into the world of the feudal Japanese Samurai. Shogun captured 125 million viewers, or more then half of the total television viewing audience in the U.S. Shogun’s phenomenal success created a new wave of interest by the American public in learning the “Samurai Arts”. Supply companies reported a sudden boost in orders for samurai swords and other Japanese-related weapons. Karate schools were inundated with phone calls from potential students, and business increased dramatically. With the 1980 Warner Bros. release of the Big Brawl, general American audiences were introduced to the irrepressible new king of kung-fu, Jackie Chan. Chan’s fame spread from Hong Kong when beginning in 1978, three of his pictures surpassed the grosses of Bruce Lee’s films in Asia : Drunken Monkey in a Tiger’s eye, Fearless Hyena, and The Young Master, the last having sold more tickets, according to its producers Golden Harvest, then any other picture of any genre ever to play Hong Kong . Chan was quickly discovered by Hollywood and cast in his first American-made film, The Big Brawl; his American debut, however, failed to duplicate his international appeal. When Mexico suffered last-minute sponsorship problems, the 5th WUKO World Championships was picked up by Spain as the host country. The event, originally scheduled for 1979, was delayed one year by this development. The tournament took place in Madrid on Nov. 28-29, with 55 countries represented. The AAU had conducted its team selection tournament in New Jersey , from which America fielded its strongest, most experienced contingent ever. Head coach Chuck Merriman anticipated the possibility of returning home with a world championship. Tokey Hill of Ohio became the first amateur world champion to emerge from the ranks of America ’s fighters. Not since 1970, at the inaugural WUKO tournament, had an American placed in individual fighting, when Tony Telleners won third place. Hill won a gold medal and Pennsylvania ’s Billy Blanks defeated the Spanish national champion to advance to the finals, where he took silver in the openweight class. Blanks then took a bronze medal in the 80kg division, making him the only American double medal winner in world class amateur karate competition. Another new division, in addition to the openweight class, was women’s kata competition. Kathy Baxter of New York and Pam Glaser of Massachusetts placed within the top 8 finalists, with Baxter taking a respectable fifth place. Significantly, the 1980 AAU karate team was composed of players representing a multitude of karate styles, whereas earlier, most of the U.S. team had been predominantly Japanese stylists. The international rivalry between the WUKO and the IAKF took a bright turn on Dec. 25, 1980 , when a unification meeting between the WUKO and the IAKF took place in Tokyo . Zentaro Kosaka, president of the IAKF, and Ryoichi Sasakawa, president of the WUKO, initiated talks for the consolidation of international amateur karate-do competiti0on. Since 1977 the international Olympic committee had directed that prior to consideration of karate as a recognized non-participatory Olympic sport, application for this status must emanate from only one federation truly representing the great majority of karate federations worldwide. The Dec. 25 conference resulted in unification of WUKO and the IAKF in Japan only-the intention was to unify amateur karate in those parts of the world still divided between two organizations. With world unity essential to IOC acceptance, it is believed the organizations can overcome the remaining obstacles to that recognition.
    THX 4 great text

    U.S.
     

    JUDO

              The first known meeting of Kodokan judo and any American occurred in 1879, when President U.S. Grant was in Japan on a state visit and observed a demonstration of judo techniques by 19-year-old Jigoro Kano. The official date given for the start of Kodokan Judo us 1882, and most likely Kano did not explain his Kodonka Judo then but may have lectured on his study of jujutsu. In any case, President Grant was exposed to the judo master at a very fertile and productive period in pre-Kodokan judo’s history.

                The next contact came in 1889, when Kano lectured on the educational values of judo before a group of foreign dignitaries. There were several Americans present but this contact had no discernible result.

                The first American to study seriously at the Kodokan was Prof. Ladd from Yale University . Ladd came to the Kodokan sometime during 1889, ten years after Kano ’s demonstration for President Grant. Ladd studied nage (throwing), katame (mat work), atemi-waza (striking techniques), and koshiki-no-kata (self-defense forms).

                The number of Americans at the Kodokan did not rise immediately after Ladd’s visit. By 1908, the Kodokan had a total of 13 American members studying in Japan . During 1919 Prof. John Dewey of Columbia University went to the Kodokan to observe as demonstration. Dewey discussed Kodokan judo with Kano and many have been instrumental in the beginning of a pioneering judo program at Columbia University .

                Yoshiaki Yamashita, then 6th dan, was the first person to the judo in the U.S.   He arrived in 1902 at the invitation of Mr. Graham Hill, director of the Great Northern Railroad. Hill contacted a Mr. Fujiya, who contacted Mr. Shibata, who was a student of Prof. Yamashita, concerning Yamashita’s coming to the U.S. to teach his children judo. After Yamashita arrived, the Hill family decided that judo was much to dangerous for their children. Mr. Hill arranged for judo demonstrations in New York and Chicago . He also tried to arrange for Harvard University to hire Yamashita as a judo teacher.

                At the same time, Sen. Lee’s wife and Mrs. Wadsworth started taking judo lessons from Yamashita. They had the sixth floor of a nag-no-kata. There few women started the first judo classes in the country. A men’s judo group made up from various embassies in the area appeared. Thus judo traveled in prominent circles in its embryonic stage in America . For lack of wider participation this judo mission died out with Yamashita’s return to Japan in 1907.

                Mrs. Wadsworth was a fine horseman and went to the same country club as did President Theodore Roosevelt. She mentioned to the president that Yamashita was teaching judo and that Roosevelt might be interested in the art. Yamashita was subsequently invited to Washington to give a demonstration at the White House. There was a contest with a wrestler by the name of John Graft, who was the coach at the U.S. Naval Academy and who was teaching President Roosevelt wrestling. Although Yamashita threw him time after time, Graft continued to get up. Finally, Yamashita decided that he would do mat work with Graft, since there seemed to be no end to the match. In the mat work, Yamashita got an arm lock on Graft, but the wrestler would not give up. Yamashita kept up the pressure until Graft groaned as his arm came close to breaking. President Roosevelt was impressed and took judo lesions. After leaving office, he kept mats at home. Roosevelt studied judo for about a year, earning a brown belt in the process. Through the help of the president, Yamashita taught judo at the Naval Academy . In 1935, Yamashita was promoted to 10th dan, the first person to hold that rank. He died later that year.

                Pacific Narthwest In 1903, one year after Yamashita’s arrival in America , Shumeshiro Tomita journeyed to the U.S. He was the first person to sign the rolls of the Kodokan; he was instrumental in establishing judo in the U.S. as well as in Japan . Tomita stayed in the U.S. for seven years and taught judo at Princeton and Columbia Universities . After the arrival of Tomita and Yamashita, many judo instructors came to America . Among the very first were Miada Kousen, Sataki Nobushitam, and Ito Tajugoro. Judo in the U.S. first flourished on the West Cost because of its large Japanese population.

                Judo in the Pacific Northwest dates back to the beginning of the century when judo was practiced in small, scattered clubs. The first dojo was opened in the Settle area by a judoka named Kano in 1903, but this club closed after only a few months. Prof. Takugoro Ito, then 4th dan, arrived in America in 1907 and opened the Seattle Dojo.

                Ito, like many other early judoka, was a wrestler. He held challenge matches, in which he was unbeatable. After several years he left the Seattle area, traveling to South America . Eisei Madia, Akitoro Ono, Satake, and Matruura traveled with him, touring South America as professional wrestlers and returned to San Fancisco in 1914. (Eisei Media stayed in Brazil and the Brazilian government gave him a quarter-million acres near the Amazon for his wrestling feat.)

                In the 1920’s, there were two dojos in the state of Washington, the Seattle Dojo and the Tacoma Dojo, operated mainly by yudansha of the respective communities, businessmen, farmers, and laborers. Yoshida sensei of Tocoma, then 3rd dan, was the best judo player. He was employed as a laborer in a sawmill. The other black belts were 1st and 2nd dans. Factions within the Seattle Dojo difficulty working together. It is not known what the exact problem was but, arounf 1930, some members of the Seattle Dojo withdrew and formed their own Tentokukan Dojo. Each club hired teachers from Japan . Among the Seattle Dojo’s teachers in the 1920’s and early 1930’s were senseis: Miyazawa, Shibata, Kaimon Kudo, and Suzuki.

                Before World War II, three main styles of judo were prominent in North America . The Budokan Style and the Kodokan style predominated in the U.S. In Canada the Kito-ryu was strong, especially in Vancouver , B.C. the Seattle Judo Black Belt Association was organized around 1935 by Kumagai and Salata senseis, tending to unite the two rival American factions. The two instructors were also responsible for organizing the bi-annual 24-man team contests with the Nanka( southern California ) team. Southern California and the Northwest had the strongest judo groups at that time.

                After World War II, the Tentokukan Dojo was no re-activated because the former membership was spread around the county. This closed out a pioneering judo effort on the West Coast. The Seattle Dojo owned their building and were able to continue with practice after the war.

                The Washington team competed against the Vancouver B.C. team annually, against sailors from visiting Japanese training ships, and occasionally with college teams from Japan . Eventually, Nisei yudansha were hired when dojos were opened in Spokane . 1930’s some dojos existed in the state of Washington , and each sponsored an annual tournament.

                Judo in the Tacoma , Washington , area as started by Prof. Iwakiri, who was born in Japan, and who came here in 1912. Iwakiri exhibited such skill that he received his 1st dan from Prof. Kano at the age of 13. the Fife- Tacoma Dojo was originally formed as the St. Regis Dojo and was located in the St. Regis lumberyard sawdust pit. ( The dojo was later moved from the lumberyard to the corner of 17th and Market Streets). Prof. Kano made two trips to the Fife-Tacoma dojo, in 1932 and 1938, in recognition of its outstanding achievements. In 1932 he presented the dojo a scroll and in 1938 another was given to the yudanshakai. In the 1938 scroll Kano wrote “return to the source,” and the ambiguity of his phrase still caused debate. Most opinion holds that the statement refers to Zen training.

                Rev. Yukawa was the first yudanshakai president and served the Fife-Tacoma, Washington area from 1924 to 1925. After Rev. Yuikawa, Prof. Iwakiri served as president from 1940 to 1958.

                Before World War II, there were six dojos in the state of Oregon: Shudo-Kan Dojo, Obukan Dojo, Salem Judo Club, Milwaukee Dojo, G.T. Dojo, and the Shobukan Dojo was the first, and was organized under Mitis Nikata, then a 2nd dan. Prof. Kano visited the Portland area in 1932; during the visit he took the occasion to rename the Portland Dojo the Obukan Dojo. Some of the pioneering judo specialists in the Portland area were Mr. Nishizim of Kito-ryu;Mr. Kodayashi of the Kito-ryu; Mr. Sakanio Ichiro,3rd dan from the Kodokan; Mr. Sazaki Ojiro, 2nd dan from the Kandokan; and Mr. Tomori, 2nd dan from the Kokodan.

                After World War II, Buddy Ikata gathered together some of the people who knew judo and got the Portland-Obukan Dojo going again. The Obukan was re-established in 1952. Rev. Homma, a Buddhist priest, started judo at the YMCA and the YWCA. The Guiki Dojo started practice again in the spring of 1953 under Mr. Kato and Mr. Hamado, both 2nd dans, and Rev. Homma and Nakata, 3rd dans. March 3, 1960 ,, was the 42nd anniversary of the Obukan Dojo.

                Hawaii During the era of Japanese immigration to Hawaii , in the late 1800’s and the early 1900’s, many Japanese immigrants trained in the art of Kodokan judo arrived. The first judo club in Hawaii , the Shunyo-Kan, was formed on March 17, 1909 , by Shigemi Teshima and Naomatsu Kaneshige. Consul-Gereral Isami Shishido, 7th dan, joined the club in 1919 and severed as chairman of the club’s board of directors for many years.

                The Shobu Kan judo club was founded by Yajiro Kitayama, Nakajiro Mino, and others. Its first dojo site was the basement of the Ono Bakery on Beretania Street , followed by several locations in Honolulu , until it was moved to its present location on Kunawai Lane in the Liliha area.

                Other clubs were subsequently established, and in 1929, three of the major judo clubs, Shunyo Kan , Shobu Kan , and Hawaii Chuugakko (junior high school) initiated an effort to organize judo in the territory of Hawaii . The organization hoped to demonstrate a united effort to the community and to be recognized as an instrument through which the social and cultural significance of this marital art would be transmitted and perpetuated. Organized judo grew rapidly under the supervision of this body, the Hawaii Judo Kyokai. In 1925, the Kodokan issued the first certificates for black belts to judoka in Hawaii . In 1927, a judo seminar was conducted by a visiting Waseda University judo group, headed by Mr. Makino, 6th dan. By 1932, the official recognition from Prof. Kano during one of his stopovers in Honolulu . The certificate of recognition, #76, issued by the Kodokan Judo Institute on November 15, 1932 , was the first such authorization granted to a yudanshakai outside of Japan .

                The Los Angeles Area The story of judo in southern California begins with Prof. Ito. Prof. Yamashita and Tomita were his contemporaries in American judo, but of the three only Ito made a lasting contribution to the development of American judo. Wherever Ito stayed, judo took hold and flourished. In 1915 he moved to Los Angeles and established the Rafu Dojo on the first floor of the Yamato Hall, near Jackson and San Pedro Streets. When Prof. Ito returned to Japan after seven years in Los Angeles , the Rafu Dojo continued under management of Prof. Seigoro Murakami, Sr. Matsutaro Nitta, and Ryuji Tatsuno. In July 1917, there were still only two dojos in southern California .

                The Nanka Judo Yudanshakai was organized in 1928. In 1930, the Kodokan Nanka Judo Yudanshakai was formed and Yasutaro Matsuura, then 4th dan, was elected president. Still only eight dojos and fewer than twenty black belts existed in southern California .

                The Kodokan Nanka Judo Yudanshakai was reorganized at the direction of Prof. Jigoro Kano in 1932 while he was visiting the Los Angeles Olympic Games. The yudanshakai was renamed once more, this time the Hokubei Judo Yudanshakai or Southern California Judo Black Belt Association of North America; its presidency to devolve permanently upon the Lost Angeles Consul General of Japan. A formal organization of judo occurred as a result of Prof. Kano’s visit, and four yudanshakais, or judo black belt associations were formed: Southern California , Northern California , Seattle and Hawaii .

                When World War II started in Dec. 1941, there were twenty-six dojo in southern California , with 422 black belts and about 2,000 students. The black belts were distributed in the following manner: 6th dan-2: 5th dan-5: 4th dan- 6: 3rd dan-42: 2nd dan-101: 1st dan-264: and 2 honorary black belts.

                 During World War II, judo continued to flourish in relocation camps such as Manzanar, Heart Mountain , Post Gila River, and Rule Lake . Although all other judo clubs ceased operations during the war years, Seinan Dojo kept its doors open. Jack Sirgel, then 2nd dan, the head instructor, visited the Manzanar Relocation Camp with his students to improve their judo techniques, even though the war was as its peak.

                San Diego As the last major port of entry for the Japanese on the west coast of the U.S. , the pacific southwest failed to develop large judo communities characteristic of northern cities. According to oral reports, the only judo club or judo activity in the San Diego area before World War II was begun in 1925, and continued for several years, upstairs in the Taiikuki Hall on 6th and Market Streets. The first instructor, Mikinishake Kawaushi, taught for several years; Mizuzaki Showa, 5th dan, taught for about one year before the organization ceased activities. The only other organized martial arts activity in the San Diego area before World War II was a kendo society located in the Buddhist temple at 29th and Market Streets. This organization ceased activities after outbreak of the war.

                Judo activity after World War II commenced in the San Diego area in April 1946 with the opening of classes in the city YMCA by AI C. Holtmann. From 1946-54 much prejudice against the Japanese existed. The promotion of judo in the San Diego area proved difficult during the early post-war years. In 1952, with hostility abating, the general public expressed an interest in Japanese goods, culture, arts, and sports.

                The San Diego Judo Club joined the Nanka Judo Yudanshakai ( Los Angeles ) in 1954, at the invitation of Mr. Kenneth Kuniyuki. Under Nanka’s jurisdiction much assistance was given in San Diego area in the way of advice, promotions, and technical help. An open invitation to all of Nanka’s tournaments was extended also to the San Diego judoka. The Sanshi Judo Club, located in Oceanside , in 1955, taught by Sachio Matsuhara, joined Nanka in 1955. In that year Benso Tsuji, now a 7th dan, became technical director for the San Diego Judo Club. As the highest graded black belt in the area, he brought his technical knowledge to bear on the teaching and promoting of Judo in the community.

                Western United States . The earliest record of judo being taught in the Denver area is that of Dr.T. Ito. Ito had learned his judo in Hawaii and was teaching in the early 1930s. James Fukumitsu, who had studied judo in Japan , was in the area and teaching judo to put himself through college from 1937-40. Some of the other early area judoka were Bill Ohikuma, Don Tanabe, and Nob Ito.

                During World War II, judo activity ceased in the area. In 1944, George Kuramoto left the Amachi Relocation Center and with Fred Okimoto started judo classes in the local gymnasium, in the 20th Street Recreation Building, during 1950. During this time Toro Takematsu, 4th dan, had moved to the Denver area and notice and announcement in the Japanese community paper. Takematsu introduced himself to George Kuramoto and Fred Okimoto. Together, they purchased straw mats and started the original Denver Dojo, located between 19th and 20th Streets and Lawrence , the heart of the Japanese community. As the dojo developed, a larger building was rented and renovated.

                During 1954, the Judo Black Belt Federation stated to establish local chapters, of yudanshakais. The Rocky Mountain Regional Black Belt Association was recognized as the local governing body.

                Intermountain Area The first, post-was judo club in the Salt Lake area was formed in 1950 by Frank Nishimura and George Akimoto. Hot Springs , Utah , had a judo club that was started in 1954 by Mr. Mimya and Mr. Okawa, both 1st dans. Their club was active for about three years. In 1955, Mr. Ichi Isogi started judo in Corinnes, Utah . It was later started up again under Mr. Yamasaki. In Ogden , Utah , judo was started in 1956 through the efforts of Mr. Masaichiro Manomoto, 4th dan, Ted Sakawa, 1st, Tom Kimomto, 1st dan, and Mr. Yonetani, 1st dan.

                Frank Oryu, an old pioneer in the area, started the first Oregon dojo. An older 4th dan by the name of Muramoto, who also worked for Oryu, helped Oryu organize judo in 1949 and Ontario Dojo was founded in 1950. the Ontario Dojo had a membership of about twenty black belts.

                According to a report from Mas Yamashita, judo in the Caldwell-Boise Valley area started about two years after judo in Ontario , Oregon . Judo experienced a strong growth and was doing well when the first tournament was held in 1952.

                Judo in Omaha began during the mid-1950s. Mike Meriwather taught at the YMCA and Dr. Ashida (at 22 one of the youngest 5th-degree black belts) taught at the University in Lincoln . Also, a number of black belts practied judo at Offutt Air Force Base. Among the better known military judoka were Sgt. Mann, Augie Hauso, Phil Porter, Carl Flood, and La Verne Raab. The military people did not get involved in civilian judo until about 1958. Around 1960, Darrell Darling, Phil Porter, Paul Own, Wally Barber, who was director of the local YMCAm and Mike Manly me at Dr. Ashida’s house and decided to form a yusanshakai. They framed a constitution and made contacts with the yudanshakai officers in Chicago and Denver to implement the project. In 1961 the yudanshakai, which covered the greater part of six states, was formed. The first president of the Midwest Judo Associtaion was Dr. Ashida. The second was La Verne Raab. The third Ike Wakadyashi, had a strong judo program established at Kansas University . The forth president Dr. Loren Braught. The fifth and sixth presidents were Bill Stites and Darrell Darling respectively.

                The first commercial judo school, the Omaha Judo Academy , was opened by La Verne Raab and Carl Flood after they left the military. Mel Bruno, who later became head of judo for SAC, taught judo at the Omaha YMCA and at the Omaha Athletic Club.

                Chicago Judo first arrived in the Chicago area in Sept. 1903, when Mr. Graham Gill arranged for a judo demonstration by Prof. Yamashita in the cities of New York and Chicago . According to Prof. Kotani, in 1916, Heita Okabe, 4th dan; Toshitaka Yamauchi, 4th dan and Ken Kawabara, 4th dan were teaching judo while studying at the University of Chicago ; this would be the earliest organized judo activity in the Midwest .

                Mr. Harry Auspitz incorporated the first judo club in the Chicago area in 1938, the Jiu Jitsu Institute. Prior to 1939, judo was practiced sporadically by members of the Japanese Counsulate and other interested individuals. The Ju Jitsu Institute became the first Kodokan instructor was Ralph Mori, who eventually opened his own judo club in 1941. Mori named his dojo the International Judo Club. Mr. Shozo Kuwashima came from New York in 1939 to teach at the institute; he later opened his own dojo. Also in 1941, Mr. Yasushi Tomonari came from New York to teach at the institute. During May of that year, Mr. Masato Tamura, then a 4th dan, came to Chicago from Fife , Washington , and also taught at the institute. With the illness of Mr. Auspitz in 1944, Mr. Tamura became the owner of the Jiu Jitsu Institute.

                The Chicago Judo Club was founded by Shozo Kuwashima in 1941. When Kuwashima moved to the West Coast, the Chicago Judo Club was taken over by John Osako and Ruth Gardner.

                After World War II, Judo in Chicago received numbers of Japanese who were relocating in the Midwest section of the country. Vince Tamura came to Chicago and helped out at the Jit Jitsu Institute. In 1944, Mr. Yoshitaro Sakai moved in to the area, and Hiro Okamura arrived in 1945 as the relocation camps closed. Hank Okamura relocated close to the Lawson YMCA in 1946 and joined the “Y.” Okamura, wrestling at the YMCA, met Kenji Okimoto; and the two men, who discovered they were both judoka, began to practice together. From this start, judo remained at Lawson YMCA for the next twenty year.

                The Chicago Judo Black Belt Association was formed during 1947 and a charter was received directly from the Kodokan. (As a recognized judo organization the yudanshakai could promote up to 3rd-degree black belt.) At that time the Chicago Judo Black Belt Association covered the states of Wisconsin , Missouri , Minnesota , Ohio , Indiana , Arkansas , Louisiana , and Michigan . The first constitution for Chicago , a rather informal document, stated the John Osako would be president of the association, and the vice-president would be Mas Tamura. There was not much more to the constitution that that. The charter members of the Chicago Judo Black Belt Association were Masato Tamura, Hank Okamura, Hik Nagao, Yosh Sakai, Carl Shojii, Carl Kalaskai, Jack Ohashi, and Tom Watanabe.

                In 1949, Masato Tamura became the president of the yudanshakai and remained in that office for the next fourteen years. During the late 1940’s the Oak Park YMCA stated under Bob Matsuoka. Some noted members of the Chicago Judo Club were Hik Nagao, Tom Okamura, and Kenji Okamoto. The Jiu Jutsu Institute had Masato Tamura, Vince Tamura, Bob Belhatchet, Frank Leszczynski, Bill Burk, Bill Berndt, and Bill Kaufman. During these years, any team that represented the U.S. was mostly made up of people from the Chicago Judo Black Belt Association. Chicago sent teams to the first two Pan-American Judo Tournaments and one of the two American representatives to the 1st World Tournaments in Japan .

                Judo was intensively promoted in Chicago during the 1950’s. There were a number of self-defense demonstrations conducted for television shows. Tournaments became regular events with the Lawson YMCA providing a central location.

                Konan, of Detroit , was encouraged to break away, about 1952. This change relieved Chicago of the responsibility for all of Michigan and come of the Midwestern areas. Milwaukee , Wis. , And St. Louis , Mo. , were starting to develop judo groups during this time, but, unlike Chicago, these two areas did not have strong Japanese judo players to get the sport going and give guidance to its development.

                With the stat of the 1950’s, judo in Chicago began to develop into a citywide sport as new dojos were opened. Bill Kaufman was discharged from the service in 1952 and came back from Japan as a 2nd-degree black belt. Kaufman worked out at the Jiu Jitsu Institute and started his own club at the Hyde Park YMCA. Later he taught at the University of Chicago . Mr. Hikaru Nagao was teaching judo at the Illinois Institute of Technology. In time, these two clubs combined to form the Uptown Dojo.

                In the early 1950’s, some students from the original dojos began teaching at various locations around the city, and the Oak Park YMCA was developing a good judo group also. Indiana at this time had a judo community developing under the guidance of Mr. Bill Craig. In local tournaments there would be as many as 80 brown belts competing at one time. National registration was adopted during this period and was run by the Chicago Yudanshakai for a few years. In the late 1950’s, Chicago had 2,800 registered members.

                In 1954, Vinve Tamura represented the Chicago Yudanshakai and the U.S. in the 1st World Tournament. There were no weight divisions in early world competitions, so the matches were rough. Tamura lasted until the semi-finals, defeating heavier and higher ranking people. His only loss was to a future world champion.

                Texas In 1957 the Second Air Force held its championship tournament in Austin Tex., and invited Roy H. “Pop” Moore to officiate the tournament. Pop decided to stay, and , with the help of Col. Walthrop, Beberly Sheffield, from Austin Recreation Department, and a young competitor, Jerry Reid, from Bergstrom Air Force Base, the Austin Judo Club opened its doors.

                With the addition of members such as Bill Nagase and Sam Numahiri in Fort Worth , Karl Geis and Rick Landers in Houston , and Rick Mertens in Shreveport , the Southwestern U.S. Judo Association came into being. The association annexed small areas out of several yadanshkais and covered the stated of Texas , Louisiana , Arakansas , Oklahoma , and New Mexio. In 1959 the Southwestern U.S. Championships were helpd in Austin , Tex. , with over 300 competitors attending. In the late 1950’s Bill Nahases and Gail Stolzenburg competed in the National AAU Senior Judo Championships.

                The sport continued to grow and attracted several talented instructors to Texas- Ace Sukigara, 3rd dan, to Longview , and Vince Tamura, 5th dan, to Dallas . In 1961 the Southwestern U.S. Judo Yusanshakai became the Texas Judo Black Belt Association, and in 1962 the Texas Yudanshakai was approved by the Judo Black Belt Federation as a regional association. The first officers included John Ebell, Rick Landers, Gail Stolzenburg, Karl Geis, and Vince Tamura.

                In 1964 the National Collegiate Championships were held in El Paso with Texans Ace Sukigara, John Rowlett, Wes Maxwell, and Joe Rude among the winners. In 1971 Odessa Boys Club hosted the USJF Junior National Championships with many trophies staying in Texas . In 1975 the High School National Championships were held in Houston .

                To keep all the clubs informed of the Judo activities in Texas and surrounding areas, the Texas Yudanshakai had produced since 1963 a bi-monthly magazine entitled Texas Judo News. (Gail Stolzenburg) 

                Shufu Shufu Yudanshakai at one time had the largest judo area in the U.S. Over the years, new, localized judo organizations grew out of the initial central organization.

                James Takemori, 5th dan, had served as rank registration chairman, secretary, and president of Shufu. He related the following information concerning shufu’s history:

                “ I was in Washington before Shufu was organized. There were only a hanful of men in the area, approximately ten yudansha. Among the black belts present were Kenzo Uyeno, Eichi Koiwai M.D., Nonkey Ishiyama, Donn Draeger, Bill Berndt, Lanny Miyamoto president.

                There were five yudanshakais prior to the formation of Shufu. The earlier five were in Chicago, Seattle , Hawaii , Hokka, and Nanka. Donn Draeger was and early advocated of a yudanshakai of the East Coast. His efforts resulted in the first meeting of the forming yudanshakai, in the spring of 1953. There were some differences of opinion regarding a name for the new organization. Some felt it should be called, using Japanese terminology, East Coast, while others felt the Japanese for Capitol was more appropriate. The name Capitol final won, thus Shufu Yudanshakai. The early officers of Shufu were: Mr. Hashimoto, president; Kenzo Uyeno, vice-president; Lanny Miyamoto, secretary-treasurer; and Donn Draeger, chairman of the board of examiners.

                Shufu eventually stretched from Maine to Florida , including the Panama Canal Zone . Those seeking examination or further study might have had to travel two days for such an activity. Takemori and Uyeno traveled a great deal during that early period; to North Carolina twice a year for promotional tournaments; to New England twice a yearly; and to Dixie states twice yearly. Early applicants for examinations were not very knowledgeable about judo. Many of those tested had learned judo from a book, owing to the small number of instructors on the East Cost. The candidates usually were designed to develop instructors, which the large area desperately needed. Terminology was very highly stressed.

                Shufu, unlike many of the other yusanshakais, did not have a large indigenous Japanese population from which to form the basis of the organization. Many of the judo people came from the military. Often, men recently home from military service overseas, would return to the U.S. from Japan as 1st- or 2nd-degree black belts.

                Among the instructors in the area were Dr. Koiwai, teaching in Philadelphia at a YMCA; Lanny Miyamoto in Baltimore; Ken Freeman and George Uchida in New York; and Kames Takemore, Bill Berndt, Kenzo Uyeno, and Donn Draeger in Washington. There was earlier named the Pentagon Judo Club, established a dojo outside of the Pentagon.

                The level of judo awareness and numbers of practicing judokas in the various areas of Shufu increased. It soon became practical for more localized judo organizations to exist. The first to develop a base sufficient to fun its own affairs was the Florida area. Next, New England formed its own yudanshakai, followed by the Dixie States , and Allegheny Mountain . As long as the local judo population has sufficient number and knowledge to administer judo in its area, the more efficient service of a local yudanshakia is preferred. This concepts has motivated the spilling of areas from Shufu’s original territory.

                Intercollegiate Judo    The first record of any U.S. collegiate judo participation was in the early 1930’s when Henry Stone, a young coach at the University of California , Berkeley sent a few students to participate in some tournaments held in San Francisco .

                In 1937 Emilio Bruno, a student, introduced judo as a sport to the physical education department at San Jose State College; later the judo program was taken over by another student, Yosh Uchida. Mr. Uchida took the first group of college judo competitors from San Jose to Southern California to participate in yudanshakai tournament. The beginning of sectional tournaments.

                World War II interrupted all collegiate judo. In 1946, Yosh Uchida returned to college and helped revive the judo program at San Jose State . Many of the students, who were World War II veterans, had been taught strictly self-defense in the service. Because fine technique was lacking among the judo participants, great force was used on opponents and small competitors were easily injured.

                In 1948 Henry Stone devised a weight system that he hoped would aid the growth and development of judo. For several years, the weight system was experimented with at San Jose State in the physical education classes and proved worthwhile. The original weight divisions were: 130, 150, 180 lbs, and unlimited. These divisions were adopted by the AAU, but have since been revised several times in an effort to keep up with changes in body size. The weight divisions adopted by the Olympic Judo Committee, and used in the Olympic Games in Tokyo in 1964, were 156, 176, heavyweight, and open.

                Most of the early college judo participation and development was carried out on the west coast at San Jose and U.C. Berkeley. Dual meets between the two schools were initiated in the early 1950s. Un 1953, the first collegiate judo championships were held at U.C. Berkeley, called the Pacific Coast Intercollegiate Judo Championships. Also in 1953, the first National AAU Judo Championships  were held in San Jose State . Lyle Hunt, a San Jose State senior, was the first grand champion of the National AAU Championships. Later in 1953, as a college student, Lyle represented the U.S. in several tournaments in Europe , along with John Osoko from Chicago . Yosh Uchida, from San Jose State , was coach. This was the first U.S. representation abroad in the sport. Judo was recognized as in intercollegiate sport at San Jose in 1954, but the growth of judo was definitely hampered over the years by a general lack of understanding and knowledge of the sport by athletic directors and physical education departments chairmen, who have been traditionally reluctant to accept new minor sports.

                In 1955 San Jose State hosted the first International All-Star Collegiate competitors. Haruo Imamura, who won the U.S. National AAU Grand Championships in 1960, was a member of that team. The tournament was the first all-college judo participation on an international scale between two countries, although sometime during the mid-1930s, a team from Keio University had participated in a yudanshakai tournament in southern California .

                Henry Stone, the great leader of judo, passed away suddenly in 1955 and judo floundered on the university level. A long-smouldering feud between the NCAA and the AAU flared up in 1960, and it became impossible for college teams to compete in AAU-sanctioned tournaments. On May 12, 1962 college leaders met and organized the National Collegiate Judo Association. In 1962 the first National Collegiate Judo Championships were held at the U.S. Air Force Academy, San Jose State , U.C. Berkeley, University of Minnesota , Mankato State College, and the Eastern Collegiate Judo Association. Since then many National Collegiate Judo Championships have been held in various colleges and universities across the country.

                In 1967, the National Collegiate Judo Association selected Howard Fish to represent the U.S. in the University Games held in Tokyo . George Uchisa, of U.S. Berkeley, was coach and manager. The only U.S. representative, Fish won a bronze medal in both the heavyweight and open divisions. Because of Fish’s outstanding performance, the NCJA was invited to send a team to Lisbon , Portugal , in 1968. The U.S. sent Mike Ogata, Doug Graham, Roy Sukimoto, Gary Martin, and Yosh Uchida as coach. Doug Graham won a silver medal in the 205 lb division. These two U.S. collegiate judoists lost only to collegiate competitors from Japan .

                In 1972 the University Games were held in London . Team members included David Lond, John Reed, Tom Cullen, Louis Gonzalez, Tom Masterson, and Tom Tigg. In Soo Hwang, From Yale University, severed as coach-manager. Tigg won the silver medal in the 139 lb division.

                For all the University Game competition, financial help was received from the USJF. Without this national governing body, U.S. judo would have had a far greater struggle; and certainly, without its financial aid, competitors would never have been able to compete internationally. (Yosh Uchida)

                The Armed Forces  The organized judo program in the U.S. Armed Forces began in the Air Force in 1950 when Gen. Curtis E. LeMay, then commander-in-chief of the Strategic Air Command, USAF, directed the setting up of a model physical conditioning unit at Offutt AFB, Neb. In 1951 similar conditioning units were set up at other SAC bases. Gen. LeMay appointed Emilio (“Mel”) Bruno, a former National AAU Wrestling Champion and 5th-degree in judo, to direct the program. At this time, civilian judo instructors staffed six SAC bases; that rest had physical conditioning units, but no judo instructors. In direct charge of the judo and conditioning program for SAC was Gen. Tomas Power, laters honorary chairman of the National AAU Judo Committee.

                Because of an obvious deficiency of instructors, Power sent two classes of airmen (24 men) to the Kodokan Institute in Tokyo in 1952 for several weeks training. This was the first such training for any Armed Forces group.

                Air Force judo received asses impetus in 1953 when ten experts from Japan, six in judo, three in karate, and one in aikido, gave demonstrations at over 70 Air Force Bases over a three-month period. The purpose of this tour was to train judo instructors and combat crews and to give exhibitions on and off base. Many civilian judo clubs had their first visit from high-ranking judo teachers as a result of this tour. One of the highlights of the tour was a demonstration at the White House on July 22. The year 1953, was also marked by the first National AAU Judo tournament held at San Jose State College. A SAC team participated in these first Nationals.

                In 1954, the first SAC Judo Tournament was held at Offutt AFB; the Grand Champion was Airman Morris Curtis. Also in 1954, 26 SAC Air Police went to the Kodokan to study judo for ten weeks. The curriculum consisted of police tactics, aikido, karate, and of course, judo.

                Two SAC judoists advanced to the last few rounds in the 1954 AAU National Championships at Kezar Stadium, San Francisco . The 12-man SAC team won 29 rounds and lost 19 but was unable to place a man. Staff Sgt. Ed Maley, SAC, member of the 1955 SAC Judo Team, placed in the 1955 AAU National Championships-third in the 150-lb division. The Air Research and Development Command, USAD (ARDC), also entered a team in 1955, after only a year of competition, and A/1C Vern Raab won an unofficial fourth place in the heavyweight division.

                The year 1954 also brought 10-man AAU-Air Force teams visits to six Japanese cities to compete in 16 contests. Five members of the team were Air Force, and the most successful member for the team was to heard from many times in the future. This man Staff Sgt, George Harris, won all of his 19 contests.

                Seventy men from SAC and ARDC Judo Association was formed and received recognition from the Kodokan in 1956. Emilio Bruno was elected president, and the association was permitted to grant judo rank. This was the first and only Armed Forces judo association to be so recognized by the Kodokan. SAC and ARDC sent 280 Air Policemen for four-week classes at the Kodokan during 1956.

                Again in 1956, the Air Force placed one man in the national AAU Judo Tournament at Seattle . Returning from his successful Japanese tour, George Harris, then a 2nd dan, placed third in the heavyweight division.

                In 1957, after only five years in judo Staff Sgt. George Harris won the Grand Championship in the National AAU Judo Championships in Hawaii . Harris was first in the heavyweight division; sweeping the division with him were A/1C Lenwood Williams in second place and A/2C Ed Mede, third. The Air Force also took the National 5-man Team Championship for the first time.

                Winners of the SAC and ARDC tournaments represented the Air Force in the AAU tournaments on April 13 and 14 in Chicago . Twelve Air Force judoists participated, with George Harris successfully defending his Grand Championship, and the Air Force team captured the National 5-Man Team Championship for the second year in a row. Due to the great power of southern California in the lower weight divisions, the Air Force was unable to win the overall team championships.

                The SAC Judo Team, consisting of L. Williams, E. Mede, G. Harris. J. Reid, R. Moxley, and M. O’Connor (trainer) was designated as the U.S. Pan- American Judo Team in 1958. Team members won first and fourth in the 3rd dan category (Harris and Williams), third in the 2nd dan(Reid), and second in the 1st dan (Mede). In the fall of 1958, George Harris and Ed Mede represented the U.S. in the 2nd World Tournament, held in Tokyo . Harris’s three wins before losing to Sone, a Japanese 5th degree, placed him in a tie for fifth place along with the four other defeated quarter finalists. As a result of this fine record, George Harris was promoted to 4th degree in judo, the first Armed Forces man to be so honored. (Lt. Agulla Gibbs Dibrell)

                The Governance of U.S. Judo  The development of a national governing body for U.S. judo started in 1952, through the efforts of Dr. Henry A. Stone, Maj. Draeger, and others. At the time there was no national authority to give guidance to local judo communities and insure the logical and orderly development of judo as a sport. The Amateur Judo Association was a first attempt at establishing a national governing structure. Dr. Stone served as the first president. Authority to grant the most coveted Kodokan judo rank was assumed by the national organization. High ranking individuals were no longer permitted to grant promotions independently. The growth of local judo  organizations was encouraged, promotion privileges were granted to yudanshakais, and national communications avenue was opened.

                Until the early 1960’s, judo in the U.S. had grown in a haphazard, somewhat informal fashion. Most leaders tended to be purists, preferring the security and recognition offered by their local influence. Judo was structured strictly on rank, and those without the proper credentials were considered outsiders. It was judo rank, that coveted mantle of recognition, which for so many years retarded the formation of a strong, responsive national organization. As judo spread across the nation, false claims to rank and promotions were commonplace, and the existing organization was powerless to take action. Those leaders who had feared a national organization and popularization of judo in time became the strongest voices for change.

                The national organization was renamed the Judo Black Belt Federation. President Yosh Uchida (1960-61) delegated the task of laying the groundwork for reorganization to Donald Pohl, a relatively unknown 1st dan from Detroit . Pohl, the executive secretary of the Detroit Judo Club (then the nation’s largest non-profit club), had effected a pilot program for a national rank system.

                During the brief tenure of President Renyo Uyeno (before his untimely death at the age of 39 on June 1, 1963), the Judo Black Belt Federation launched a national rank registration procedure, which was coupled with a detailed rank identification system. This was the basis for future financial stability of the organization. The Judo Black Belt Federation also adopted a comprehensive system and published the Judo Bulletin.

                Although the early leaders of the Judo Black Belt Federation (then known as the Amateur Judo Association), had actively sought out the Amateur Athletic Union and had been granted the right to represent U.S. judo on the international level, little attention or significance was attached to this accommodation until early in the 1960s when amateurism and sanctions began to become important. As the Judo Black Belt Federation expanded (18 yudanshakais in 1963) and tournaments were more widely attended, the importance and presence of the AAU began to be noticed. The Judo Black Belt Federation and Amateur Athletic Union succeeded in maintaining an atmosphere of cooperation and mutual assistance during the remainder of the decade.

                In 1963 the Judo Black Belt Federation joined the Amateur Athletic Union in producing the first of what were to be five joint handbooks (two published by Phil Porter and three by Don Pohl). Sales of the books, mostly through the Federation, exceeded 1000,000 copies. All proceeds were given to the Amateur Athletic Union Judo Committee to help finance its operation. When proceeds from the sale of handbooks failed to provide the necessary funding for the expanding program, the Judo Black Belt Federation authorized grants in excess of $75,000 to the Amateur Athletic Union to help finance international competition and related programs.

                In 1964 and 1966, Hiro Fujimoto of Detroit was elected president of the Federation and Dr. Eichi Koiwai of Philadelphia , vice-president. Dr. Koiwai assumed the presidency at the 1968 election, holding office for several terms. During the uncertain years of the 1960s the Federation changed its name to the U.S. Judo Federation, published a book of procedures, rewrote the judo contest rules, adopted a comprehensive promotion procedure, drafted a new referees’ certification procedure, and expanded to 25 yudanshakais.

                Judo soon grew to the third largest sport in the array of Amateur Athletic Union activities. What were first considered minor contentions between the Union and the Federation soon grew to open disagreement over philosophy, priorities, and control. Amateurism became a none of contention, considered by many a stumbling block in the way of development. Amateur Athletic Union advocates, on the other hand, questioned the unchallenged control of rank exercised by the U.S. Judo Federation.

                In 1969 the differences and positions that had been fought out at the meetings finally culminated in one of the yudanshakais (the Armed Forces Judo Association) withdrawing from the U.S. Judo Federation to start a rival nation organization. The Armed Forces judo Association adopted a name similar to that of the parent organization, the U.S. Judo Association. The association closely aligned itself with the philosophy and position of the Amateur Athletic Union. (Dennis Helm)

     

     

    KARATE          

              Kung-fu arrived in the U.S. with the first Chinese immigrants in the mid-19th century, but the growth of karate is largely owed to contact between American servicemen and Japanese experts during the post-World War II occupation of Japan and Okinawa .

                Kung-fu: the Forerunner of Karate  King-fu was a part of the Chinese lifestyle in the labor camps and mining towns that grew up following the gold rush of 1848. With the importation of large numbers of Chinese laborers to work on the Central Pacific Railroad, beginning in 1963, the swelling Chinese communities isolated themselves within their own, transplanted culture. Conflicts over control of gambling, prostitution, and the like arose; rival secret societies fought each other in the notorious “Tong Wars,” which lasted until the 1930s. The troops in these internecine wars were “hatchetmen,” so-called because they used mean cleavers and hatchets as weapons. They were skilled also in kung-fu, in the art of “pin-bowing,” and in hurling lethal, razor-edged coins. Hatchetmen in the U.S handed down, form one generation to the next, the secret and sinister practice of kung-fu, the forebearer of modern karate.

                Until roughly two decades after World War II, kung-fu was not available to non-Chinese on the U.S. mainland. The early Japanese and Okinawan communities in the U.S. were isolated, introverted, and intensely secretive about their ethnic arts and crafts. Judo was the only exception; Jigoro Kano, the founder of judo, encouraged its spread. According to martial arts scholar Donn F. Draeger, Kano asked that “judo training be undertaken not only in the dojo but also outside it, and so make its physical aspects the focus of human endeavor for the progress and development of man.” The other martial arts had no such original intention.

                The first club to practice kung-fu in organized classes with instructors from Chinese provinces was a branch of the Chinese Physical Culture Association, founded in Honolulu in 1922. This association promoted physical culture among the islands’ Chinese communities, but kung-fu remained unavailable to non-orientals until 1957, when Tinn Chan Lee, a t’ai-chi-ch’uan specialist, became the first Chinese sifu to open his teaching to the general public.

                In 1964 the closely-guarded doors of kung-fu finally opened in the U.S. mainland. Art Y. Wong of Los Angeles , born in China , broke the traditional kung-fu “color line” by accepting students of all races at jos Wah Que Studio in Los Angeles ’s old Chinatown . Also in 1964 the movie idol Bruce Lee and his one-time partner, James Yimm Lee, began accepting non-Orientals at Lee’s kwoon in Oakland , Calif. In fact, notorious John Keehan, a.k.a. “Count Dante,” claimed to have trained there as early as 1962.

                Teachers like New York ’s Alan Lee, Ark Y. Wong, and T.Y. Wong popularized Shao-lin. Choy-Li-Fut and t’ai-chi-ch’uan quickly became public and, soon after the various branches of northern and southern Shao-lin kung-fu.

                In northern California , sifus Kwong and Brendan Lai helped establish the praying mantis system. Y.C. Wong promoted the hung gar and tiger crane systems; Kuo-Lien-Ying promoted t’ai-chi; George Long, the white crane; and Lau Bun and the Luk Mo Studio, Marshal Ho, Started the National T’ai-Chi-Ch’uan Association in the early 1960s, opening up instruction in this “soft style” of kung-fu to Caucasians.

                Throughout the U.S. kung-fu spread, especially during the Bruce Lee era, when so-called Eastern Westerns dominated American and international movie screens. Even so, the majority of kung-fu styles and teachers still remain hidden.

                Many of the first karate students were street fighters. Few of these rough types possessed, however, the discipline necessary to remain with the art and learn it thoroughly. The small number who did found their original attitudes startlingly transformed. Today, karate classes are predominantly composed of businesspersons, professionals, skilled workers, and students-a cross section of American society.

                Karate Comes to Hawaii   In Hawaii , a great cultural crossroads, karate secured a ffoothold long before its emergence on the mainland. Although practiced within the Okinawan community, no wider audience had seen karate in Hawaii until 1927, when Kentsu Yabu, a famous Okinawan master, introduced Shuri-te in a public demonstration at the Nuuana YMCA in Honolulu .

                A few “naichi” Japanese(i.e., Japanese from one of the four main islands of Hawaii ) who observed the YMCA demonstration adjudged karate a strong fighting art, possibly even stronger than their judo. Interest in karate by non-Okinawans flourished thereafter. Yabu’s opean teachings also brought together interested groups of Okinawans for practice and recreation, something the rivalries of Naha , Shuri, and Tomari had prevented on Okinawa .

                In 1932 Choki Motobu, a legendary, eccentric Okinawan karate fighter, was denied entry to Hawaii when a group of Okinawan promoters living in Hawaii tried to import him for a public match against well-known Island fighters. In 1933 Zuiho Mutsu and Kamesuke Higaonna were allowed into Hawaii with the understanding that they would teach and lecture but not compete in the boxing ring. Both refused to engage in public matches and prepared to depart immediately. Tomas Miyashiro, who had studied with Yabu in 1927, convinced other karate enthusiasts to approach the pair collectively and urge that they remain in Hawaii to teach their art. They agreed and, after great initial success at the Asahi Photo Studio,  the site of their classes, the Izumo Taishi Shinto Mission.

                The club formed from these classes, the Hawaii Karate Seinin Kai (Hawaii Young People’s Karate Club, subsequently staged a public karate demonstration at the Honolulu Civic Auditorium. A number of Caucasian spectators in attendance, mostly members of the First Methodist Church , became interested in learning karate. Through their efforts, the first known Caucasian group in the Westen world to study openly and to sponsor karate activities was formed in 1933. shortly thereafter, both Mutsu and Higonna departed for Japan , where they had been teaching previously.

                In May 1934 Chinei Kenjo, editor of the Okinawan newspaper Yoen Fihn Sha, invited grandmaster Chojun Miyagi, the founder of goju-ryu karate, to Hawaii . Miyagi lectured and taught to popularize Okinawan goju-ryu karate-do, staying almost a year and returning to Okinawa in Feb. 1935.

                The spread of kempo to the Islands is largely owed to Dr. James Mitose, a Japanese-American born in Hawaii in 1916. At age five he was sent to Kyushu , Japan , for schooling in his ancestral art of self-defense, called “kosho-ryu kempo,” said to be based directly on Shao-lin kung-fu. Mitose retruned to Hawaii in 1936. in 1942 he organized the Official Self-Defense Club at the Beretania Mission in Honolulu . This club continued under his personal leadership until 1953, when it was assigned to Tomas Young, one of his chief students. Only five of his students- Young, William K.S. Chow, Pauls Yamaguchi, Arthur Keawe, and Edward Lowe-attained the rank of black belt. But the kempo arts flourished in Hawaii and later on the west coast of the mainland, where three of Mitose’s protégés formed clubs of their own. In 1953 before going to the mainland, Mitose wrote What is Self-Defense, reprinted by his students in 1980.

                Of Mitose’s students, perhaps Chow played the most significant role in the evolution of the American marital arts. Although he had learned kosho-ryu kempo under Mitose, Chow was the first to teach what he called kenpo(first law) karate. From 1949 Chow trained a great number of students to the rank of black belt, including Adriano Emperado, Ralph Castro, Bobby Lowe, John Leone, and Paul Pung. By far the most famous of Chow’s students is Ed Parker, a leading pioneer in the American karate movement.

                Adriano “Sonny” Emperado was a co-founder in 1947 of the kajukenbo system, former by five experts: Walter Choo (karate), Joseph Holke (judo), Frank Ordonez (jujutsu), Emperado (kenpo), and Clarence Chang (Chinese boxing). The name is an acronm derived from the five disciplines of its founders: ka from karate, ju from judo and jujutsu, ken from kenpo, and bo from Chinese boxing. Today, this style is one of the most prominent in Hawaii . In 1950 Emperado founded Hawaii ’s first and largest chain of karate schools, the Kajukenbo Self-Defense Institute, Inc., in which he still holds the office of vice-president. Probably Emperado’s most famous student Al Dacascos, founder of the won hop kuen do system.

                In 1954 Japan ’s colorful Mas Oyama visited Hawaii for a month to assist Bobby Lowe, a Chinese-American, in setting up the first overseas branch of Oyama’s kyokushinkai style.

                Karate Emerges on the Mainland  The first karate school on the U.S. mainland was established by a former sailor, Robert Trias, who began teaching karate in Phoenix in 1946. In 1942, while stationed in the Pacific, Trais trained with Tong Gee Hsing, a teacher of hsing-i and Shuri tode ryu, and a nephew, according to Trais, of Okinawa ’s Choki motobu. The word “karate” was not then in universal use; Shuri tode ryu was a style of Okinawan shorei-ryu karate.

                Upon his discharge in 1946, Trais retruned to the U.S. and established his private, 14-foot-square dojo. He charged a low annual fee for instruction in judo or karate for two to three hours daily, seven days a week. Until the late 1970s when John Corcoran investigated the subject, little acknowledgement was give Trais as the actual founder of karate in America . Later, in 1948, Trais formed of the United States Karate Association (USJA), the first karate organization on the mainland.

                From Mar. to Nov. 1952 Mas Oyama of Japan tourned 32 states by invitation of the U.S. Professional Wrestling Association-officials famous challenge matches with professional wrestlers and boxers, all of whom he is said to have defeated. Oyama’s exhibition bouts and demonstrations, including breaking of boards, bricks, and stones, received great public attention, including articles in the New York Times, which covered his bout with a pro boxer at Madison Square Garden .

                In 1951 Emilio Bruno, judo teacher, pioneer, and administrator, had been named supervisor of judo and combative measures for the Strategic Air Command(SAC), Bruno formulated a new approach karate into a systematic unarmed combat technique. To implement his idea, he suggested a pilot program to Gen. Curtis LeMay, then commander of the U.S. Air Force and one of Bruno’s judo students. The program had a significant effect on the subsequent propagation of karate in the U.S.

                With Gen. LeMay’s endorsement and SAC’s sponsorship, Bruno initiated eight-week training programs for Air Force instructors at the Kodokan, judo’s mecca, in Japan . Kodokan officials contacted the Japan Karate Association(JKA) to manage the karate instruction, and that organization selected Higetaka Nishiyama as one of the coaches. Financially backed and supported by SAC, Bruno invited famous four-month 1953 tour of every SAC base in the U.S. and Cuba . The touring group included seven judoka and three karate dignitaries: Nishiyama, Toshio Kamata, and the late Isao Obata, a JKA co-founder and senior disciple of Gichin Funakoshi.

                The 1953 SCA tour was responsible for opening up communication between Japan and the U.S. , accounting for the migration of dozens of Japanese karate instructors to America . It also influenced other U.S. military branches and departments to adopt similar martial arts programs.

                In 1954 the JKA established its first, small headquarters in Tokyo , and, with the establishment of a central dojo, Nishiyama was elected chief of the JKA instruction department. He conceived a plan to train large numbers of karate. His plan, once put into operation, accounted for the migration, beginning in 1955, of many instructors who pioneered Shotokan karate wherever they settled. Nishiyama himself assumed responsibility for furthering karate in the U.S.

                In 1954 Ed Parker, black belt kenpo student of William Chow, began teaching a karate course at Brigham Young University . Hawaiian-born Parker, who had arrived on the mainland in 1951, limited instruction to Americans attending the university. His evening classes enrolled as many as 72 students; city police, state highway patrolmen, fish and game wardens, and sheriffs’ deputies. With some of his students, Parker formed an exhibition team, and through various chambers of commerce, he and his group performed in several Utah cities.

                William Dometrich, who began his karate training in Japan in 1951, returned in Dec, 1954, settling in Kentucky . A student of Dr. Tsuyoshi Chitose, the founder of Chito-ryu karate, Dometrich was the first to teach this system in America . He formed the U.S. Chito-Kai in 1967.

                Denver ’s Frank Goody, Jr., who had as early as 1924 started judo lessons with his father, is the first instructor to have taught karate in the Rocky Mountain region. Jack Farr, in compiling the history of martial arts in Colorado , reported that between 1945 and 1951, Goody promoted yawara tournaments within his judo school in Denver . While Goody’s background is the subject of much confusion, his contribution to karate school in Boulder , Colo. , and is credited with teaching nearly all the other karate pioneers in the Colorado area.

                Dewey Deavers, a jujutsu and karate instructor who reportedly traveled in China and Japan in the 1920s, surfaced around 1954 in Pittsburgh . By then he had already trained two students to the rank of black belt: Warren Siciliano and Larry Williams. Williams in that year introduced karate to a promising student, Glenn Premru, who in the late 1960s and early 1970s, became a noted performer and national kata champion.

                In 1957 Cecil Patterson, a wado-ryu black belt, opened a private club in Sevierville , Tenn. In 1962 he opened his first commercial school in Nashville , which, by the mid-1970s, expanded to as many as 17 dojo across Tennessee . Patterson also began the Eastern U.S. Wado-Kai Federation.

                Okinawa kempo master Zempo (atsu) Shimabuku founded the first known karate dojo in Philadelphia in 1957.

                In 1958, Roger Warren, who studied in the Orient, stated teaching karate in Chicago and Peoria . Charles Gruzanski (d. 1973) also opened a marital arts school in Chicago in the same year. Gruzanski, who spent many years in Japan , was a black belt in a number of different arts and was one of the few Caucasian experts in masaki-ryu-manriki-gusari, a viscous chain and sickle weapon.

                In the mid-1950s Ed Kaloudis traveled to Japan to improve his judo knowledge. While there he studied koei-kan karate from Eizo Onishi. In 1958 Kaloudis moved to New York where he began to teach at NYU and also to members of the New York City Police Department. He later moved in New Jersey and opened up schools in Clifton and Caldwell . Today he oversees a large number of affiliated schools.

                Robert Fusaro, who trained under Nishiyama in Japan , was the first man to teach karate in Minnesota . He began teaching his shotokan style in 1958 in Minneapolis and founded the Midewest Karate Association. Today he runs a number of schools in Minnesota .

                In 1958 George Mattson was discharged from the U.S. Army. He returned home to Boston where he became the first Uechi-ryu instructor in America , as well as the first karate pioneer in the New England region. Mattson became a leader of karate on the Eastern Seaboard sponsoring the first karate tournament in New Enland in 1961. Mattson also wrote one of the first books on karate, The Way of Karate, published in 1963.

                In 1958 in Portland , Oreg., Moon Yo Woo began teaching kong su an obscure Koren style of karate.

                In 1958-59 Harry Smith, a students of Don Nagle, opened the first-known karate school in western Pennsylvania . He trained several students including Joe Penneywell, Harry Ackland and James Morabeto.

                Around this time Walter Mazak and Joe Hedderman opened a dojo in Pittsburgh , Hedderman was a student of Chito-stylist William Dometrich.

                In 1959 Philip Koeppel was discharged from the Navy. He has studied karate in Japan with Richard Kim and Kajukenbo with Adriano Emperado in Hawaii . In 1960 he joined the USKA and studied under Robert Trias. In 1963 he helped promote the 1st World Karate Championships in Chicago and had since built a strong chain of karate studios throughout the Midwest .

                In 1959 Natamoro Naikima opened a school in Philadelphia teaching shorin-ryu.

                Peter Urban, one of the founders of karate on the East Coast, opened his first goju-ryu karate school in Union City , New Jersey , in Sept. 1959. Urban had studied in Japan with Richard Kim and later became a top student of Gogen “The Cat” Yamaguchi.

                In 1960, Urban moved to New York City and taught karate at the Judo Twins (Bernie and Bob Lepkofker) and later established his own dojo, the famous “Chinatown Dojo.” He also broke away from the goju-kai organization and formed his own, which he called USA Goju. Urban probably trained more top black belts than anyone on the East Coast; among them were: Chuck Merriman, Al Gotay, William Louis, Frank Ruiz, John Kuhl, Lou Angel, Thomas Boddie, Joe Lopez, Joe Hess, Bill Liquori, Aaron Banks, Ron Van Cleif, Susan Murdock, Owen Watson, and Rick Pascetta.

                Dr. Maung Gyi, a master of Burmese bando, founded the American Bando Association in Washington , D.C. , in 1960. This was the first Asian boxing association in the U.S.

                Ron Duncan, a karate student of Don Nagle, began teaching in Brookly in 1959. Besides karate, he taught jujutsu as well as weaponry.

                Another dojo, the Tong Dojo, also opened in Brooklyn in 1959. Founded by George Cofield , who got his black belt from Maynard Minor (one of the first shotokan instructors in the U.S. affiliated with the JKA), Cofield taught such well-known students as Tomas LaPuppet, Alex Sternberg, and Hawk Frazier. LaPuppet went on to become one of America ’s premier tournament fighters of the 1960s, and is considered one of the greatest championships ever to emerge from New York City .

                During this same period, Chris DeBais was teaching karate at the Judo Twins. He later went on to train with Peter Urban.

                The New York Karate Club was founded in 1959 by Hiroshi Orita. Orita, a renukan stylist, later switched to shotokan in 1961 and affiliated himself with Philadelphian Teruyuki Okazaki .

                Also in 1959, Wallace Reumann began teaching karate at his judo club in Newark , N.J. When he departed a few years later, his senior student, James Cheatham, took over the instruction. Cheatham trained the controversial Karriem Allah who fought Jeff Smith in a full-contact bout, which was seen worldwide as part of the Ail/Frazier “Thrilla in Manilla” in 1975.

                 Don Nagle moved to New Jersey in 1959 and with his partner Joe Bucholtz opened a school in Jersey City .

                Upon his discharge from the U.S. Marines, Harold Long began teaching isshinryu in eastern Tennessee . In 1962 he opened his fist dojo in Knoxvill, one of the earliest karate schools in the South.

                Finally in 1959, Mas Oyama visited the U.S. for the second time, opening schools across the country. His California affiliate was Don Buck, a rugged individual who generated much attention to Oyama’s style over the years.

                Dan Ivan, who was one of the first postwar Americans to study at the Kodokan, settled in southern California in 1956 and opened a karate school in Orange County . A former C.I.D. agent in Japan , Ivan made periodic trips back to the Orient. In 1963 he saw a karate and weapons demonstration by Fumio Demura; impressed, he brought Demura to the U.S. in 1965 to help him teach in his growing chain of schools. In the ensuring years the two would become inseparable partners and would establish more than 20 schools teaching Shito-ryu karate. In addition, Demura became one of the most sought after performers-demonstrating his karate and weaponry at Japanese Village , Sea World, and Las Vegas ’ Hilton Hotel.

                The first person to introduce Okinawan goju-ryu karate to the U.S. was Anthony Mirakian, who founded the Okinawan Karate-do Academy in Watertwon , Mass. , in 1960. A quite individual who learned his karate in Okinawa , Mirakian is one of the most knowledgeable instructors to teach in the U.S. He has, over the years, kept a low profile in American karate community but was persuaded to make major contributions to this encyclopedia.

                Goju-ryu instructor Charles Iverson visited Robert Trais in 1960 and exchange numerous katas with Trais. This led to the latter’s formation of his shorei-goju-ryu style, which became a common style in the USKA.

                New York saw the arrival of Henry Cho in 1960. Cho was the first to introduce tae kwon do in the eastern U.S. Cho’s ability, as well as his keen business sense, made him an instant success, and even today he runs one of the largest schools in Manhattan .

                After becoming isshin-ryu founder Tatsuo Shimabuku’s number 1 student, Steven Armstrong-a former Marine-settled in Seattle , Wash. In 1960. Armstrong taught karate out of his garage for a while and later opened a full-time dojo, which by the 1970s expanded into a chain of nine schools throughout the Pacific Northwest .

                Other early pioneers of the region included Bill Ruder, Ernest Brinekee, Morris Menk, Bob Hill, Don Williams, and Bill Weaver.

                Another principal force in the area at the time was Bruce Terrill of Portland , Oreg. Behinning in 1960, Terrill expanded his one school into a chain of twenty affiliated studios.

                Terrill, a founder of his own style of wu ying tao, trained nationally ranked Dan Anderson and Pauline Short, one of the first female back belts in the U.S. Short opened a school exclusively for the instruction of women, one of the first in the U.S.

                Virgil Adams was the first to teach karate in the state of Kansas , in 1960. He operated out of Wichita .

                Ralph Lindquist, an isshin-ryu stylist, opened a school in 1960 in New Cumberland, Pa.

                In Michigan , Al Horton began teaching his uechi-ryu in Kalamazoo in 1960. Other early pioneers included J. Kim in Lansing ; Ernest Leib in Mushegon; David Praim in Mt. Clemens (1962), who taught fighters Everett Eddy and Johnny Lee; and Paul and Larry Malo from Detroit who taught Shito-ryu and operated a number of multi-million-dollar karate centers.

                As the decade closed, karate was gaining appeal. While no single member of the 1950-60 group of pioneers appears to have been greatly successful, the fact that so many individuals were operating schools, whose enrollments ere increasing steadily, proved this new form of self-defense was attractive to the general public. In this decade the foundation was laid for the circulation of styles, instructors, and masters that would in the 1960s see the art of karate surpass judo in numbers of active practitioners.

                The 1960s also marked the beginning of an extensive immigration of Korean tae kwon do instructors. After Jhoon Rhee, who introduced tae kwon do in the U.S. in 1956, the first wave included; S. Henry Cho, Richard Chun, and Duk Sung Son in New York; D.S. Kim in Georgia; J Kim and Sang Kyu Shim in Michigan; Mahn Suh Park in Pensylvania; Haeng Ung Lee in Omaha; Ki Whang Kim in Maryland; and Jack Hwang in Oklahoma. In all, it is estimated that more than 25 masters during the early and mid-1960s settled in the U.S. The Vietnam War gave this native Korean art visibility. Pictures of Korean instructors training American GIs in hand-to-hand combat appeared in Time and Newsweek. While these legitimate instructors were encouraged to emigrate to the U.S. , the teaching credential itself was to create an intense controversy in American karate. As more and more Korean tae kwon do instructors and masters arrived in the U.S. , it was clearly unlikely that all of them could have taught American military personnel. Yet this claim, coupled with insupportable claims to unreasonably advanced degree of black belt rank-usually no less than 7th dan-first caused suspicion, then rebellion by an “All Korean Champion,” was another of the tae kwon do credentials. It is improbable that there were more than a few dozen All Korean Champions, since tae kwon do embraced no organized competitions until the 1960s- when more than 800 master instructors were teaching tae kwon do in the U.S. The degree and intensity of business competition was undoubtedly the motive for these exorbitant claims. At any rate, potential martial arts students now had a choice of where and with whom to study. By the early 1970s more than 1,200 tae kwon do instructors were reportedly teaching in the U.S.

                Such phenomenal growth placed increasing demands of the tae kwon do community as a whole, and the need for a central organization quickly became apparent. In the U.S. , as in Korea , the cause of organization was initially obstructed by affiliations of master instructors to parent schools and associations in Korea .

                Meanwhile, within the Japanese karate community, Tsutomu Ohshima, who was still traveling, arranged in 1961 for Hidetaka Nishiyama to come to California to preside over his Los Angeles headquarters. Nishiyama arrived in July and within four months struck out on his own to form the All America Karate Federation (AAKF), a branch of the powerful Japan Karate Association (JKA). Today, the AAKF is one of the largest karate organizations in the U.S. This development spawned a bitter political rivalry between Ohshima and Nishiyama, which continues under the surface of the international amateur karate movement. Both pioneers, however, are consummate karate masters. Each is responsible for having firmly planted Shotokan karate in the U.S. , and for having trained numerous disciples of high technical skill.

                Richard Kim, sensei to such American karate pioneers as Peter Urban, Phil Koeppel, and Canada ’s Benny Allen, came to America from Japan in 1961 and began teaching at the Chinese YMCA in San Francisco Calif. Later Kim became the foremost karate historian residing in the U.S.

                Top JKA instructor Teruyuki Okazaki arrived in the U.S. in May 1961 and began teaching Shotokan karate in west Philadelphia . In Sept. 1962 he formed the East Coast Karate Association, a branch of the AAKF. Today he oversees the 50,000-member International Shotokan Karate Federation.

                Also in Philadelphia that year, Mahn Suh Park established his first tae kwon do dojang, which, like Okazaki ’s dojo, is still in operation today.

                It was around 1961 that John Keehan, alias “Count Dante,” began teaching karate in the Midwest from his base dojo in Chicago, III. Keehan joined the USKA in 1961, at age 22, and was instrumental in helping Trais firmly entrech the USKA in the Midwest , the association’s strongest territory. He taught numerous students all the way to black belt, who opened their own schools and turned out respected students.

                On the night of April 23, 1970, he took part in the infamous “dojo war” that ended in the brutal stabbing death of his friend and students, Jim Koncevic, at the Green Dragon’s Black Cobra training hall in Chicago. The tragedy left a profound mark on Keehan until his death from bleeding ulcers in 1975.

                An early pioneer of karate in the South was John Pachivas, who became the first karate instructor in Miami Beach area in 1961. Pachivas reportedly has been active in the marital arts since the mid-1940s, and holds degrees in judo, jujutsu, and goju-ryu karate.

                In Jan. 1961 George Pesare introduced kenpo karate to Rhode Island in Providence . Preceded only by Ted Olsen, Pesare would in time become the foremost instructor in his state and an influential leader in the northeastern U.S.

                One of the first New York instructors to be affiliated with Mas Oyama was Augustin DeMello, who opened the New York Kyokushinkai karate club in Greenwich Village in 1961. he later broke away from Oyama and quit teaching.

                Daeshik Kim, a judo and tae kwon do instructor, came to Atlanta , Ga. , in 1961 where he began teaching tae kwon do in the physical education department of Georgia State College.

                Among Kim’s students were Joe Corley, Chris McLoughlin, “Atlas” Jesses King, Larry McClure, and Dick Lane . In 1966, Kim sold his Institute of Self-Defense , a non-campus club, to McLoughlin and Corley.

                Corley and McLoughlin established several branch schools over the years, all in and around Atlanta , and they jointly produced the first Battle of Atlanta in 1970. Later, the tournament would become one of the most prestigious in American sport karate.

                Individually, Corley would become one of the most influential voices in Southern karate by spearheading the formation of the Southeast Karate Association (SEKA). In the 1970s, he would invest most of his time and money in the full-contact karate movement.

                McLoughlin would make his mark as one of the first professional martial arts journalists who also was a black belt.

                In Los Angeles , Mito Uyehara, an aikido practitioner, and his brother, Jim, published the inaugural issue of Black Belt Magazine in 1961. the first issue was in digest from, with articles on judo, karate, aikido, and kendo. Though it suffered lean years, the publication became one of the most successful in its field. In the late 1960s, the brothers dissolved their partnership, Jim taking with him the merchandise trade-which later developed into Marital Arts Supplies- and Mito retaining ownership of the magazine. The publication struggled until Mito launched a line of paperback textbooks, which eventually brought large profits. This, coupled with shred capitalization on the marital arts movie trend of early 1970s, made Mito Uyehara one of the few millionaires of the martial arts business.

                Out of the Uyehara publishing empire have come some 60 textbooks, the monthly, Karate Illustrated (since 1969), and the monthly Fighting Stars (since 1973). In 1975 Mito reduced his active involvement and moved to Hawaii .

                In 1961 New York ’s John Kuhl wrote, edited, posed for, and published a karate manual/magazine called Combat Karate. Kuhl stated his karate training in Montreal in 1957 under Ari Anastasiata. After moving to New York City in 1970, he continued his training with Peter Urban and Gosei Yamaguchi, son a Gogen, the goju-ryu teacher. Two of Kuhl’s early students were Aaron Banks and Al Weiss. Kuhl and Weiss co-produced in 1962 a manual entitled Karate, the most popular instruction book at its price. Its success prompted the 1968 publishing of Official Karate Magazine, a bi-monthly. It soon became a monthly, with international distribution. The magazine’s outlook is radical compared to the conservative Black Belt. It was an animated voice in the movement toward an Americanized form of karate. And Weiss, its editor, had been recognized for writing the most potent monthly editorials in his field.

                Bob Yarnall, a shorin-ryu instructor, opened his first dojo in 1962 in St. Louis , Mo. , where he has remained to this day. A student of James Wax, Yarnall has instructed such pioneers as Jim Harrison, Parker Shelton, and Bill March, who was a successful competitor in the European karate circuit. Yarnall is probably the best-known exponent of Matsubayashi-ryu in the U.S. and had been a long itme member of Trais’ USKA. His wife, Joyce, assists her husband in the operation of his schools, and is a photographer whose collection includes many historic pictures of the sport and its early champions.

                Jhoon Rhee opened his first school in Washington , D.C. , in 1962, and within three months had amassed more than 100 students. This, then, became the basis of the Jhoon Rhee empire, which later blossomed into one of the largest privately-owned marital arts enterprises in the world today.

                The Jhoon Rhee Institute have developed many of the most accomplished karate competitors in American karate. Some notable students are: Larry Carnahan, Michael Coles, Gordon Franks, Jeff Smith, Jose Jones, Wayne Van Buren, John and Pat Worley, Otis Hooper, John Chung, and Rodney Batiste.

                Rhee would also being teaching tae kwon do to distinguished members of the U.S. government hierarchy, senators and congressmen among them. Through his endeavors, Rhee would become a genuine celebrity to the D.C. general public.

                Allen Steen, Rhee’s student, established the first school of his eventual empire in 1962 in Dallas , Tex. Only Johnny Nash preceded him by a few months. No one, however, would dominate the Southwest territory as would Steen. Like Rhee, Steen trained many of America ’s top karatemen, among them Mike Anderson, Skipper Mullins, Pat Burleson, Fred Wren, Roy Kurban, and Jim and Jenice Miller.

                In 1962 after a visit to Pittsburgh by Master Tatsuo Shimabuku, at the invitation of James Morabeto and Harry Smith, disharmony once again set in among the city’s isshinryu principals. Morabeto opened several dojo of his own, while Harry Ackland and Joe Penneywell established the Academy of Isshinryu Karate in downtown Pittsburgh . William Duessel and William Wallace, students of Shimabuko, assumed ownership in the late 1960s.

                At this time, Nick Long began teaching Okinawan kempo in Greensburg , Pa. , where he built a large following of college students.

                In Denver , Robert Thompson and Fran Heitmann jointly opened a tang soo do school in 1962. that same year, Chuck Sereff, a black belt student, of Heitmann’s, established his first school and brought in Korean instructor Moon Ku Baek to teach there. Sereff and one of his black belts, Ralph Krause, opened another Denver karate school, but later the two went separate ways. Today, Sereff had one of the largest operations in Colorado .

                Frank Ruiz earned a chestful of medals including the Purple Heart, Silver Star, and Bronze Star during the Korean War. Upon his release, he became one of Peter Urban’s first students in 1960. In 1962, he launched his own teaching career in New York City, and produced two nationally recognized fighters, Louis Delgado and Herbie Thompson (of Florida), and East Coast karate champions Ron Van Clief, Owen Watson, and the late Malachi Lee. Ruiz later broke away from Urban to form his own Nisei Goju organization. In 1970 Ruiz cheated death after being stuck y a car traveling 80 m.p.h., managing four years later to walk normally and even practice karate.

                The Birth of Franchised Karate  In 1963 two brothers, Jim and Al Tracy, founded their first kenpo karate school in San Francisco ; both had been students of Ed Parker. After spending large sums in development costs, the brothers launched what became the largest chain of karate schools in the world, under the trade name “ Tracy ’s Krate.” The Tracy brothers brought big business practices to karate. Their strategy included a proven sales system, adapted from commercial dance studios. At its peak, 1969-73, the Tracy organization was estimated to have 70 studios under its franchise banner. After hiring Joe Lewis, one of the sport’s brightest starts, as a figurehead for its franchise recruitment program, the organization attracted instructors who, using the knowledge gained in business indoctrination courses, were able to make careers in the marital arts. Among the early corps of Tracy ’s novitiates were Jay T. Will, Al Dacascos, Jerry Smith, Jerry Piddington, Dick Willett, Roger Greene, Steve LaBounty, and Ray Klingenberg.

                At the same time, throughout the mid- and late 1960s, other instructors and organizations were developing sales systems and business practices particulary sited to the marital arts. Jhoon Rhee, Allen Steen, Chuck Norris, and Ed Parker soon expanded into franchising. Bob Wall of Los Angeles is credited with having helped many marital artists adopt sound business practices in their schools, among them Norris, Rhee, and Colorado ’s Jim Harkins. An astute businessman, Wall developed and manualized a sales system still in use many professional karate studios across then nation.

                In 1963 Chuck Norris, who would become one of the most respected karate fighters in the world, established his first school in Torrance , south of Los Angeles . In 1968 he and Bob Wall bought out Joe Lewis’ interest in the Sherman Oaks Karate Studio. From there he launched a chain of seven studios until 1975m when he gave up the operation to concentrate fully on a motion picture career.

                Norris was responsible for guiding more than 100 students to black-belt rank and dozens to competitive prominence. Among them are: Jerry Taylor, Pat Johnson, John Natividad, Howard Jackson, Ralph Alegria, Darnell Garcia, and Bob Burbidge, among many, many others.

                In April 1963 Master Duk Sung Son, president of the World Tae Kwon Do Association, immigrated to the U.S. and began teaching in and around New York City. Within a few years, Son was teaching his art at Princeton , N.Y. , Brown and Fordham Universities , and later at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point .

                Francisco Conde in 1963 initiated classes exclusively for females at the Women’s Karate Club of Fort Meade, Maryland. There his wife, Kathleen, received some of his early training before going on to become one of the premier black belt competitors in her region. Known for his tournament promotions, as early as 1963 Conde became a driving force behind man of the regional activities of the Mid-Atlantic states .

                Roger Carpenter, a black belt student of George Pesare, came to Wichita , Kans. , in Sept. 1963. Carpenter taught karate for two years at churches, YMCAs, and a National Guard Armory. In the spring of 1965, he opened the first commercial karate school in Wichita . By 1964, Jim Harrison had also established a school in Kansas City .

                In Denver , Shotokan stylist Joe Costello (d.1973), from Hawaii , opened a dojo downtown. That same year, Ralph Krause opened the first of an eventual chain of karate schools in Colorado .

                Ki Whang Kim, a highly respected tae kwon do master, organized a YMCA class in Washington , D.C. , in 1963. This class produced some outstanding D.C. martial artists including John Camance, Albert Cheeks, Phil Cunningham, Mike Warren, Furman Marshall, and John Mickens. During the 1970s Mike Warren was widely considered to be America ’s best tournament fighter and, indisputably, one of the best technicians in the sport.

                Lou Angel, Jack Hwang, and Bill Brisco, all Oklahoma City , are the recognized pioneers of karate in Oklahoma . Angel, a former U.S. Marine and student of Peter Urban, arrived in Oklahoma at an unspecified date in the early 1960s. He is best known for having produced the Tulsa Southwest Karate Championships in 1963, where Mike Stone would launch his impressive fighting career. Stone, then still a brown belt, became an overnight sensation by winning first place in the sparring division and soon rose to prominence as the sport’s first superstar.

                Jack Hwang, a pioneer of tae kwon do , immigrated to the U.S. in 1960. he taught quietly until opening his first school in Oklahoma City in 1964. In 1965, Hwang produced his inaugural All American Open Karate Championships, which is a highlight of the southwestern karate circuit.

                Marine sergeant Sam Pearson, a disciple of Master Eizo Shimabuku, founded a shorin-ryu karate club in 1963 at Camp LeJeune , N.C. His most famous student is the aforementioned Glenn Premru of Pittsburg , who would become one of the sport’s first corps of great kata champions and flamboyant performers.

                Tournaments  The early 1960s brought the first American karate tournaments. Until 1963 several local and, at best regional competitions were organized in deifferent parts of the U.S. Principal among these early evernts were the All American Karate Championships and the North American Karate Championships. The former was held in Los Angeles in Dec. 1961 by Hidetaka Nishiyama, concurrent with his formulation of the All American Karate Federation. Nishiyama chose as the tournament site the Olympic Auditorium, the West Coast boxing center. The tournament was produced as a fund-raiser for the March for Muscular Dystrophy. Participants were chiefly members of the Shotokan style of karate, but some came from as far as Canada and Hawaii .

                The North American Karate Championships, conducted on Nov. 24, 1962 , was the first karate tournament held at Madison Square Garden , and the first open karate competition in America . Here, Mas Oyama appeared for the second time in his illustrious career, and this time the appearance was not for the purpose of demonstrating karate’s superiority to professional boxing and wrestling. Preceding the finals, Oyama presented one of his impressive breaking routines, crushing rocks, bricks, and boards with his bare hands, feats even at that time considered phenomenal by the American public. Gary Alexander, one of the early wave of “fighting” instructors, won the black belt sparring championship. In 1963 he established his first school in New Jersey and began promoting notable karate tournaments himself.

                On July 28, 1963 , Robert Trais and John Keehan jointly hosted the 1st World Karate Tournament at the University of Chicago Fieldhouse , gathering contestants and officials from around the country. (The 1963 event was won by AlGene Caravlia.) This was the first truly national American karate tournament and the forerunner of the many subsequent tournaments using and abusing the title of “World Championships.” To date, this misnomer had been attached by various promoters to more than 20 North American karate tournaments. Clearly, it is an inexact title, since the participants do not come from all over the world.

                Tournament titles were not an issue, however, during the embryonic stage. What is important is the Trais’ event attracted most of the prominent American karateka. What took place in Chicago set a precedent for the emergence of large-scale, national-caliber competitions. This particular event was retitled the USKA Nationals in 1966, and in 1968 adopted its present title, the USKA Grand Nationals. It is one of the longest-funning annual karate tournaments in America .

                Also in 1963, Texan Allen Steen inaugurated his Dallas Southwest Karate Championships, in which Mike Stone, still a brown belt, won the black belt fighting division. Steen’s tournament was retitled in 1965 the U.S. Karate Championships. David Moon, one of the few Asian instructors competing in open sparring divisions, won the first of three consecutive grand championships there. The tournament maintained its national prestige until the mid-1970s.

                During this period many judo and jujutsu black belts had begun studying karate; their styles were often unrefined. Some were the recipients of “cross-over” ranks, i.e., because of their proficiency in one art they might receive dan rank in karate. As each generation of American karate black belts became progressively more polished, fluid, and performance-conscious, the old ex-judo/jujutsu converts appeared out of touch with new developments in the art. Despite criticism, many of these same figures were responsible for introducing the marital arts to individuals who would later make contributions to the growth of American karate. One of these, Jerry Durant, trained top fighter Artis Simmons as well as Art Sykes, William Cavalier and Vince Christeano.

                In 1964 Trais again staged his World Championships in Chicago , but this year two new tournaments shared the spotlight. The first was Ed Parker’s International Karate Championships in Long Beach , Calif. Parker’s tournament, like Trais’ the year before, attracted the biggest names in American karate. Mike Stone became the event’s first grand champion, an accomplishment overshadowed historically by the results of a demonstration presented there by an unknown Chinese stylist Bruce Lee.

                Lee was a sensation. Demonstrating his skills, he sent partners reeling backward with his 1-inch punch, a technique that became a personal trademark. Lee’s performance left a lasting impression on many practitioners and non-marital-artist spectators.

                Parker’s Internationals grew in size and prestige until about 1976, reaching its zenith in 1974, when Parker drew a record-setting 6,000 contestants. In 1975 Parker awarded prize money totaling $16,250, the largest yet at an American Pro/Am tournament.

                The second prominent event of 1964 was Jhoon Rhee’s U.S. National Karate Championship, held in Washington , D.C. Pat Burleson of Texas , winner of the black belt grand championship, joined AlGene Caraulia in becoming the first recognized national champion of the new sport. Today Burleson is looked upon as the “granddaddy” of tournament fighters and the first genuine star in the sport.

                In late 1964 Mahn Suh Park produced the first open tournament in Philadelphia , the Globe Tae Gyun Championships; it became an annual promotion enjoying steady growth.

                Jhoon Rhee pulled off a coup in 1965: he persuaded Wide World of Sports to film and subsequently broadcast segments of his U.S. National Karate Championships. His was the first American karate tournament to receive television coverage from a network sports program. However, a heated match for the grand championship between Stone and Walt Worthy, in which there was bloodshed and heavy contact, earned the displeasure of the show’s producers. Select excerpts only were broadcast. And the program ignored the sport for the next nine years.

                It is important to recall here the nature of competition in this period. It was a time of bloodshed and brutality. Historians have called it-suitably-the “blood and guts era” of American sport karate, a period spanning from 1963, when the major open tournaments began, to roughly 1970, when the sport temporarily graduated to its first kick-boxing phase. During this time tournaments were an arena for only the most courageous karate fighters, with a high tolerance for absorbing punishment. The type of sparring then popular is called “non contact” or “light contact.” Rules stipulated closely pulled blows to the face and only light body contact. Excessive contact was grounds for disqualification. Despite this general rule, heavy contact to both the face and body was so common that competitors and officials alike appeared to accept it. The techniques, crude and calamitous by today’s standers, were as unrefined as the rules governing the infant sport. A fighter might break an opponent’s bones of knock him into the grandstand and not be disqualified. If he was a true fighter, the opponent was expected to come back and dish out the same punishment he had received.

                The Second Generation  In karate instruction a virtual explosion took place from 1964 onward, not only in the U.S. , but in Canada , South America , Europe and Asia . Ex-military personnel, having studied the marital arts in the Orient, returned home en masses to open karate schools. Augmenting this rapid growth were the second generation, students of the original pioneers, who concurrently established studios of their own.

                In Sept. 1964 the Institute of Technology in Pasasena adopted a regular course of karate instruction supervised by Tsutomu Ohshima. This is the first known karate program to have been accepted as an accredited course by an American college.

                The move to establish karate as part of the educational curriculum had enjoyed widespread success in Japan . Thus, the early Japanese stylists in the U.S. concentrated on this aim. Later, the Korean tae kwon do instructors, perhaps even more meticulously organized, likewise made significant progress toward gaining acceptance for the marital arts in American institutions of higher learning.

                In Beaver Falls , Pa. , Willie Wetzel, a master of pukulan, was one of the first instructors of an Indonesian discipline to surface in the U.S. One of his students, Barbra Niggel, in the mid-1970s distinguished herself as a national kata champion.

                Pauline Short should probably be called the “mother of American karate.” Short opened in 1965, the first karate schools exclusively catering to a female clientele, in Portland , Oreg. In 1975 she became one of the nation’s top 10 female fighters.

                Also in 1964, Bill Readers emerged in Erie , Pa. He trained Art Sykes.

                In 1965 Glenn Premru returned to Pittsburgh , having trained with Shorin-ryu instructor Sam Pearson. He opened a dojo in the North Hills section of town.

                Mike Stone became the first superstar of the sport. He had dominated competition since 1963, and by the time of his retirement had been active for only eighteen months. Although he competed in a total of nine tournaments, all of them were large-scale events featuring highly rated fighters. Stone won in 1965 what could be considered Karate’s Triple Crown: the Internationals in Long Beach , U.S. Nationals in Washington , D.C. , and World Championships in Chicago . Although Stone claims to have won 89 consecutive black belt matches, the record shows he lost a grand championship match in the middle of his run, at the 1964 Western U.S. Karate Championships in Salt Lake City . (Stone won the heavyweight title, but was defeated by David Johnson in the grand championships play-off.)

                The first genuine martial arts craze in America began in 1966, with Bruce Lee made his acting debut as Kato in the Green Hornet TV series. From Sept. 9, the weekly series remained on the air until Mar. 17, 1967 . There were 26 half-hour episodes, and reruns began in 1968. Although this series was short-lived, Lee’s provocative kung-fu action in the show’s numerous fight scenes stirred the public’s imagination. Thousands of new students became involved in the marital arts. This development seemed to prove that the popularity and acceptance of the Asian marital arts was directly related to the degree of its exposure in the visual media.

                During the mid- and late 1960s “American karate” emerged. The name describes an open minded practice method and philosophy that challenged time-honored Asian patterns, traditional karate. America karate gained support from both anit-traditionlists, opposed to the strict oriental ideology, and non-traditionalists, a less radical sect, opposed to the study of one system exclusively. Basically, it was traditional karate put to tropically American uses.

                Until the late 1960s Asian instructors in the U.S. wielded considerable political power, chiefly because they controlled large numbers of students. This status slowly began to change as Trias, Parker, Steen, Urban, Nagle, and other American karate advocates built personal following, the American names started to become synonymous with karate. After 1969 American athletes dominated the fighting division of major tournaments with very few exceptions. This development, in conjunction with the proliferation of American karate instructors, worked to precipitate an important shift in the marital arts hierarchy.

                With the rapid growth and diversification of karate during this era, there came about, perhaps inevitably, political fragmentation and an unprecedented degree of stylistic prejudice. There was, and still is, a tendency among various styles and stylists to ignore the merits, however consequential, of other styles. Among karate styles and karate organizations there are factions that multiply alarmingly each year. Out of this dissonance and confusion have emerged three loosely identifiable legions in the U.S. : traditionalists of purists, the non-traditionalists and anti-traditionalists-both of which have been called the commercialists- and a mixed group that can be called the commercial-traditionalists.      

                The year 1966 marked the competitive debut of Joe Lewis, who had distinguished himself quickly, earning his black belt in Okinawa in a mere seven months. With just twenty-two months of training, Lewis entered his first tournament in 1966, Rhee’s U.S. Nationals. He won the black belt championships, using one technique exclusively, the side kick. Demonstrating his versatility, Lewis also won the black belt kata championships.

                During the late 1960s the number of karate tournaments swelled substantially on a state, regional, and especially, on the national level. Yet, as the sport grew, so did its problems. Promoters disagreed on rules and procedures; the sport suffered from a lack of unification and standardization, a problem that continues to plague it today. Thse difficulties did not impede two rising tournament stars, both of who became recognized world champions: Chuck Norris and Skipper Mullins.

                After losing the 1966 International grand championships to Allen Steen, Norris came back to win the grand title two years running, 1967 and 1968. He also won the grand title of the 1967 and 1968 All American Karate Championships, produced by S. Henry Cho in New York . Norris was an innovator in combination techniques; until his arrival fighters usually delivered only one technique to score a point. After his victories combinations became standard in the sport.

                Skipper Mullins, 6 feet, 150lbs., was heralded as the fastest kicker in karate. Many of his victories were the result of whiplike kicks, at a time when punchers dominated the tournament circuit. Mullins rose to prominence on lightweight and middleweight victories in the All American Karate Championships, produced by Jack Hwang in Oklahoma City , and the Top 10 Championships. In one weekend in Feb. 1967 Mullins fought in New York City on Friday, Dallas on Saturday, and Los Angeles on Sunday. Norris and Mullins, with Mike Stone and Joe Lewis, are the great karate champions of the 1960s-only Lewis continued competing into the 1970s.

                Team Competition  In 1967, in New York City , team competition was introduced. The concept was originated by Aaron Banks, who became karate’s most prolific promoter. Banks continued the team competition format, producing the first team event of national caliber in 1968, the East Coast vs. West Coast Team Championships. The victorious West Coast contingent was represented by Joe Lewis, Steve Sanders, Chuck Norris, and Jerry Taylor. Representatives for the East Coast were Tomas LaPuppet, Joe Hayes, Kazuyoshi Tanaka, and Louis Delgado.

                Team competition was soon adopted by karate promoters throughout the country. Banks also deserves credit for keeping sport karate flourishing in New York when others could not: form 1967 to1975: his over 100 flamboyant productions gave regional exposure to aspiring East Coast competitors.

                The Sport Turns Professional  For five years, from 1963-68, sport karate had grown strictly on an amateur basis. In 1968 several promoters endeavored independently to add to professional dimension, offering prize money to victorious fighters and meeting the expenses of star names participating in the events.

                In Feb. 1968 Jim Harrison staged the 1st World Professional Karate Championships (WPKC), the first of a string of tournaments to use this popular title. In principle, at least, this was the first professional tournament in the history of American karate. Harrison conducted the event in his Kansas City dojo two days after Allen Steen’s U.S. Championships in Dallas . Many top fighters were invited, but in view of Harrison ’s permissive rules, which endorsed heavy contact, only six fighters participated. They were: Joe Lewis, Bob Wall, Skipper Mullins, J. Pat Burleson, David Moon, and Fred Wren. Several fighters suffered broken ribs and noses and were forced to forfeit. Lewis won the title, becoming karate’s first paid professional fighter when Harrison awarded him the token sum of one dollar.

                In Aug. 1968 Robert Triad and Atlee Chittim produced the World’s Hemisphere Karate Championships in San Antonio , Tex. The second professional karate promotion held in the U.S. , this was the first to be conducted as a genuine tournament. Victor Moore of Ohio won the grand championship in a spirited battle with Joe Lewis and took a purse of $500. (Lewis also took away $500, a contract guarantee.)

                The most important professional karate even of the decade was Aaron Banks World Professional Karate Championship, produced on Nov. 24, 1968 , at the Waldorf Astoria Hotel in New York City . This invitation established four fighters as recognized world champions. In contrast to Harrison ’s event, each champion was paid $600. And Banks paid all of his ringside personnel, from officials to the announcer. The champions were heavyweight Joe Lewis (over Victor Moore); light-heavyweight Mike Stone (over Bob Taiani); middleweight Chuck Norris (over Louis Delgado); and lightweight Skipper Mullins (over Kazuyoshi Tanaka). There were subsequent protests disputing the event’s status as a legitimate world championship, in the sense that the contestants were predominantly American, but no one disputed the world-class skill of the four winners. (Only Norris returned in 1969 to defend-successfully-his title.)

                Another karate competitor who made his bid for national prominence at this time was Ron Marchini of Stockton , Calif. He won Henry Cho’s Tournament of Champions in 1968 in New York City , and then went on to distinguish himself as one of the top competitors of the late 1960a and early 1970s.

                Challenge to authority and inconsistent tournament regulations became the rule rather than the exception, though tournament planning was steadily improving. The amount of promiscuous contact in tournaments became a destructive issue, and injuries increased dramatically, often because of inexperienced and intimated officials. Some believed the sport should encourage contact; others wanted contact barred.

                Commercial karate came of age in 1969. Women and children flocked to the schools, as more and more instructors expanded classes to accommodate them.

                In 1968, two influential marital artists, Jay T. Will, and AlGene Caraulia established schools in Ohio . Will, a student of Ed Parker and Scott Loring, had relocated to Cleveland from Chicago .

                Until 1965 the Japanese styles had the largest following in the U.S. , but by 1967 Okinawan karate was attracting more students. In 1969, with the great influx of Korean immigrants, tae kwon do suddenly outdrew the others. More than ever before, practitioners were changing from one style to another. Consequently, interest in organizations and unification dwindled.

                The Birth of Full-Contact Karate  Joe Lewis objected to the unrealistic structure of non contact karate, in which blows were to be pulled short of actual contact. Its nature was to score points without producing results-what Bruce Lee called “swimming on dry land.” At the peak of Lewis ’ disenchantment, which had begun as early as 1969, he started training with , and was influenced by, Bruce Lee and ranked heavyweight boxer Joey Orbill. He began training in various Los Angeles boxing gyms, with the intentions of becoming a professional boxer.

                In later 1969 Lewis was contacted by Los Angeles promoter Lee Faulkner, who was organizing a major noncontact team contest in which he wanted Lewis to participate. Lewis agreed on the condition that Faulkner permit him to fight also in a full-contact match. Faulkner agreed to promote the bout, but only if Lewis fought in the teams event as well. Lewis searched frantically for a suitable opponent. After repeated rejections from top karate fighters, he found Greg Baines, a San Jose kenpo stylists, who agreed to meet Lewis under full-contact conditions.

                The bout, preceded by the U.S. Team Championship, took place on Jan. 17, 1970 , at the Long Beach Sports Arena. Results of the contests were victories for Lewis, by a 2nd-round knockout, and for a West Coast team composed of Lewis, Mike Stone, Bob Wall, Chuck Norris, and Skipper Mullins. And, while the Lewis/Baines bout had been promoted as the “first full-contact” championship, during the fight itself the uninformed announcer inadvertently but repeatedly called it “American kick-boxing.” The announcer’s blunder kick-boxing. The term “full-contact karate” would not be used for several years later. In this its original form, full-contact karate survived for only a year; Lewis successfully defended his title during that year ten times, with no opponent lasting past the 2nd round. The Jan. 17 team bout also marked the last fight in Chuck Norris brilliant competitive career.

                Karate in the 1970s  Pat Johnson of Sherman Oaks, Calif. , a nationally respected tournament referee, originated the “penalty point” system for excessive contact in 1970. The “Johnson Ruling,” as it was called by Karate Illustrated, essentially ended the uncontrolled “blood and guts era” of non contact sport karate. Johnson’s innovation, introduced at the National Black Belt Championships in Albuquerque , is used as a standard today in every U.S. karate tournament. Under this rule, competitors who make excessive contact forfeit one point;            

                The year 1970 also marked the emergence of amateur sport karate on a truly international scale: 32 nations took part in the 1st WUKO World Karate Championships at Tokyo ’s Budokan. A conference held prior to the even had resulted in the name of World Union of Karate-do Organizations (WUKO). Qualification and participation rules, however, were ill-defined and competition of organizational rules covering the tournament. As such, Japan was permitted to have four teams competing and the U.S. three. All other nations had one. The U.S. members had been selected by extensive negotiations among the principal U.S. Japanese stylists. The only nationally known U.S. member was Tonny Tulleners of Los Angeles; he won third place in individual fighting at the WUKO event.

                The disorganization of the 1st WUKO World Championships was the chief reason for the eventual existence of two organizations governing international amateur karate: WUKO and the International Amateur Karate Federation (IAKF) with Los Angeles ’ Hidetaka Nishiyama the elected executive director as of 1974, when the association was formed. The struggle to organized international karate has engaged these two bodies since then. The goal is a worthy one: Olympic recognition and acceptance for the sport.

                The AAKF resisted a move in 1973 by the AAU to relinquish its rights as the international karate representatives of the U.S. , in WUKO, and subsequently resigned its membership in the AAU. Afterwards, the AAU formed its own karate committee with Carylor Adkins, a student of Tsutomu Ohshima, named its first chairman. So bitter were the political conflicts that in 1976 Adikins dropped out of karate altogether and moved from Los Angeles to a farm in middle America .

                In Thailand , its homeland, kick-boxing, or more properly, Muay Thai (Thai kick-boxing) was- and is-national pastime. In America , however, it failed dismally. In 1971 American kick-boxing dies almost as suddenly as it begun. There was virtually no spectator support, and promoters were losing more money than ever before. Along with kick-boxing, professional karate, in its noncontact form, also died. Chuck Norris held perhaps the last important pro tournament of the initial era. His 2nd World Pro/Am Championships of 1971 attracted a large representations of top-rated fighters, but barely 1,00 spectators showed up at the spacious Los Angeles Sports Arena where it was staged.

                In the 1970s, the ties between parent schools in Korea and tae kwon do instructors in the U.S. had been weakened by a decade of separation and “Americanization.” Consequently, a number of regional tae kwon do associations were born. On the nation’s college and university campuses the American Tae Kwon Do Coaches Association and the American Collegiate Tae Kwon Do Association were created in 1972. These organizations worked jointly to send a U.S. team to the inaugural World Tae Kwon Do Championships in 1973, at which the U.S. team placed second, and the 2nd World Championships in 1974, both held in Seoul , Korea .

                The most significant development of 1971 was the advent of the “Longstreet” television series, co-starring Bruce Lee. Unlike productions that had preceded it, the one-hour season opener actually identified the art being shown and was the first to explain on screen the philosophy behind the Asian fighting arts. The program was a showcase for Lee’s innovative teaching methods. Cast as a martial arts master, Lee tought the blind detective, Longstreet (James franciscus), how to protect himself, through both the physical maneuvers of jeet kune do and Lee’s personal philosophy. That particular school is now considered by many marital arts aficionados Bruce Lee’s best work on film, and it had become a classic. The season opener was written by Stirling Silliphant, one of Lee’s students.

                This year marked the rise to stardom of Bill Wallace, who rocketed from virtual obscurity to America ’s number-1-ranked karate fighter a position he also held in 1972 and again in 1974. Wallace won Allen Steen’s highly competitive U.S. Championships and the USKA Grand Nationals.

                In 1972 an astonishing growth occurred in the martial arts. Much of it was directly attributable to the marital arts’ sudden emergence as a bona fide entertainment vehicle. It began when filmmaker Tom Laughlin released Bill Jack in which he starred. Although the karate sequences in Billy Jack took but a few minuets, with hapkido master Bong Soo Han doubling for Laughlin, they demonstrated more than any previous motion picture the electrifying visual aspects of the martial arts.

                Bruce Lee’s Fists of Fury, released on the heels of Billy Jack, became one of the first Chinese films to be distributed to general movie theaters. In the Orient, it unexpectedly broke all box-office records, eventually surpassing the longstanding hit, The Sound of Music. Shortly afterward, Lee’s second film venture with Raymond Chow, Fist of Fury (The Chinese Connection in the U.S. ), eclipsed the success of its predecessor and catapulted Lee to stardom as the biggest box-office draw in the history of Asian cinema.

                Back in the U.S. , the mounting martial arts mania was accommodated by and influx of Hong Kong kung-fu films that virtually flooded the American market. Critics labeled them “Eastern Westerns” or “chop-sockeys.” But the trend found its way into big-budget projects such as Red Sun, starting Charles Bronson and featuring Hollywood karate master Tak Kubota.

                Kung Fu, starring David Carradine, aired as an ABC-TV Movie of the Week on Aug 8, 1972 . This weekly series, which showcased marital arts philosophy as well as physicality, had a positive effect on the trend, introducing martial arts on a regular basis directly to American living rooms.

                The need for stuntmen familiar with the marital arts grew. Conventional Hollywood stuntmen were at the time inexperienced in the arts, and marital artists poured into Hollywood casting offices. Some of the more flamboyant and fortunate were catapulted to stardom. With the release of Melinda, Los Angeles Jim Kelly, hired as a fight-scene choreographer, was made a co-star. Kelly went on to star in Enter the Dragon, Black Belt Jones, The Golden Needles, Tuck Turner, Three the Hard Way, Hot Potato, Black Samurai, and Take a Hard Ride.

                Also in 1972 Emil Farkas founded Creative Action Associates, the first martial arts company to cater to the motion picture and television industries. His company set up action sequences for shows such as “The F.B.I.,” “Mannix,” “Mod Squad,” “Mission Impossible,” “Spiderman,” and many others.

                Hungarian-born Farkas came to the U.S. in 1965 with black belts in judo and karate. He began giving private lessons to some of Hollywood’s top celebrities, among them Phil Spector, the Beach Boys, Herb Albert, Jimmy Caan, Dennis Hopper, Fred Williamson, ect. Through his students Farkas gained entrance to Hollywood ’s inner circle and soon was working regularly on T.V. shows and features as a fight choreographer and stuntman.

                Joe Lewis unexpectedly announced his retirement in 1972. During his tenure as champion, Lewis amassed more than 30 major titles. He was the only four-time grand champion of the U.S. National Karate Championships (1966-69) and the only three-time grand champion of the International Karate Championships (1969-71).

                Coincidental with the entertainment craze, tournament karate was thriving as never before. In 1972 Mike Stone, now a promoter, conceived the first tournament franchise. Earlier, Stone, together with Chuck Norris and Bob Wall, had created the Four Seasons Karate Championships, a quarterly series of contests held in southern California . When the others lost interest, Stone maintained the tournaments. In 1972 he sold its name and concept to promoters in other pars of the country and created the Four Seasons Nationals in Las Vegas as the culminating event of the network.

                Public interest in marital arts reached its zenith in 1973. Thousands of spectators who formerly had no interest in karate supported tournaments as never before. And theaters showcasing marital arts films were doing great box-office business.

                Meanwhile, in Hong Kong , Bruce Lee was working constantly. Following Way of the Dragon, his third hit, he immediately started production on Game of Death. But the film was interrupted when Lee received a co-production offer from Warner Bros. to start in Enter the Dragon, Enter the Dragon was the first co-production between Chinese and Hollywood filmmakers. On July 20, 1973 , shortly before the U.S. release of Enter the Dragon, the world was staggered by the unexpected death of Bruce Lee in Hong Kong . Only 32, he allegedly died from acute brain swelling, the cause of which remains enigmatic. Lee’s chief jeet kune do protégé is Dan Inosanto.

                Enter The Dragon became the king of marital arts movies, the unsurpassed classic of the genre. Today, this picture stands out as one of the most profitable in international cinema history. Though numerous imitators attempted to replace Lee, no one could duplicate his spectacular success. By 1974 the marital arts craze, commonly called the “Bruce Lee Era” began tapering off.

                Professional Karate Revival  The comeback began in the summer of 1973, when Oklahoma Mike Anderson published his inaugural edition of Professional Karate Magazine. Anderson openly campaigned for the restoration of professional karate, backed y his quarterly publication and his compilation of national and regional rating of karate players. Widespread acceptance of these rating revolutionized the rating polls, making Black Belt’s annual Top 10 rating antiquated by comparison.

                Shortly after the release of his inaugural issue, Anderson staged his Top 10 Nationals in St. Louis . Anderson offered a $1,000 grand championship purse, a precedent immediately adopted by other major promoters. The even was the first to make mandatory the use of Jhoon Rhee’s newly created Safe-T Equipment in the black belt fighting divisions. This innovation launched a new form of karate fighting, which in 1974 was dubbed “semicontact” by marital arts journalist John Corcoran. The use of the Safe-T Equipment, basically foam rubber hand and foot pads, added excitement to competition, safely permitting moderate contact to both the face and body.

                At this even Los Angeles Howard Jackson won the grand championship and prize money. At 5 feet 5 inches, 152 lbs, Jackson became the first lightweight to dominate his sport and professional karate’s biggest money winner of 1973.

                Jackson had usurped Bill Wallace, at the time America ’s tow tournament fighter. Wallace was a sport karate phenomenon in that he gained most of his victories by relying on one technique exclusively, a left-footed whip-like roundhouse kick. His kicks were clocked at an incredible delivery speed of 60 m.p.h., and when he later became the premier star of full-contact karate, he was aptly nicknamed “Superfoot.”

                On June 4, 1973 , John Corcoran was hired as book editor for Ohara Publications, the sister company of Rainbow Publications, publishers of Black Belt and Karate Illustrated. By the end of the year, he had begun to work on both magazines as assistant editor, Corcoran was the first karate black belt to become an editor of these publications, and he rose to prominence as one of the first genuine martial arts journalists in America . He was preceded as a black belt editor only by Official Karate’s Al Weiss. Corcoran was a student of Glenn Premru.

                Corcoran was hired the same week as Jerry Smith, a commercial artist, who was also a black belt and a disciple of Joe Lewis. The pair formed an intimate friendship and Corcoran continued his martial arts studies with Smith, who was to become recognized as one of the first full-contact karate coaches in the U.S.

                In Aug. 1974 Ed Parker offered a winner-take-all purse of $2,500 for the grand champion of his International Karate Championships in Long Beach . In a spectacular 25-point overtime match, John Natividad, a student of Chuck Norris and Jerry Taylor, defeated Benny Urquidez, 13-12. Even today, spectators debate the outcome of this classical contest; some believe Uruidez, a regional favorite, scored an overtime point against the favored Natividad before the latter landed his conclusive point. Historians call it one of the greatest bouts of the light-contact era.

                The continuing martial arts mania kept business flourishing through 194. Aaron Banks’ Oriental World of Self-Defense, an annual production of martial arts demonstrations, set a gate record in its field. The promotion, held at Madison Square Garden , attracted 19,564 spectators, according to Banks. The paid live gate reportedly reached $100,000. The event was aired on ABC’s “Wide World of Sports.”

                Ken Min, of the University of California at Berkeley , conducted the first collegiate survey in 1974 to determine how many schools offered karate, tae kwon do, and kung-fu classes on campus. Judo, which preceded the arts in its American migration, outranked all of them. Of 596 college responding to the survey, 278 offered some type of judo program. At the same time, there was equal interest in karate, tae kwon do, and kung-fu. Of 448 colleges reporting, 228 offered some type of program in one of these three disciplines.

                Joe Lewis and Tom Tannenbaum decided to resurrect full-contact karate. They planned to promote the World Professional Karate Championships. Lewis brought Mike Anderson into the deal and Anderson spent most of 1974 preparing for what was to become the most extraordinary promotion in American karate history. He spent months finding and establishing European and Asian representatives. German karate entrepreneur George Bruckner, Anderson ’s friend and business associate, conducted an elimination contest to determine European full-contact representatives. Three of the four American representatives were selected on the basis of their divisional supremacy in Professional Karate’s ratings; they were lightweight Howard Jackson of Los Angeles, middleweight Bill Wallace of Memphis, and light heavyweight Jeff Smith of Washington, D.C. Joe Lewis, originally scheduled to co-host the event, chose to come out of retirement and gith as the heavyweight representatives. Lewis was the only karate fighter with full-contact experience.

                Jeff Smith, during this year, had surpassed Jackson to become America ’s foremost tournament fighter. He was, in fact, named the 1974 “Fighter of the Year: by Professional Karate Magazine. A product of the rugged Texas schools of karate, Smith had moved to the nation’s capital in the early 1970sto teach for Jhoon Rhee.

                Two months before the event, in July 1974, Anderson relocated his operation to Los Angeles . In August he formed a promotion company with Beverly Hills business couple, Don and Judy Quine, who helped finalize negotiations with Universal Television. In late Augest , the Quines and Anderson formed the Professional Karate Association (PKA), the sport’s first sanctioning body, to establish full-contact karate as a major professional sport with recognized champions, standardized rules, and network television coverage of its bouts. Anderson also persuaded Bob McLaughlin and John Corcoran, editors of Black Belt and Karate Illustrated, to work jointly as editors of Professional Karate. Instead of editing, however, the two worked feverishly on the fast approaching World Championships.

                On the night of Sept. 14, 1974 , at the Los Angeles Sports Arena, 14 fighters from eight countries vied in a double elimination for the inaugural titles. Four emerged as world professional full-contact champions: heavyweight Joe Lewis, light heavyweight Jeff Smith, middleweight Bill Wallace, and lightweight Isaias Duenas of Mexico City . Among the American entrants, only Howard Jackson, suffering from a severe knee injury, lost his bid for the title. This extravaganza drew one of the largest live gates for competition karate, $50,00, unprecedented $20,000 in total prize money. Each champion earned $3,000, while runner-up received a smaller purse. All fourteen impressive news soured, however, when Anderson later reported a personal loss exceeding $60,000. Tom Tannenbaum sold the broadcasting rights to ABC’s “Wide World of Entertainment.” The event aired twice as a 90-minuet special, the first time acquiring the highest rating of a “Wide World” special for 1974.

                  Great controversy ensued. The traditional karate community contended that full-contact degraded the art form and would have a negative influence on schools enrollments. This faction felt the television taught in schools everywhere as a required course of learning and Moreover, detractors protested the association of the word “karate” with full-contact and vocally sought a name change to “kick-boxing.”

                It wasn’t to be. For one, the sport could only be sold to television because of the popularity of karate. It was a word and an activity with which television executives were familiar. Kick-boxing, on the other hand, was associated with the far more brutal sport popular in Thailand and Japan . When its promoters attempted to get it on American television, they failed. T.V. executives felt it was too violent. Consequently, the name “full-contact karate” was retained.

                In Oct. 1974 tae kwon do was recognized as an amateur sport separate from karate by the AAU. This development was chiefly due to the efforts of Ken Min, tae kwon do coach of Berkeley University , with the support and aid of members of the AAU Judo Committee and a dozen tae kwon do maters. A number of important tournaments –starting with the 1st AAU Invitational Tae Kwon Do Championships in June 1974, held at Berkeley under Min’s able direction, through the 1st National AAU Tae Kwon Do Championships, conducted at Yale University in Mar. 1975, and the Mar. 1976 version held in Kansas City- promoted and publicized the sport aspect of this Korean art.

                It was in Kansas City that a U.S. tae kwon do federation was conceived with the purpose of supporting the National AAU Tae Kwon Do Committee. Tae Kwon Do programs in American universities reached a new level of progress with the advent of the 1st National Collegiate Tae Kwon Do Championships, held at Nicholls State University in Thibodaux , Ls., that same year.

                From 1975 onward, two activities dominated the martial arts; films and the sport. These continue to be the most active and visible aspects of the industry, based simply on mass exposure through the various media.

                The year 1975 was one of economic disaster, signaling the beginning of the end of marital arts movie boom. The industry suffered a double blow when it was victimized jointly by the depressed national economy and the pronounced tapering off of martial arts in the cinema. Some instructors blamed the new full-contact movement for deteriorating enrollments at the school level. Others felt it was not the sport itself, but poorly conditioned fighters and unprofessional promotions.

                Following the inaugural world championships, a rash of full-contact promotions broke out in 1975, spreading to epidemic proportions. At one point in Los Angeles alone, hardly a week passed without a full-contact event. Within a year of its birth, no less than seven full-contact karate organization sprang up. Their organizers were convinced that the infant sport and its potential sales appeal to television might be the financial salvation of the declining marital arts industry. It wasn’t.

                In all fairness, the army of inept promoters who tried to capitalize on the young sport were not totally at fault. Some blame had to be shared by the fighters themselves. Many entered the ring preposterously undercondidioned, and none of them had any ring experience.

                Those organizations that moved into the promotional end of the sport in 1975 were: Tommy Lee’s World Series of Martial Arts; Jhoon Rhee’s World Black Belt League (WBBL), a team concept; Joe Corley’s South East Professional Karate Commission (SEPKC); Aarons Bank’s World Professional Karate Organization (WPKO); and Larry Scott’s and Valerie Williams’ National Karate League (NKL), another team concept. Each association created its own rules, sanctioned its own promotions, and established its own champions. Each independently sought television exposure for its promotions. Of these early organizations only two remain: Banks’ WPKO and Rhee’s WBBL.

                The Scott/Williams NKL featured Benny Urquidez as its premier star. Urquidez quickly accumulated the most impressive record in his sport by virtue of his consistent victories in 3-and 5-round NKL team bouts across the country. However, the NKl was under-financed and suffered major losses. It disbanded in 1976. Its principals left substantial depts. In their wake, as well as a negative business reputation for karate in general.

                In 1975, 50 million viewers saw full-contact karate when Jeff Smith defeated Karriem Allah. The closed-circuit broadcast was a preliminary card to the Muhammad Ali/Joe Frazier “Thrilla in Manila ” fight.

                On May 3, 1975 , the PKA in conjunction with Joe Corley’s Battle of Atlanta in Georgia , produced a full-contact card whose main event was the much-acclaimed bout between Corley himself and Bill Wallace. It marked the first title defense of the new sport and, as in Los Angeles , it attracted more than 10,000 spectators to the Omni Arena. Wallace retained his crown with a 9th-round TKO.

                Notable at this even were two new concepts: the addition of professional kata competition to the regular competition, an innovation of Mike Anderson’s at his Top 10 Nationals in St. Louis; and the introduction of marital ballet, created by Jhoon Rhee, in which a team of black belts perform a synchronized kata routine to classical music. This latter concepts served as the prototype of the musical kata divisions gaining popularity in American karate tournaments today.

                One week later, on May 10, Aaron Banks conducted a title defense held under the auspices of his WPKO, Presented at the Nassau Coliseum in New York, Banks’ event later aired on ABCs “Wide World of Sports,” a development creating a fierce dispute between Banks and Quines, whose original PKA event had aired as an ABC network special. The PKA felt it was a conflict of interest on the part of ABC to air two different events that declared two different sets of “world champions.” Banks’ card crowned four divisional champion:Joe Hess of New York (now of Florida ), light heavyweight Fred Miller of New York , middleweight  Kasim Dubar of New York , and lightweight Benny Urquidez of Lost Angeles. By year’s end, Urquidez was the leading money winner of his sport, having earned more than $30,000.

                In June 1975, Mike Anderson resigned as an executive officer of the PKA to purse the promotions of the sport on his own. The Quines assumed complete control of the PKA, while Anderson eventually formed the World All-Style Karate Organization (WAKO) with George Bruckner in West Berlin , Germany . At the same time, Anderson ’s Professional Karate magazine was suffering from poor sales. He decided to move his operation back to Oklahoma City . Bob McLaughlin entered the public relations business; John Corcoran joined author Bob Wall as editor of Wall’s self-published book, Who’s Who in the Martial Arts. By autumn, Corcoran launched a full-time career as a free-lance writer specializing in the marital arts.

                Professional Karate, it must be emphasized, left a lasting mark in its field. No magazine before or after it had such a profound impact on all aspects of the sport, its participants, and its formation of a professional foundation. Through Professional Karate, careers were launched and professional karate athletes began to receive a degree of respect and admiration they had never before known. Most of these benefits can be directly attributed to the magazine’s founder and publisher, Mike Anderson, who often put his money where his heart was to promote the sport.

                The movies of 1975 included the Striling Silliphant-scripted The Killer Elite, directed by Sam Pechinpah. The film featured a bevy of West Coast martial artists clad in ninja disguises engaging in poorly staged fight scenes having nothing to do with ninjutsu. The Killer Elite suffered from production disputes and inferior editing. It did average box-office business.

                Bruce Lee: His Life and Legend, to which Warner Bros. devoted $2000,000 in development cost, never advanced from preproduction. Warner launched a worldwide search for a candidate to play the lead role in this Bruce Lee bio, co-scripted by Linda Lee, Bruce’s widow, and director Robert Clouse. Advertisements seeking the candidate were run in major newspapers across the U.S. and thousands of aspiring marital artists swarmed the Burbank studio applying for the role. Denver ’s Al Dacascos (now of Hamburg , Germany ) was given serious consideration. The producers eventually settle on Chinese-Canadian Alex Kwok of Vancouver . After changing his name to Alex Kwon, capping his teeth, and paying him to holding fee, the producers dropped the project and the film was never made.

                Released films of 1975 included Paper Tiger, starring Toshiro Mifune, David Niven and Irene Tsu, and Hot Potato and Take A Hard Ride, starring Jim Kelly. None left an impression.

                The big disappointment of 1975 was the final retirement of superstar Joe Lewis following two back-to-back nontitle defeats. Remarkably, in the last of these bouts, Lewis dislocated his right shoulder after the 1st round and, despite excruciating pain, continued fighting for the durations of the contest. He lost a seven-round decision to Ross Scott because of penalties for insufficient kicks.

                Ed Parker’s Internationals in Aug. 1975 awarded the largest sum of prize money ever for a Pro/Am karate tournament, a total of $16,250. Kata winners were awarded an overall $1,000 of them sum. The two figures stand as records to this day.

                Along with Washington vs. Dominican Republic team matches on Sept. 14, 1975 , Jhoon Rhee presented a special politician’s semi-contact division pitting a trio of Democrats against a Republican threesome in what was called the Capitol Hill Grudge Bout. Presented under the auspices of Rhee’s World Black Belt League, the novel division featured Democrats Rep. Walter Fauntroy(D.C.), Rep. Tom Bevill ( Ala. ), and Sen. Quentin Burdick (N.D.) against Republicans Rep. Willis Grandison Jr. (Ohio), Rep. Floyd Spence (S.C.) and Sen. Ted Stevens (Alaska). The Congressmen appeared on behalf of the Freedom of the Press Foundation; they were members of Rhee’s twice-weekly classes and have come to be known as the “Capitol Hill karate corps.” (The match was drawn.)

                On Sept. 21, in conjunction with George Bruckner’s All European Karate Championships, America’s Gordon Franks met Mexico’s Ramiro Guzman to decide who would emerge as the first world super lightweight champion of full-contact karate. Franks, then a 20-year-old college student from Minneapolis , won the title in a unanimous 9-round decision. Promoted at the Deutschlandhalle Arena in West Berlin , it was the first full-contact would title fight to be staged in a foreign country. The promotional budget was reportedly $130,000, the single most expensive karate promotion up to that time. Franks, besides being the original champion in this 139-lb division, was also the first black fighter to become a full-contact world champion.

                Also in 1975, the 3rd WUKO World Karate-do Championships were held, for the first time in the U.S. , at the Long Beach Arena. It was an uneventful tournament for the U.S. amateur karate athletes. The British team emerged as the new world champions, and the Japanese fighters, as usual, dominated the individual competition.

                In Black Belt’s 1976 survey respondents in karate registered an 11 percent increase in students from 1975-76. Judo and tae kwon do registered no increase of decrease. Yet, many leaders in karate stated that a decline took place. One answer may be that the decline was registered in the 1974-75 and that interest had picked up in this year. A statistic of interest was that 18 percent of all students in both 1975 and 1976 were female. Approximately 31 percent of all students were children, 14 or younger. However, it was not clear from the survey that girls age 14 or younger were not also included in the female as well as the children’s statistics.

                In 1976 the full-contact karate movement continued to be the pacesetter fro the industry. By now, most of the smaller promoters found the expense prohibitive, and the more distinguished entrepreneurs took command of the sport. Most of the lavish events were filmed for television and appeared on sports shows such as “The Champions,” “CBS Sports Spectacular,” and the PKA’s 90-minute “Sports Special of the Month.”

                The year kicked off with champion Bill Wallace becoming the first karate athlete ever to participate in ABC’s “Superstars” competition Wallace appeared in the third set of eliminations on Jan. 31, which was broadcast nationwide on Feb. 7. Wallace placed in two events, but finished only tenth out of 11 entrants in his elimination series, besting Lynn Swann of the Pittsburgh Steelers. Despite a disappointing finish, it was and extraordinary endorsement for the sport of karate.

                Prior to Wallace’s appearance, Don Quine, who now managed the champion, originated the nickname “Superfoot,” a nickname attributed to Wallace’s uncanny kicking ability.

                A PKA event held at the Los Angeles Sports Arena on Oct. 1, 1976 , marked the beginning of the association’s contractual arrangement with CBS Sports, as well as merger attempt with promoter Howard Hanson of Westminster , Calif. The CBS deal eventually accounted for four network broadcasts per year of PKA-sanctioned world title fights. Critics accused the PKA of conflict of interest. The organization was operating both as a sanctioning body and , though Sport Karate, Inc., a sister corporation, as a promotional body. The PKA principals, Don and Judy Quine, countered by claiming the sport’s survival depended on their synthesis of its various activities. The PKA sanctioned a total of 19 events in 1979.

                After his merger attempt with the PKA soured, Howard Hanson formed the World Karate Association (WKA), a full-contact sanctioning body that became the PKA’s strongest competitor. As its president, Hanson survived by arranging promotions in Japan , pitting Japanese kick-boxers against American full-contact karate fighters, using a combination of the two sports’ rules. After the PKA stripped Benny Urquidez of his lightweight title in 1977, the champion fought predominantly in the WKA and quickly established himself as a superstar in Asia , where be defeated every kick-boxing challenger and champion he fought.

                The most bitter conflict between the PKA and the WKA is a dispute over rules. The WKA advocates the use to leg kicks, while the PKA rigidly opposes them. The issue is one of potential injury to the athletes. The PKA maintains that these techniques are dangerous to the fighter’s physical safety and his career longevity. Hanson parries this charge by pointing to the Orient, where some kick-boxing champions remain active after more than 50 fights were leg kicks, at their most vicious, are employed.

                In Sept. 1976 California passed as law placing full-contact karate under the jurisdiction of the State Athletic Commission (SAC), which regulated professional and amateur boxing and wrestling. It marked the first time that any form of American karate was regulated by a government body, even though many marital artists had been attempting for years to bring traditional karate under government supervision for licensing of instructors. The California commission sanctioned the organization of the volunteer group called the Full-Contact Karate Advisory Board to assist in the formation of standard rules and practices for the sport.

                The state athletics commissions, which regulates professional and amateur boxing and wrestling in 13 of the United States , have gradually begun regulating full-contact karate since 1976.

                 In California , the SAC generally recognized the PKA’s rules and policies as standards for the sport, with the exception of the controversial leg kicks. In July 1978 the North American Boxing Federation, to which all SACs belong, approved a motion to officially recognize the PKA as the international governing body of professional full-contact karate.

                Finally in 1976, amateur karate, under the WUKO, was accepted for membership in the General Assembly of International Sports Federations (GAIF), brining it one step closer to the Olympics. In the following year, however, the General Assembly of the International Olympics Committee (IOC) issued a directive specifying that the two world karate bodies, the WUKO and the IAKF, had to unify before Olympic recognition of karate would be granted. As a result, that recognition was postponed indefinitely.

                1976 WORLD TITLE FIGHTS

                Date: 2/8; Site: Atlanta , Ga. ; Sanction:SEPKA;Division:Lt.Hvywt,;

                Winner: Jeff Smith; Loser: Wally Slocki; Promoter: Joe Corley;

                Television: “The Champions” (Syndication).

                Date: 1/13; Site: Las Vegas , Nev ; Sanction: PKA; Division: Midwt.;

                Winner: Bill Wallace; Loser: Jem Echollas; Promoter;SKI Telvision:

                “Sports Special of the Month” (90-minuet syndication).

                Date: 5/29; Site: Toronto , Can. ; Sanction: PKA; Division: Midwt,;

                Winner: Bill Wallace; Loser; Daniel Richer; Promoter; Jong Soo Park ;

                Television: Filmed by ABC “Wide World of Sports” but not aired.

                Date: 8/28; Site: Honolulu , Hawaii , Sanction; PKA; Division: Hvywt.;

                Winner: Teddy Limoz; Loser; Mike Aroyo; Division: Ltwt.:

    Winner: Benny Urquidez; Loser: Earnest Hart, Jr.; Promoter: SKI/Hason.

    Date: 10/1; Site: Los Angeles , Calif ,; Sanction; PKA; Division: Mdwt,;

    Winner: Benny Urquidez; Loser: Gary Edens; Division: Ltwt,;

    Television: “CBS Sports Specturlar.

    Activities in the sport and movies continued to remain at the forefront of the martial arts for 1977. The big news was the starring debut of Chuck Norris, the first karate champion turned actor. Norris was best known to filmgoers for his performance against Bruce Lee in the climactic fight scene of Return of the Dragon. His first starring role came in Breaker, Breaker, a low-budged exploitation film that attempted to capitalize on Norris’ karate name and expertise and the CB radio trend. Filmed for under $250,000, Breaker, Breaker according to director Don Hulette, grossed $10 million.

    Before the release of Breaker, Breaker, Norris signed a three-picture deal with a new production company called American Cinema and began filming Good Guys Wear Black. By the time it had fun its course, Good Guys had grossed $20 million.

    Other filmmaking efforts featuring the marital arts this year included Revenge of the Pink Panther, starring Peter Sellers, with Ed Parker as a hired karate assassin. A Fistful of Yen, staring Bong Soo Han of Billy Jack fame, was one of three vignettes composing the satirical  Kentucky Fried Movie. Yen is actually a parody of Enter the Dragon and is perhaps the first American made comedy related to the martial arts genre. It had become a cult classic.

    With two national television broadcast and a total of ten sanctioned events in 1977, the PKA remained at the forefront of contact karate. The April 23 “Triple Crown” championship for the Las Vegas Hilton was broadcast live by “CBS Sports Spectacular,” marking the first live broadcast of karate in any form in U.S. history. But the PKA principals, Don and Judy Quine, were also pressing its world champion to sign exclusive contracts with them. Refusal on the part of several led to the Quines stripping them of their titles. One of these stripped champions was Benny “The Jet” Urquidez.

    Howard Handson, who had just formed his World Karate Association,  quickly recruited Urquidez to fight in the Orient under the WKA banner. Urquidez went to Japan and became the first American fighter ever to beat the Japanese kick-boxers at their own game. Urquidez scored a knockout over champion Katsuyuki Suzuki on Aug. 2 before a national television audience in Japan . His victory amounted to a national insult to the Japanese, who take their sport amounted to a national insult to the Japanese, who take their sport very seriously. Following his win, retired and undefeated champion Kunimatsu Okao publicly challenged Urqidez to a bout for which he would come out of retirement. Urquidez accepted, On Nov. 14, at the prestigious Budokan in Tokyo , the two met in a vicious showdown resulting in an Urquidez victory. Bloody and battered, Okao was knocked out cold in the 4th round and had to be helped form the ring. The bout was carried over Japanese national television and drew an unprecedented $500,000 live gate, the largest on record for professional karate.

    The victory brought Urquidez’ record to 40-0 with 38 knockouts, the best in his sport, and made him and international celebrity. In Japan , he became a cult hero and the central figure of a series of comic books entitled Benny the Jet. He also represented his sport in a Japanese documentary, Kings of the Square Ring, which also featured boxing’s Muhammad Ail and wrestling’s Antonio Inoki.

    Howard Jackson became the first karate champion to enter professional boxing and win. Within one year, Jackson amassed a pro boxing record of 14-1-2 with 11 knockouts. Jackson ’s precedent had since 1977 led the way for other karate athletes to pursue dual careers in the boxing and karate rings.

    The 4th WUKO World Kararte-do Championships in 1977 marked the return of this international event to Tokyo . The tournament, held at the Budokan, featured kata competition for the first time. American players fared better at kata than fighting, but tied for fifth place in team fighting. Japan dominated the kata competition, winning two top positions, and the strong Dutch contingent surprisingly dominated both the team and individual fighting titles. Otti Roetof of Holland defeated Great Britain ’s Eugene Codrington to become the WUKO amateur world champion.

    On March 5, 1977 , the 3rd National AAU Tae Kwon Do Championships were held at the University of California at Berkeley , in conjunction with the 1st North American Tae Kwon Do Championships. The latter event was highlighted by the first organizational meeting of the North American Tae Kwon Do Union. Later, on Sept. 15-17, at the Amphitheater in Chicago , the World Tae Kwon Do Championships made its debut in America .

               

                1977 WORLD TITLE FIGHTS

                Date: 3/12; Site: Los Angeles , Calif ,: Sanction:WKA; Division:Spr.

    Ltwt,; Benny Urquidez/Narong Noi (Declared a no contest); Promoter Howard Hanson

    Date: 4/23; Site: Las Vegas , New,; Division: Hvuwt; Winner: Ross Scott; Loser; Everett Eddy; Division: Midwt,: Winner: Bill Wallace; Loser: Pilinky Rodriguez; Division:Ltw: Winner: Benny Urquidez Loser; Howard Jackson; Promoter; SKI; Television: “CBS Sports Spectaculer” (Wallace/Rodriguez aired live).

    Date: 5/21; Site: Charlotte , N.C. ; Sanction: PKA; Division;Lt Hvywt;

    Winner: Bill Wallace; Loser; Ron Thiveridge; Promoter: Hee II Cho.

    Date: 5/21; Site: Charlotte , N.C. ; Sanction; PKA; Division; Lt Hvywt,;

    Winner: Jeff Smith; Loser” Jim Horsley; Promoter: Jerry Piddington.

    Date: 8/2; Site; Tokyo , Japan ; Sanction: WKA; Division; Spr. Ltwt:

    Winner: Benny Urquidez; Loser; Katsuyuki Suzki; Promoter: Howard Hanson/Ron Holmes/Hisashi Shima/Antonio Inoki; Television: Japanese national TV.

    Date: 10/8; Site: Indianapolis , Ind ,; Sanction: PKA; Division:Midwt,;

    Winner: Bill Wallace; Loser; M. Pat Worley; Division: Welwt,;

    Winner: Earnest Hart, Jr.; Loser: Eddie Andujar; Promoter: SKI; Television: “CBS” Sports Spectacular.”

    Date: 11/14: Site: Tokyo , Japan ; Sanction: WKA; Division:Spr.

    Ltwt Winner: Benny Urquidez; Loser: Kunimatsu Okao; Division;

    Ltwt Winner: Kunimasa Nagae; Loser: Tony Lopez; Promoter’

    Hanson/Holmes/Shima; Television: Japanese national TV.

    Date: 11/28; Site: Honolulu , Hawaii ,; Sanction: PKA; Division:Mdwt,;

    Winner: Bill Wallace; Loser: Burnis White; Promoter;Kip Russo.

     

     

    Participation in the Korean martial arts reached an all-tome high from 1977-78, according to Black Belt’s 1978 survey. Almost 65 percent of the respondents were either students of instructors in hapkido, tae kwon do, or tang soo do. Also at an all-time high was the percentage of practitioners in the category of “others,” those from obscure or combination arts. In comparison to previous surveys, response form practitioners in theof the Japanese arts was at a low, virtually equal to the number of respondents for the Chinese disciplines.

    In 1978, while the WKA was idle, the PKA coordinated a sanction for a light-heavyweight title fight between champion Jeff Smith and challenger Dominic Valera, for a decade Europe ’s greatest noncontact karate champion. Valera had made the transition to full-contact fighting in mid-1975 following a fierce dispute with the WUKO’s amateur karate politicians. Valera met Smith for the PKA title on May 22 in Paris before a sold-out crowd. Smith won a dull 9-round decision.

    Also on the international front, John Corcoran began to syndicate his article to martial arts magazines across the world. This marked the first time a domestic writer secured mass exposure aboard for American marital artists and events on a regular basis. He became the world’s foremost martial arts magazine writer and joined an elite groups of syndicated peers: Zarko Modric in Yugoslavia and John Robertson and Arthur Tansley in Japan .

    Semicontact ( often called “point karate” or “tournament karate”) in 1976-77 had sunk to an all-time low in popularity and interest. Chiefly responsible for the decline was the absence of recognizable stars; all of the great fighters had turned to full-contact. In 1978, however, a star emerged. Keith Vitali won the grand championships of two of America ’s most prestigious tournaments: the Battle of Atlanta and the Mid-America Diamond Nationals. The victories catapulted him to the pinnacle of every 1978 Top 10 rating poll in the U.S. Vitali duplicated his number-1 rating for the next two years before retiring in Feb. 1981 at 28. He and Bill Wallace are the only point fighters in U.S. history to have been ranked number 1 for three consecutitive years. Vitali’s intense rivalry with Texan Ray McCallum, beginning in 1979, infused new life into a sport sorely needing it. Although the pair met only three times in competition, with Vitali winning twice, the contests were classic encounters. Though their presence and performance, point fighting was rejuvenated and more martial artists took an interest in the sport. Vitali won the rubber match at the 1981 Superstar Nationals in Oakland Calif. , where he was grand champion runner-up and announced his retirement from competition.

     

                1978 WORLD TITLE FIGHTS

    Date:3/11 Providence , R.I. ; Sanction: PKA; Division:Midwt,;

    Winner: Bill Wallace; Loser: Emilio Narvaez; Division: Welwt,;

    Winner: Bob Ryan; Loser: Earnest Hart, Jr.: Promoter: SKI/George Pesare;

    Television: “CBS Sports Spectacular.”

    Date: 5/22; Site: Pairs, France; Sanction: PKA; Division: Lt. Hvywt;

    Winner: Jeff Smith; Loser: Dominic Valera; Promoter: Guy Jugla/ Marc Counil.

    Date: 7/22; Sites; W. Palm Beach , Fla ,; Sanction: PKA; Division: Welwt,;

    Winner: Steve Shepherd; Loser: Bob Ryan; Promoter: Steve Shepherd/ Don Haines.

                Date: 11/30; Site: Atlanta , Ga ,: Sanction: PKA; Division: Welwt,:

    Winner: Earnest Hart, Jr.; Loser: Steven Shepherd; Promoter: SKI/Joe Corley; “CBS Sports Spectacular.”

     

     

    The Second Boom By 1979, a martial arts movie renaissance was underway. At the forefront of these films was Chuck Noriss, in A Force of One, produced by American Cinema. Due to Norris’ personal philosophy, A Force of One earned a PG (Parental Guidance) rating and consequently reached a huge market of youthful moviegoers. Also starring Jennifer O’Neil and Bill Wallace, who made his film debut, Force was a box-office hit form its outset and even received favorable critical reviews.

    Joe Lewis, who once competed against Norris in the karate ring, became the second American karate champion to star in a motion picture. Lewis’ transition had been expected by martial artists, since it was common knowledge that he had been seriously pursuing an entertainment career since 1970, when he took up acting. Filmed on location in Europe and Asia , Jaguar Lives-Lewis’ first film- is a poorly written “travelogue” intended as a spy action adventure in the James Bond tradition.

    In 1979, two projects that originally involved Bruce Lee finally appeared in American theaters. Game of Death, partially filmed by Lee before Enter the Dragon but unfinished at his death, and Circle of Iron (a.k.a. The Silent Flute), originally written by Lee, Striling Silliphant, and actor James Coburn, were replete with production complications and controversy.

    Back in 1977 producer Raymond Chow decided to string together select footage of Lee from Game of Death and integrate it with a film and story line engineered for and around it. The resulting film was an ill-assorted mixture of action by no less than four doubles who played the role of Lee. Nevertheless, the approximately 10 minuets of Bruce Lee footage tacked onto the new footage, however absurd, gave the audience their idol.

    The Silent Flute, despite a reported $4 million budget, a host of name actors, countless collaborators, an Oscar-winning screenwriter, and two cult heroes, turned out a week fantasy/odyssey, and was probably a decade too late to appeal to the martial arts consciousness of the U.S. in the late 1960s and early 1970s. it starred David  Carradine.

    The martial arts resurgence was not limited to film. Joe Hyams took three years to complete Zen in the Martial Arts, a collection of compelling personal anecdotes touching upon the wisdom transmitted by his martial arts master instructors, including the late Bruce Lee. Predicted to become a classic whose lesions will be as relevant in the future as they are now, the book was a sensation in its field.

    In October, the PKA signed a pact with the Entertainment and Sports Programming Network (ESPN), a new 24-hour cable company that broadcast sports exclusively. In Nov. 1979 ESPN broadcast five PKA –sanctioned events form across the country. By Mar. 1980 the PKA was selling weekly bouts for ESPN broadcast. At the time the agreement was signed, ESPN had four million viewers nationwide and anticipated growth based on pay-TV revolution and the phenomenal American sports appetite.

    Finally, in 1979 the International Olympic Committee (IOC) approved tae kwon do as a sport worthy of Olympic recognition. According to Dr Dong Ja Yang, president and chairman of the National AAU Tae Kwon Do Committee, this development ment that tae kwon do would not “be eligible for selection into the games.” The approval came too late for the sport to be included in the 1984 Olympics in Los Angeles , but there was indication that it would enter the 1988 games, which will be hosted by Korea . Another encouraging growth factor was the inclusion of amateur tae kwon do, as well as amateur karate competition, in World Games I, held in July 1981 in San Jose , Calif.

     

                1979 WORLD TITLE FIGHTS

                Date: 3/? ; Site: Tokyo , Japan ; Sanction: WKA; Division: Spr. Welwt,:

    Winner: Alvin Prouder; Loser: Toshihiro Nishiki; Promoter: Howard Hanson/Hisashi Shima; Television. “ NBC Sports World”/Japanese national network.

    Date: 5/2: Sites; So. Lake Tahoe , Nev ,; Sanction: WKA; Division: Spr. Ltwt,; Winner: Benny Urquidez; Loser: Rick Simerly; Promoter; Howard Hanson: Television: “NBC Sports World.”

    Date: 5/26; Site: W. Palm Beach , Fla. ; Sanction: WKA; Division: Midwt,: Winner: Steve Shepherd; Loser: Chris Gallegos; Promoter: Steven Shepherd.

    Date: 10/?; Site: Tokyo , Japan ; Sanction: WKA; Division; Ltwt,;

    Winner: Benny Urquidez; Loser: Yoshimitsu Tomashiro; Promoter; Howard Hanson/ Hisashi Shima; Television: Japanese national network.

    Date: 8/25; Site: Hampton , Va. ; Sanction: PKA; Division; Banwt,;

    Winner: Veron Mason; Loser: ? ; Promoter: Frank Hargrove. Welwt.; Winner: Steve Sheperd; Loser: Earnest Hart, Jr.; Promoter; Steve Shepherd/Don Haines

    Date: 12/23; Site: Las Vegas , Nev. ; Sanction: WKA; Division; Banwt; Winner: Graciela Casillas; Loser: Irene Garcia; Promoter: Hap/Holloway/Ron Holmes.

     

     

    After a career spanning 12 years, Bill Wallace retired on June 15. He won a 12-round decision over Robert Biggs in a bout broadcast live on “CBS Sports Spectacular.”

                July marked the release of the inaugural issue of Kick Illustrated, the second marital arts magazine published by Curtis Wong (his first in 1973, was Inside Kung-Fu). Kick, edited by John Corcoran, was an immediate success; it helped restore traditional values to the martial arts media. Late in 1980 Wong and Corcoran produced a one-shot special entitled Marital Arts Movies. So impressive were its sales that Wong launched it in July 1981 as a month magazine with editor Sandra Segal at the helm.

                In Sept. 1979 a group of enterprising karate instructors from St. Paul , Minn. , published the first edition of Sport Karate Magazine. Its reception by the sports community led to expansion to a monthly magazine format in July 1980. edited by Gary Hestilow and John Worley, Sport Karate had come closest to duplicating the defunct Professional Karate in serving the interest of the sports athletes. Limited by regional distribution and direct mail subscriptions, Sport Karate ceased publication in June 1981.

                Overall, more than 40 PKA-sanctioned events were telecast over the ESPN in 1980, and CBS aired three more. The rival WKA broke into the American network with one broadcast over “NBC Sports World” and signed a television syndication pact with Hollywood Programmed Entertainment for the broadcast of 26 full-contact cards domestically and abroad.

                In August, Chuck Noriss, with a media blitz and personal appearance, publicized the release of the Octagon. Having fulfilled his contract with American Cinema, Norris became a free agent. In 1981-82 he starred in three films- An Eye for and Eye, Silent Rage, and Forced Vengeance- and formed his own production company.

                August also marked the second American tour of a Chinese wu shu troupe, through the coordination of San Francisco ’s Anthony Chang, a wu shu stylists and one of America ’s great form champions. The first visit had been in 1974; the 1980 tour took the Peking troupe to San Francisco , Oakland , Los Angeles , St. Louis , Boston , New York , and Houston . The troupe’s San Francisco performance was filmed by ABC’s “Wide World or Sports” for later broadcast.

                Full-contact karate was televised in two national broadcasts of PKA bouts, one on :NBC Sports World,” the other on “CBS Sports Spectacular.” NBC aired the unexpected defeat of PKA heavyweight champion Ross Scott by Demetrius Edwards, via a 7th round knockout. This marked the first of two matches within a one-week period in which established world championships were defeated by challengers.  On August 9th, challenger Cliff Thomas of El Paso , Texas assumed the PKA world super-lightweight title, upsetting Gordon Franks by a 3rd round TKO.  Old champions give way to the new young challengers.  The field starts opening up on a grander scale making way for international contenders.  The effect is synergistic as the sport renews itself.

    Perhaps the greatest event of the 1980 martial arts renaissance was the staggering success of the television mini-series SHOGUN.  Based on James Clavell’s best-selling novel, the $22 million project aired on NBC the week of Sept 15-19 in five parts, and presented American audiences with the first insight into the world of the feudal Japanese Samurai.  Shogun captured 125 million viewers, or more then half of the total television viewing audience in the U.S.   Shogun’s phenomenal success created a new wave of interest by the American public in learning the “Samurai Arts”.  Supply companies reported a sudden boost in orders for samurai swords and other Japanese-related weapons.  Karate schools were inundated with phone calls from potential students, and business increased dramatically.  With the 1980 Warner Bros. release of the Big Brawl, general American audiences were introduced to the irrepressible new king of kung-fu, Jackie Chan.  Chan’s fame spread from Hong Kong when beginning in 1978, three of his pictures surpassed the grosses of Bruce Lee’s films in Asia : Drunken Monkey in a Tiger’s eye, Fearless Hyena, and The Young Master, the last having sold more tickets, according to its producers Golden Harvest, then any other picture of any genre ever to play Hong Kong .  Chan was quickly discovered by Hollywood and cast in his first American-made film, The Big Brawl; his American debut, however, failed to duplicate his international appeal. 

    When Mexico suffered last-minute sponsorship problems, the 5th WUKO World Championships was picked up by Spain as the host country.  The event, originally scheduled for 1979, was delayed one year by this development.  The tournament took place in Madrid on Nov. 28-29, with 55 countries represented.  The AAU had conducted its team selection tournament in New Jersey , from which America fielded its strongest, most experienced contingent ever.  Head coach Chuck Merriman anticipated the possibility of returning home with a world championship.

    Tokey Hill of Ohio became the first amateur world champion to emerge from the ranks of America ’s fighters.  Not since 1970, at the inaugural WUKO tournament, had an American placed in individual fighting, when Tony Telleners won third place.  Hill won a gold medal and Pennsylvania ’s Billy Blanks defeated the Spanish national champion to advance to the finals, where he took silver in the openweight class.  Blanks then took a bronze medal in the 80kg division, making him the only American double medal winner in world class amateur karate competition.

    Another new division, in addition to the openweight class, was women’s kata competition.  Kathy Baxter of New York and Pam Glaser of Massachusetts placed within the top 8 finalists, with Baxter taking a respectable fifth place.

    Significantly, the 1980 AAU karate team was composed of players representing a multitude of karate styles, whereas earlier, most of the U.S. team had been predominantly Japanese stylists.

    The international rivalry between the WUKO and the IAKF took a bright turn on Dec. 25, 1980 , when a unification meeting between the WUKO and the IAKF took place in Tokyo .  Zentaro Kosaka, president of the IAKF, and Ryoichi Sasakawa, president of the WUKO, initiated talks for the consolidation of international amateur karate-do competiti0on.

    Since 1977 the international Olympic committee had directed that prior to consideration of karate as a recognized non-participatory Olympic sport, application for this status must emanate from only one federation truly representing the great majority of karate federations worldwide.  The Dec. 25 conference resulted in unification of WUKO and the IAKF in Japan only-the intention was to unify amateur karate in those parts of the world still divided between two organizations.  With world unity essential to IOC acceptance, it is believed the organizations can overcome the remaining obstacles to that recognition.